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  • 1.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motivation and Treatment Credibility Predicts Dropout, Treatment Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes in an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.2016In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 18, no 3, article id e52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In previous research, variables such as age, education, treatment credibility, and therapeutic alliance have shown to affect patients' treatment adherence and outcome in Internet-based psychotherapy. A more detailed understanding of how such variables are associated with different measures of adherence and clinical outcomes may help in designing more effective online therapy.

    Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate demographical, psychological, and treatment-specific variables that could predict dropout, treatment adherence, and treatment outcomes in a study of online relaxation for mild to moderate stress symptoms.

    Methods: Participant dropout and attrition as well as data from self-report instruments completed before, during, and after the online relaxation program were analyzed. Multiple linear and logistical regression analyses were conducted to predict early dropout, overall attrition, online treatment progress, number of registered relaxation exercises, posttreatment symptom levels, and reliable improvement.

    Results: Dropout was significantly predicted by treatment credibility, whereas overall attrition was associated with reporting a focus on immediate consequences and experiencing a low level of intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Treatment progress was predicted by education level and treatment credibility, whereas number of registered relaxation exercises was associated with experiencing intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Posttreatment stress symptoms were positively predicted by feeling external pressure to participate in the treatment and negatively predicted by treatment credibility. Reporting reliable symptom improvement after treatment was predicted by treatment credibility and therapeutic bond.

    Conclusions: This study confirmed that treatment credibility and a good working alliance are factors associated with successful Internet-based psychotherapy. Further, the study showed that measuring adherence in different ways provides somewhat different results, which underscore the importance of carefully defining treatment adherence in psychotherapy research. Lastly, the results suggest that finding the treatment interesting and engaging may help patients carry through with the intervention and complete prescribed assignments, a result that may help guide the design of future interventions.

  • 2.
    Alm, Per A
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Division of Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Stuttering, emotions, and heart rate during anticipatory anxiety:: a critical review2004In: Journal of fluency disorders, ISSN 0094-730X, E-ISSN 1873-801X, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 123-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persons who stutter often report their stuttering is influenced by emotional reactions, yet the nature of such relation is still unclear. Psychophysiological studies of stuttering have failed to find any major association between stuttering and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. A review of published studies of heart rate in relation to stressful speech situations indicate that adults who stutter tend to show a paradoxical reduction of heart rate compared with nonstuttering persons. Reduction of heart rate has also been observed in humans and mammals during anticipation of an unpleasant stimulus, and is proposed to be an indication of anticipatory anxiety resulting in a “freezing response” with parasympathetic inhibition of the heart rate. It is suggested that speech-related anticipatory anxiety in persons who stutter is likely to be a secondary, conditioned reaction based on previous experiences of stuttering.

  • 3.
    Ander, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Cernvall, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Engvall, Gunn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Hedström, Mariann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Lyhagen, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Mattsson, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Development of health-related quality of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence: a 10-year follow-up study2016In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 582-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The main aim was to investigate the development of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a cohort diagnosed with cancer during adolescence from shortly after up to 10 years after diagnosis.

    Methods: Participants (n = 61) completed the SF-36 and the HADS shortly; six, 12, and 18 months; and two, three, four, and 10 years (n = 28) after diagnosis. Polynomial change trajectories were used to model development.

    Results: Polynomial change trajectories showed an initial increase which abated over time into a decrease which abated over time for the SF-36 subscales Mental Health and Vitality; an initial decline which abated over time into an increase for HADS anxiety; and an initial decline which abated over time into an increase which abated over time for HADS depression. The SF-36 mental component summary showed no change from two to 10 years after diagnosis whereas the SF-36 physical component summary showed an increase from two years after diagnosis which declined over time. Ten years after diagnosis 29% reported possible anxiety.

    Conclusions: Development of HRQOL and symptoms of anxiety and depression appears to be nonlinear among persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence. Well into permanent survivorship an increase in symptoms of anxiety is shown and approximately a third of the participants report possible anxiety. The findings indicate the need for: studies designed to pinpoint the times of highest psychological risk, clinical follow-up focusing on psychological problems, and development of effective psychological interventions for survivors of adolescent cancer

  • 4.
    Andersson, Isabell E. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Realism of confidence and phenomenological reports are not congruent indicators of mode of apprehension in visual discrimination of relative mass2009In: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, E-ISSN 1532-6969, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 218-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In visual judgments of relative mass of colliding objects observers may function in either a perceptual or an inferential mode of apprehension (Runeson, Juslin, & Olsson, 2000). This finding was based on participants’ over/underconfidence in their judgments. Also phenomenological mode reports, for which participants indicated whether they “saw” or “inferred” the relative mass in each trial, have been used as mode indicators (Andersson, Kreegipuu, Allik, & Runeson, 2009). The present study showed that over/underconfidence and mode reports are not congruent as mode indicators: in Experiments 1 and 2, participants’ over/ underconfidence was about the same in “saw” and “inferred” trials. Furthermore, in Experiment 3, unexpectedly judgments of relative exit-speed did not engender underconfidence. Hence, one or both indicators do not well enough distinguish the modes of apprehension.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Isabell E. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Runeson, Sverker
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Realism of confidence, modes of apprehension, and variable-use in visual discrimination of relative mass2008In: Ecological psychology, ISSN 1040-7413, E-ISSN 1532-6969, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In dynamic event perception, one issue is whether direct perception or cue-based inferences explains learning and performance. For visual discrimination of relative mass of colliding objects, Runeson, Juslin, and Olsson (2000) found that observers change from an inferential to a direct-perceptual mode of apprehension during practice, as indicated by lower confidence in their judgments. Unlike Runeson et al. (2000), we scored confidence against the variables used in individual blocks and analyzed collision-subsets, thereby counteracting inflated confidence scores. A majority of 40 novice participants used a nonspecifying variable and functioned inferentially, as indicated by realistic confidence. Five novices used the mass-ratio invariant and were overconfident therein. Ten participants received feedback based on the most-used nonspecifying variable. Despite feedback suggesting specificity of the variable, they continued to use the variable inferentially. After practice based on the invariant, 7 out of 10 used the invariant. An unexpected  dearth of underconfidence for invariant usage is explained by fluctuations in variable usage. Methodological problems in the use of confidence as a mode indicator are discussed.

  • 6.
    Arweström Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Vad är det trafikledarna gör som automationen inte klarar?: Tågtrafikstyrning med människan i centrum2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Asai, Ryoko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Social media as a tool for change2011In: The social impact of social computing / [ed] A. Bisset et al., Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Hallam University , 2011, p. 44-50Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Asai, Ryoko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    ICT supported crisis communication and dialog2013In: The possibilities of ethical ICT, Kolding: University of Southern Denmark , 2013, p. 37-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how people use social media under serious social conditions, and how social media affects people’s behavior after a disaster based on the case of the March 2011 disaster in Japan. In this critical situation, where existing traditional media like phones, television, radio and newspapers did not work well, the Japanese exchanged and received information through social media. In fact some victims were rescued based on information via social media. Corresponding to people’s need, social media provided various services to support people immediately after the disaster. Therefore it seems that social media plays an important role in fostering a social network leading to horizontal communication, critical thinking, dialog; supporting social capital. This study reconsiders characteristics of social capital and its role in improving people’s lives and supporting democratic communication as well as the difficulties in people bonding together through social media.

  • 9. Asberg Johnels, Jakob
    et al.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Miniscalco, Carmela
    Face-Viewing Patterns in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Speaking up for the Role of Language Comprehension.2014In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 2246-2252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim was to examine whether viewing patterns toward the mouth, eyes, and nonmouth-noneyes areas differed between young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children when viewing a person speaking. The role of language comprehension in such viewing patterns was also examined.

    Method: Eleven children with ASD (approximately 4.5 years old) and 29 TD toddlers (approximately 2.5 years old) participated. The groups were matched on language comprehension raw scores from the Reynell Developmental Language Scales III. All children viewed short films of a woman speaking while their eye movements were recorded with eye-tracking equipment.

    Results: Children with ASD spent proportionally less time viewing the mouth and more time viewing the nonmouth-noneyes areas. Time viewing the eyes did not differ between groups. Increased mouth viewing was associated with lower language comprehension in the group with ASD.

    Conclusion: Variability in language comprehension is an important factor to monitor when interpreting face-viewing patterns in young children with ASD, particularly with regard to mouth viewing. The results may help explain divergent findings in this field of research.

  • 10. Axelsson, E.L.
    et al.
    Moore, D.G.
    Murphy, E.M.
    Goodwin, J.E.
    Clifford, B.R.
    The role of bodies in infants’ categorical representations of humans and non-human animals2018In: Infant and Child DevelopmentArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Bark, Mats
    et al.
    Heide, Mats
    Langen, Maria
    Nygren, Else
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Human-Computer Interaction. Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Intranätboken: från elektronisk anslagstavla till dagligt arbetsverktyg2002Book (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Boken handlar inte om tekniken bakom intranät eller hur man implementerar ett intranät, utan fokuserar på "mjuka" saker som innehåll, kommunikation, organisation, kultur, lärande och gränssnitt. Den visar på de möjligheter och svårigheter det innebär att skapa system som stödjer individens och organisationens processer.

    Intranätboken kan läsas från pärm till pärm, men man kan också välja att läsa de kapitel man är mest intresserad av, eftersom de är fristående. Varje författare har skrivit om den del av intranät hon/han behärskar bäst. Boken rör sig från det övergripande och något mer teoretiska till en fallstudie av portalutvecklingen inom Telia, och avslutas med en mer handgriplig diskussion om vikten av att skapa användarvänliga webblösningar. Perspektivet är snarare utifrån en vidareutveckling av ett befintligt intranät än en start av ett nytt.

    Boken är främst avsedd för dem som arbetar med webbfrågor inom något större organisationer, men är även tänkt för högskole-/universitetskurser i medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap, företagsekonomi och informatik.

  • 12. Bell, Simon
    et al.
    van Zon, Roland
    Van Herzele, Ann
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Health benefits of nature experience: Implications of practice for research2011In: Forests, trees, and human health / [ed] Nilsson, Kjell, Marcus Sangster, Christos Gallis, Terry Hartig, Sjerp de Vries, Klaus Seeland & Jasper Schipperijn, Dordrecht: Springer , 2011, 1st Edition, p. 183-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Prejudiced Personalities Revisited: On the Nature of (Generalized) Prejudice2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the media, one type of prejudice is often discussed as isolated from other types of prejudice. For example, after Breivik’s massacre, intolerance toward Muslims was intensely debated (for good reasons). However, his manifesto also disclosed extreme attitudes towards women and gays, a fact which passed without much notice. Still, in understanding why some individuals are so extremely intolerant compared to others, the psychological unity underlying different kinds of prejudice (e.g., racism, sexism) needs to be considered. This psychological unity, referred to as generalized prejudice, provided the starting point for personality theories on prejudice because it suggests that some people are simply more biased than other people in principle. Today it is well known that two basic personality characteristics, agreeableness and openness to new experiences, are powerful predictors of prejudice. However, more precisely what these variables can, versus cannot, explain has received little attention. Consequently, the aim of this thesis was to provide a more fine-grained analysis of generalized prejudice and its personality roots. Paper I demonstrated that personality mainly accounts for variance shared by several prejudice targets (generalized prejudice) whereas group membership mainly predicts unique variance in prejudice towards a particular target group. Thus, personality and group membership factors explain prejudice for different reason, and do not contradict each other. Paper II demonstrated, across three studies, that agreeableness and openness to experience are related to self-reported (explicit) prejudice, but not automatically expressed (implicit) biases. Personality seems informative about who chooses to express devaluing sentiments, but not who harbors spontaneous biases. Finally, Paper III examined the assumption that personality explains (explicit) generalized prejudice because some people simply favor their own group over all other groups (ethnocentrism). Providing the first direct test of this assumption, the results from three studies suggest that while agreeableness and openness to experience explain generalized prejudice, they do not account for purely ethnocentric attitudes. This indicates a fundamental difference between ethnocentrism and generalized prejudice. All in all, self-reported personality seems to have little to do with spontaneous group negativity or simple ingroup favoritism. However, personality strongly predicts deliberate and verbalized devaluation of disadvantaged groups.

    List of papers
    1. Generalized prejudice: Common and specific components
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generalized prejudice: Common and specific components
    2011 (English)In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 57-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-141035 (URN)10.1177/0956797610390384 (DOI)000294708600012 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-10 Created: 2011-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    2. The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice
    2012 (English)In: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 614-621Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of prejudice as a tendency that can be generalized from one target to another and the personality–prejudice relationship have been widely examined using explicit measures. However, less is known about this tendency and its relation to personality for implicit prejudice measures, like the implicit association test (IAT). Three studies including explicit and corresponding implicit prejudice measures toward various target groups confirmed a generalized factor for both types of measures with a stronger common component for the explicit factor. Personality was significantly related to the explicit measures only. Also, the personality and prejudice measures were unrelated to explicit and implicit attitudes toward an irrelevant target which rules out potential method confound. These results indicate that explicit and implicit prejudice measures tap different psychological constructs relating differently to the individual’s self-reported personality. The findings have implications for the debate on whether IAT scores reflect personally endorsed attitudes.

    Keywords
    personality, generalized prejudice, implicit association test, cultural stereotypes, personal attitudes
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-208609 (URN)10.1177/1948550611432937 (DOI)000208936600013 ()
    Available from: 2013-10-25 Created: 2013-10-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Ethnocentric Personality: A 60-Year Old Myth?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnocentric Personality: A 60-Year Old Myth?
    (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    After World War II, researchers began searching for a prejudiced personality. This inquiry relied, and still relies, on interrelations between prejudice toward different targets (generalized prejudice) and correlations with ideology and personality variables. The conventional wisdom here became that some people are systematically more biased toward all outgroups (ethnocentrism). However, it is not conclusive that generalized prejudice reflect outgroup biases. For example, Gays and overweight people could be targeted by prejudice alike because they are minorities, not because they are outgroups. Based on three experiments employing the minimal group paradigm, this paper provides the first direct test of the ethnocentric personality assumption. We found that personality (Agreeableness & Openness to Experience) only accounted for a small share of the variance in ethnocentrism but, in line with previous research, a large share in generalized prejudice. We propose a re-evaluating the ethnocentric personality notion and a distinction between ethnocentrism and generalized prejudice.

    Keywords
    Ethnocentrism, generalized prejudice, personality, agreeableness, openness to experience
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-210291 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-11-04 Created: 2013-11-04 Last updated: 2014-01-23Bibliographically approved
  • 14.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ethnocentric Personality: A 60-Year Old Myth?Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After World War II, researchers began searching for a prejudiced personality. This inquiry relied, and still relies, on interrelations between prejudice toward different targets (generalized prejudice) and correlations with ideology and personality variables. The conventional wisdom here became that some people are systematically more biased toward all outgroups (ethnocentrism). However, it is not conclusive that generalized prejudice reflect outgroup biases. For example, Gays and overweight people could be targeted by prejudice alike because they are minorities, not because they are outgroups. Based on three experiments employing the minimal group paradigm, this paper provides the first direct test of the ethnocentric personality assumption. We found that personality (Agreeableness & Openness to Experience) only accounted for a small share of the variance in ethnocentrism but, in line with previous research, a large share in generalized prejudice. We propose a re-evaluating the ethnocentric personality notion and a distinction between ethnocentrism and generalized prejudice.

  • 15.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Personality Underpinnings of Explicit and Implicit Generalized Prejudice2012In: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 614-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of prejudice as a tendency that can be generalized from one target to another and the personality–prejudice relationship have been widely examined using explicit measures. However, less is known about this tendency and its relation to personality for implicit prejudice measures, like the implicit association test (IAT). Three studies including explicit and corresponding implicit prejudice measures toward various target groups confirmed a generalized factor for both types of measures with a stronger common component for the explicit factor. Personality was significantly related to the explicit measures only. Also, the personality and prejudice measures were unrelated to explicit and implicit attitudes toward an irrelevant target which rules out potential method confound. These results indicate that explicit and implicit prejudice measures tap different psychological constructs relating differently to the individual’s self-reported personality. The findings have implications for the debate on whether IAT scores reflect personally endorsed attitudes.

  • 16.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Sidanius, Jim
    Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Sibley, Chris G.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Dimensions of Social Dominance: Their Personality and Socio-political Correlates within a New Zealand Probability Sample2015In: NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 1179-7924, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) was introduced as a unidimensional construct predicting numerous socio-political attitudes. However, recent findings suggest that SDO is composed of two sub-dimensions: dominance (SDO-D) and anti-egalitarianism (SDO-E). Despite converging evidence concerning their empirical differentiability, there is little consensus on how to best define them. Thus, we examined the correlates of SDO-D and SDO-E using a broad array of personality, political, ethnic and gender issue variables within a New Zealand national probability sample (N = 5,741) with European and Maori participants. SDO-D primarily related to the personality trait of honesty-humility, hostile and benevolent sexism. SDO-E primarily related to political conservatism and pro-Maori policies. In many cases, the predictive power differed between SDO-D and SDO-E, and across ethnic groups.

  • 17.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fabian, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Hjern, Anders
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Salari, Raziye
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Preschool children living in joint physical custody arrangements show less psychological symptoms than those living mostly or only with one parent2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 294-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Joint physical custody (JPC), where children spend about equal time in both parent's homes after parental separation, is increasing. The suitability of this practice for preschool children, with a need for predictability and continuity, has been questioned.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used data on 3656 Swedish children aged three to five years living in intact families, JPC, mostly with one parent or single care. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, completed by parents and preschool teachers, as the outcome measure.

    RESULTS: Children in JPC showed less psychological problems than those living mostly (adjusted B 1.81; 95% CI [0.66 to 2.95]) or only with one parent (adjusted B 1.94; 95% CI [0.75 to 3.13]), in parental reports. In preschool teacher reports, the adjusted Betas were 1.27, 95% CI [0.14 to 2.40] and 1.41, 95% CI [0.24 to 2.58], respectively. In parental reports, children in JPC and those in intact families had similar outcomes, while teachers reported lower unadjusted symptom scores for children in intact families.

    CONCLUSION: Joint physical custody arrangements were not associated with more psychological symptoms in children aged 3-5, but longitudinal studies are needed to account for potential preseparation differences.

  • 18.
    Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Liu, Bojing
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ullman, Sara
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Police, Dept Invest, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jadbäck, Isabel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Tellas Consulting AB, Malmo, Sweden..
    Engström, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Children's Quality of Life Based on the KIDSCREEN-27: Child Self-Report, Parent Ratings and Child-Parent Agreement in a Swedish Random Population Sample2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 3, article id e0150545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The KIDSCREEN-27 is a measure of child and adolescent quality of life (QoL), with excellent psychometric properties, available in child-report and parent-rating versions in 38 languages. This study provides child-reported and parent-rated norms for the KIDSCREEN-27 among Swedish 11-16 year-olds, as well as child-parent agreement. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported wellbeing and parent-rated wellbeing were also measured. Methods A random population sample consisting of 600 children aged 11-16, 100 per age group and one of their parents (N = 1200), were approached for response to self-reported and parentrated versions of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents were also asked about their education, employment status and their own QoL based on the 26-item WHOQOL-Bref. Based on the final sampling pool of 1158 persons, a 34.8% response rate of 403 individuals was obtained, including 175 child-parent pairs, 27 child singleton responders and 26 parent singletons. Gender and age differences for parent ratings and child-reported data were analyzed using t-tests and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Post-hoc Dunn tests were conducted for pairwise comparisons when the p-value for specific subscales was 0.05 or lower. Child-parent agreement was tested item-by-item, using the Prevalence-and Bias-Adjusted Kappa (PABAK) coefficient for ordinal data (PABAK-OS); dimensional and total score agreement was evaluated based on dichotomous cut-offs for lower well-being, using the PABAK and total, continuous scores were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots. Results Compared to European norms, Swedish children in this sample scored lower on Physical wellbeing (48.8 SE/49.94 EU) but higher on the other KIDSCREEN-27 dimensions: Psychological wellbeing (53.4/49.77), Parent relations and autonomy (55.1/49.99), Social Support and peers (54.1/49.94) and School (55.8/50.01). Older children self-reported lower wellbeing than younger children. No significant self-reported gender differences occurred and parent ratings showed no gender or age differences. Item-by-item child-parent agreement was slight for 14 items (51.9%), fair for 12 items (44.4%), and less than chance for one item (3.7%), but agreement on all dimensions as well as the total score was substantial according to the PABAK-OS. Visual interpretation of the Bland-Altman plot suggested that when children's average wellbeing score was lower parents seemed to rate their children as having relatively higher total wellbeing, but as children's average wellbeing score increased, parents tended to rate their children as having relatively lower total wellbeing. Children living with both parents had higher wellbeing than those who lived with only one parent. Conclusions Results agreed with European findings that adolescent wellbeing decreases with age but contrasted with some prior Swedish research identifying better wellbeing for boys on all dimensions but Social support and peers. The study suggests the importance of considering children's own reports and not only parental or other informant ratings. Future research should be conducted at regular intervals and encompass larger samples.

  • 19.
    Bhardwaj, Manisha
    et al.
    University of Houston.
    Van den Berg, Ronald
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ma, Wei Ji
    New York University.
    Josić, Krešimir
    University of Houston.
    Do people take stimulus correlations into account in visual search?2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 3, article id e0149402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In laboratory visual search experiments, distractors are often statistically independent of each other. However, stimuli in more naturalistic settings are often correlated and rarely independent. Here, we examine whether human observers take stimulus correlations into account in orientation target detection. We find that they do, although probably not optimally. In particular, it seems that low distractor correlations are overestimated. Our results might contribute to bridging the gap between artificial and natural visual search tasks.

  • 20.
    Blåvarg, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The alluring nature of episodic odor memory: Sensory and cognitive correlates across age and sex2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Episodic memory for olfactory information is still relatively uncharted. The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate the sensory and cognitive causes of the well-established age-related decline in olfactory episodic odor memory and of the age-independent sex difference in olfactory episodic memory. The purpose of Study I was to investigate the causes of the sex difference in olfactory episodic memory. The results show that the female advantage in episodic recognition memory seems to be explained by women´s higher aptitude in odor identification for familiar odors. With this background, the purpose of Study II was to investigate the age-related decline in olfactory episodic memory, with a particular eye to the role of odor identification. When controlling for the sensory variables olfactory threshold and odor quality discrimination, and the cognitive factor mental speed, the age-related deterioration in odor identification was eliminated. This suggests that changes in basic sensory and cognitive abilities underlie the age-related impairment in odor identification. The purpose of Study III was to investigate the role of recollective experience and intention to memorize for age-related and sex-related differences in episodic odor memory. Younger adults reported more experiences of remembering, and the elderly adults more experiences of feeling of knowing. The participants benefited from intentionality at encoding when the odors were unfamiliar, but intentionality did not affect memory for the familiar odors. The purpose of Study IV was to investigate the role of subjectively perceived qualities of the encoded odors for episodic memory across age and sex. Odors perceived as unpleasant, intense, and irritable were more easily remembered throughout the adult life span. The oldest adults selectively recognized the odors they rated as highly irritable indicating compensatory use of trigeminal activation. Overall, the result suggests that episodic odor memory rely heavily on both sensory and cognitive abilities, but in a different manner depending on demographic factors. The age-related decline appears to be driven by a sensory flattening disabling adequate cognitive processing. The age-independent sex difference on the other hand, is mainly cognitively mediated and driven by cognitive factors such as the ability to verbalize olfactory information.

    List of papers
    1. Differential sex effects in olfactory functioning: The role of verbal processing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differential sex effects in olfactory functioning: The role of verbal processing
    2002 (English)In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 8, p. 691-698Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    Olfaction, Sex, Recognition memory, Familiarity, Identification, Verbal processing, Quality discrimination
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264975 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2017-12-01
    2. Odor Identification in Old Age: Demographic, Sensory, and Cognitive Correlates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Odor Identification in Old Age: Demographic, Sensory, and Cognitive Correlates
    2005 (English)In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 12, p. 231-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    Olfaction, Age, Sex, Identification, Speed, Verbal fluency, Threshold, Quality discrimination
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology; Geriatrics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264976 (URN)10.1080/138255890968385 (DOI)
    Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2017-12-01
    3. Recollective experience in odor recognition: influences of adult age and familiarity
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recollective experience in odor recognition: influences of adult age and familiarity
    2006 (English)In: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 70, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    Olfaction, Episodic memory, Recollective experience, Age, Sex, Familiarity, Intentionality, identification
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265008 (URN)10.1007/s00426-004-0190-9 (DOI)
    Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2017-12-01
    4. Bad Odors Stick Better Than Good Ones: Olfactory Qualities and Odor Recognition
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bad Odors Stick Better Than Good Ones: Olfactory Qualities and Odor Recognition
    2009 (English)In: Experimental Psychology, ISSN ISSN-L 1618-3169, ISSN-Print 1618-3169, ISSN-Online 2190-5142, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 375-380Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Keywords
    odor, adult, age, sex, odor recognition memory, odor quality, hedonics, pleasantness, intensity, irritability, trigeminal
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology; Geriatrics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-265009 (URN)10.1027/1618-3169.56.6.375 (DOI)
    Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2015-12-16
  • 21.
    Bodén, Robert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Abrahamsson, Tore
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Holm, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Borg, Jacqueline
    Psychomotor and cognitive deficits as predictors of 5-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenia2014In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 282-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cognitive deficits are common in schizophrenia but the predictive value of these deficits for long-term outcome in first-episode patients is unclear. Aims: We aimed to investigate associations of performance in psychomotor and cognitive tests with a 5-year functional and symptomatic outcome. Methods: After clinical stabilization, patients with a first schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis (n = 46) were assessed for global cognitive function [Synonyms, Reasoning, and Block Design (SRB)], psychomotor speed [Trail Making Test (TMT) and finger tapping] and verbal learning (Claeson-Dahl Verbal Learning Test). The subsequent 5-year outcome regarding independent living, occupational and social function, and symptomatic remission status was assessed. Results: Low psychomotor speed was associated with poor social function 5 years later, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.37 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.08-10.51, adjusted for antipsychotic drug use. Better performance on finger tapping with the non-dominant hand was associated with an increased risk of a 5-year symptomatic non-remission (adjusted OR = 0.42, CI 0.19-0.96). Occupational function and independent living were not significantly associated with any of the investigated tests. Conclusions: Psychomotor speed is associated with a long-term outcome regarding social function and symptom remission in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

  • 22.
    Braukmann, Ricarda
    et al.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Stapel, Janny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hunnius, Sabine
    Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Conducting infant EEG and NIRS experiments: Commonalities and differences2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Brehmer, Berndt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Swdedes in Moro I: The effects of providing specific goals in a complex dynamic taskManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Buhrman, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Edström, G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Shafiei, D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tärnqvist, C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljóttson, B.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Andersson, G.
    Guided Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for chronic pain patients who have residual symptoms after rehabilitation: Randomized controlled trial2013In: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 753-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Chronic pain can be treated with cognitive behavioural therapy delivered in multidisciplinary settings. However, relapse is likely, and there is a need for cost-effective secondary interventions for persons with residual problems after rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a guided Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural intervention for patients who had completed multidisciplinary treatment at a pain management unit. Methods A total of 72 persons with residual pain problems were included in the study and were randomized to either treatment for 8 weeks or to a control group who were invited to participate in a moderated online discussion forum. The participants had different chronic pain conditions, and a majority were women (72%). Twenty-two percent of the participants dropped out of the study before the post-treatment assessment. Results Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated differences on the catastrophizing subscale of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (Cohen's d=0.70), in favour of the treatment group but a small within-group effect. Differences were also found on other measures of pain-related distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms. A 6-month follow-up exhibited maintenance of improvements. Conclusions We conclude that Internet-delivered treatment can be partly effective for persons with residual problems after completed pain rehabilitation.

  • 25.
    Buhrman, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fältenhag, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ström, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Controlled trial of Internet-based treatment with telephone support for chronic back pain2004In: Pain, ISSN 0304-3959, E-ISSN 1872-6623, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 368-377Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Buhrman, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skoglund, Astrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Husell, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bendelin, Nina
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Guided Internet-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain patients: a randomized controlled trial2013In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 307-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) interventions for persons with chronic pain have recently received empirical support. ACT focuses on reducing the disabling influences of pain through targeting ineffective control strategies and teaches people to stay in contact with unpleasant emotions, sensations, and thoughts. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a guided internet-delivered ACT intervention for persons with chronic pain. A total of 76 patients with chronic pain were included in the study and randomized to either treatment for 7 weeks or to a control group that participated in a moderated online discussion forum. Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant increases regarding activity engagement and pain willingness. Measurements were provided with the primary outcome variable Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire which was in favour of the treatment group. Reductions were found on other measures of pain-related distress, anxiety and depressive symptoms. A six month follow-up showed maintenance of improvements. We conclude that an acceptance based internet-delivered treatment can be effective for persons with chronic pain.

  • 27.
    Cetrez, Önver
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, The Social Sciences of Religion, Psychology of Religions.
    Balkir, Nazli
    Department of Psychology, Işık University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Resilience and Mental Health Risks among Syrian Refugees in Europe: A Cultural Perspective2017In: ACTA PSYCHOPATHOLOGICA, ISSN 2469-6676, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1-4, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dated from 2011, the civil war in Syria has forced more than half of the Syrians to leave their home. This crisis is defined as the world's largest humanitarian tragedy since the World War II. Ransom and kidnap, rape, sexual slavery, brutal executions, disappearances, forced displacement have become regular part of the daily news from the region. As for today, the total number of people in need of humanitarian assistance in Syria has reached 12.2 million, approximately 7.6 million of whom are internally displaced; the largest number of internally displaced persons in any country in the world [1]. Refugees from Syria are now the largest refugee population in the world with more than four million Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries and the larger region, such as Europe. The continuation of multi-sided armed conflict has lead to new cross-border movements of refugees each year, increasing the number of Syrians seeking protection in Europe [2-4].

    In response to the humanitarian needs, many EU countries have received applications from asylum seekers and refugees. The report of UNHCR in 2014 claims 562.680 asylum applications records in 38 European countries, which reflects an increase of 24% in comparison to the same period of 2013 [5,6]. The number of people applying for asylum in the European Union was more than doubled in 2015, reaching a record 1.26 million, according to the EU statistics agency. Syrians accounted for almost a third, with 362,775 people seeking shelter in Europe, followed by Afghans and Iraqis. Since 2016, rapid growth rate of the refugee population has been decelerating slightly [7,8].

    Eurostat [9] reports that the highest number of positive asylum decisions was recorded in Germany, followed by Sweden, France and Italy, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands under the UN's humanitarian resettlement program. Those aforementioned states accounted for 81 % of the total number of acceptances issued in the EU-28 [9,10].

    In conjunction with their educational needs and possibility to work and settlement in the countries of migration, the health situation of the refugees is a large field of concern. A United Nations and Government of Syria joint assessment mission has specified mental health and psychosocial support as one of the most major concerns resulting from the current crisis [11]. In light of this unique set of challenges, there is an ongoing need for information on the mental health issues and culturally appropriate interventions not only for reducing symptoms of psychological distress but also for enhancing qualities of psychological and social wellbeing of this marginalized population. Hence, the specific objectives of the current paper are to: 1) provide basic information on the common mental health problems caused by the crisis; 2) discuss cultural issues in the conceptualizations of mental health problems, resilience enhancing practices and possible expectations about the appropriate healing strategies in order to promote mental health status and psychiatric care of Syrian refugees in Europe.

  • 28.
    Chapman, Colin Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Experimenter gender and replicability in science2018In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, no 1, article id e1701427Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a replication crisis spreading through the annals of scientific inquiry. Although some work has been carried out to uncover the roots of this issue, much remains unanswered. With this in mind, this paper investigates how the gender of the experimenter may affect experimental findings. Clinical trials are regularly carried out without any report of the experimenter's gender and with dubious knowledge of its influence. Consequently, significant biases caused by the experimenter's gender may lead researchers to conclude that therapeutics or other interventions are either overtreating or undertreating a variety of conditions. Bearing this in mind, this policy paper emphasizes the importance of reporting and controlling for experimenter gender in future research. As backdrop, it explores what we know about the role of experimenter gender in influencing laboratory results, suggests possible mechanisms, and suggests future areas of inquiry.

  • 29.
    Claesson-Welsh, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology.
    On the physiology of vascular permeability2015In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 215, p. 19-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Dragojevic, Marko
    et al.
    Univ Kentucky, Dept Commun, 242 Grehan Bldg, Lexington, KY 40506 USA.
    Berglund, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Blauvelt, Timothy
    Ilia State Univ, Soviet & Postsoviet Studies, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.; Amer Councils Int Educ ACTR ACCELS, Georgia Field Off, Tbilisi, Rep of Georgia.
    Figuring Out Who's Who: The Role of Social Categorization in the Language Attitudes Process2018In: Journal of language and social psychology, ISSN 0261-927X, E-ISSN 1552-6526, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 28-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the role of social categorization in the language attitudes process. Participants (N = 1,915) from three ethnolinguistic groups residing in the republic of Georgia—Georgians, Armenians, and Azerbaijanis—listened to a speaker reading a text in a Tbilisi-accented (standard variety) and a Mingrelian-accented (nonstandard variety) Georgian guise. We predicted that the three groups would vary in their ability to correctly categorize the two guises and that this intergroup variation in categorization accuracy would result in intergroup variation in language attitudes. These hypotheses were supported. Georgians were more accurate than Armenians and Azerbaijanis in their categorization of both guises. The Tbilisi-accented (Mingrelian-accented) guise was evaluated more (less) favorably when categorized correctly than when miscategorized. This resulted in intergroup variation in language attitudes: Overall, Georgians evaluated the Tbilisi-accented (Mingrelian-accented) guise more (less) favorably than Armenians and Azerbaijanis, due in part to Georgians’ higher categorization accuracy of both guises. 

  • 31.
    Elsner, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bakker, Marta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rohlfing, Katharina
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants' online perception of give-and-take interactions2014In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 126, p. 280-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigated infants’ online perception of give-me gestures during observation of a social interaction. In the first experiment, goal-directed eye movements of 12-month-olds were recorded as they observed a give-and-take interaction in which an object is passed from one individual to another. Infants’ gaze shifts from the passing hand to the receiving hand were significantly faster when the receiving hand formed a give-me gesture relative to when it was presented as an inverted hand shape. Experiment 2 revealed that infants’ goal-directed gaze shifts were not based on different affordances of the two receiving hands. Two additional control experiments further demonstrated that differences in infants’ online gaze behavior were not mediated by an attentional preference for the give-me gesture. Together, our findings provide evidence that properties of social action goals influence infants’ online gaze during action observation. The current studies demonstrate that infants have expectations about well-formed object transfer actions between social agents. We suggest that 12-month-olds are sensitive to social goals within the context of give-and-take interactions while observing from a third-party perspective.

  • 32.
    Elwin, Ebba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Learning With Selective Feedback: Effects on Performance and Coding of Unknown Outcomes2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In experiential learning, one important source of information is the feedback that people receive on the outcomes of their decisions. Typically, however, feedback is systematically absent for many decisions and the actual experience of people may therefore be highly selective. It is thus surprising that research on the cognitive processes involved in human judgement and categorisation has not addressed the effects of learning with selective feedback. In this thesis, three studies are presented in which the effects of learning with systematically selective feedback were investigated.

    The hypothesis of constructivist coding was introduced in Study I, suggesting a cognitive mechanism for the processing of selective information. In the absence of external feedback people infer the most likely outcome, and then code this inference into memory as “internal feedback”. This internally generated feedback is stored and processed in the same manner as externally presented feedback and is used as a basis for beliefs about the characteristics of the environment. Results from Studies I, II, and III demonstrated support for constructivist coding under varied learning conditions.

    Study III investigated the effects on the beliefs of participants when they learn from feedback received only for positive decisions. Results indicated that the participants’ beliefs well reflected their actual, however selective, experience. When participants aimed to achieve good immediate outcomes, their experience became restrictive and biased, resulting in biased beliefs. In contrast, when the focus of participants was on long-term learning, their decisions produced a more representative experience and their beliefs came to reflect the actual structure of the environment. Biased beliefs were thus demonstrated to result from a sensitivity of participants to selectively available information.

    The present findings offer an understanding of the cognitive processes involved in learning from selectively absent feedback. The conclusions propose a sensitivity of participants to objectively experienced information in the forming of knowledge and beliefs. Further, when external information is absent, participants appear to rely on their knowledge and expectations to infer and code the most likely outcome, and use these stored inferences to form a coherent representation of the environment.

    List of papers
    1. Constructivist Coding: Learning from Selective Feedback
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constructivist Coding: Learning from Selective Feedback
    2007 (English)In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 105-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although much learning in real-life environments relies on highly selective feedback about outcomes, virtually all cognitive models of learning, judgment, and categorization assume complete and representative feedback. We investigated empirically the effect of selective feedback on decision making and how people code experience with selective feedback. The results showed that, in contrast to a commonly raised concern, performance was not impaired following learning with selective and biased feedback. Furthermore, even in a simple decision task, the experience that people acquired was not a mere recording of the observed outcomes, but rather a reconstruction from general task knowledge.

    National Category
    Psychology
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-87226 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01856.x (DOI)000245157900003 ()
    Available from: 2008-09-30 Created: 2008-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. What is Coded into Memory in the Absence of Outcome Feedback?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is Coded into Memory in the Absence of Outcome Feedback?
    2010 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although people often have to learn from environments with scarce and highly selective outcome feedback, the question of how non-feedback trials are represented in memory and affect later performance has received little attention in models of learning and decision making. In this article, the Generalized Context Model (R. M. Nosofsky, 1986) is used as a vehicle to test contrasting hypotheses about the coding of non-feedback trials. Data across 3 experiments with selective decision-contingent and selective outcome-contingent feedback provide support for the hypothesis of constructivist coding (E. Elwin, P. Juslin, H. Olsson, & T. Enkvist, 2007), according to which the outcomes on non-feedback trials are coded with the most likely outcome, as inferred by the individual. The relation to sampling-based approaches to judgment, and the adaptive significance of constructivist coding, are discussed.

    Keywords
    selective feedback, constructivist coding, generalized context model, base-rate bias
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-106876 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-07-08 Created: 2009-07-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    3. Living and Learning: The Interplay between Beliefs, Sampling Behaviour, and Experience
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living and Learning: The Interplay between Beliefs, Sampling Behaviour, and Experience
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects on performance of selective feedback contingent on the decisions of the individual were investigated, and the prediction that negative effects of selective feedback are mediated by sampling behaviour that produces a sample of experience that apparently confirms an initial incorrect belief. Empirical results demonstrated that negative effects on performance of selective feedback were small. However, when participants were offered an incorrect prior assumption concerning the likely outcomes of their decisions, and the aim was to produce good outcomes, selective feedback lead to a restrictive sample of experiences that confirmed the incorrect assumption. Consequently, mistaken beliefs persisted, even after accurately perceived and interpreted extensive experience. In contrast, when the decision maker was encouraged to sample more liberally, objective experience allowed the revision of an incorrect assumption. Finally, the estimated base-rates of participants with selective feedback supported the predictions from constructivist coding.

    Keywords
    sampling, selective feedback, experiential learning, confirmation bias, constructivist coding
    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Research subject
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-106878 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-07-08 Created: 2009-07-08 Last updated: 2010-01-14Bibliographically approved
  • 33.
    Elwin, Ebba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Living and Learning: The Interplay between Beliefs, Sampling Behaviour, and ExperienceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects on performance of selective feedback contingent on the decisions of the individual were investigated, and the prediction that negative effects of selective feedback are mediated by sampling behaviour that produces a sample of experience that apparently confirms an initial incorrect belief. Empirical results demonstrated that negative effects on performance of selective feedback were small. However, when participants were offered an incorrect prior assumption concerning the likely outcomes of their decisions, and the aim was to produce good outcomes, selective feedback lead to a restrictive sample of experiences that confirmed the incorrect assumption. Consequently, mistaken beliefs persisted, even after accurately perceived and interpreted extensive experience. In contrast, when the decision maker was encouraged to sample more liberally, objective experience allowed the revision of an incorrect assumption. Finally, the estimated base-rates of participants with selective feedback supported the predictions from constructivist coding.

  • 34. Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Encoding of Numerical Information in Memory: Magnitude or Nominal?2017In: Journal of Numerical Cognition, Vol. 3, p. 58-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlström, Christoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eye Contact Modulates Cognitive Processing Differently in Children With Autism2015In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In humans, effortful cognitive processing frequently takes place during social interaction, with eye contact being an important component. This study shows that the effect of eye contact on memory for nonsocial information is different in children with typical development than in children with autism, a disorder of social communication. Direct gaze facilitated memory performance in children with typical development (n = 25, 6 years old), but no such facilitation was seen in the clinical group (n = 10, 6 years old). Eye tracking conducted during the cognitive test revealed strikingly similar patterns of eye movements, indicating that the results cannot be explained by differences in overt attention. Collectively, these findings have theoretical significance and practical implications for testing practices in children.

  • 36.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorup, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bölte, Sven
    Brief Report: Lack of Processing Bias for the Objects Other People Attend to in 3-Year-Olds with Autism2015In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 1897-1904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether gaze following-a key component of joint attention-is impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently debated. Functional gaze following involves saccading towards the attended rather than unattended targets (accuracy) as well as a subsequent processing bias for attended objects. Using non-invasive eye tracking technology, we show that gaze following accuracy is intact in intellectually low-functioning 3-year-olds with ASD. However, analyses of the duration of first fixations at the objects in the scene revealed markedly weaker initial processing bias for attended objects in children with ASD compared to children with typical development and non-autistic children with developmental delays. Limited processing bias for the objects other people attend to may negatively affect learning opportunities in ASD.

  • 37.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How special is social looking in ASD: a review2011In: Progress in Brain Research, ISSN 0079-6123, E-ISSN 1875-7855, Vol. 189, p. 209-22Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review is primarily concerned with the view that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) look less at the eyes and more at the mouth compared to typically developing (TD) individuals. Such performance in ASD could reflect that the eyes are not meaningful or that they are perceived as threatening, two ideas that may seem intuitively appealing. However, our review shows that despite the fact that the excess mouth/diminished eye gaze hypothesis fits with clinical common sense and initial data from adults, it does not-as a generalization across ages and contexts-fit with the emerging pattern of eye-tracking data. In adolescents and adults, there is only partial support for the excess mouth/diminished eye gaze hypothesis, and regarding children, most studies do not support this hypothesis. In particular, independent studies have found longer looking durations on the mouth in TD children than in children with ASD, and no difference for the eye area. We describe recent evidence that mouth fixations are functional responses related to (early) stages of normative language development. We conclude that although individuals with ASD often give less preferential attention to social objects and events (faces, people, and social actions) than TD individuals, the excess mouth/diminished eye gaze hypothesis of ASD is not generally supported. Therefore, this hypothesis needs to be reevaluated, as do related theories of social perception in ASD.

  • 38.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Josefsson, Albin
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Berggren, Tore
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Holmqvist, Rolf
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    How Much Therapy Is Enough?: Comparing Dose-Effect and Good-Enough Models in Two Different Settings2016In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dose-Effect model holds that longer therapy leads to better outcome, although increasing treatment length will yield diminishing returns, as additional sessions lead to progressively less change in a negatively accelerating fashion. In contrast, the Good-Enough-Level (GEL) model proposes that patients, therapists, or patients-with-therapists decide on ending treatment when treatment outcome is satisfactory, meaning that patients who change faster will have shorter treatments. If true, this means that aggregating among patients with different treatment lengths would yield biased results. Most previous research has shown that symptom change rate depends on treatment length, but all of these studies used data from University counseling centers in the United States. There is a need to test if previous results hold in different settings. Two datasets from Swedish community-based primary care (n = 640) and psychiatric care (n = 284) were used. Patients made session-wise ratings on the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM). Multilevel models indicated better fit for a model in which treatment length moderated symptom change rate. In the primary care sample, patients in longer treatments achieved more symptom change from pre- to posttreatment, despite having slower rate of improvement. The most important aspect of the GEL model was supported, and no evidence was found for a negatively accelerating Dose-Effect curve. Results cannot be generalized beyond about 12 sessions, due to scarcity of data for longer treatments.

  • 39.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Arslan, Melda
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden; Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roeyers, Herbert
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Author Correction: Human eyes with dilated pupils induce pupillary contagion in infants2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 4157Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Max Planck Res Grp Commun Language, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Liszkowski, Ulf
    Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Max Planck Res Grp Commun Language, Nijmegen, Netherlands.; Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Infants anticipate others’ social preferences2012In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current eye-tracking study, we explored whether 12-month-old infants can predict others' social preferences. We showed infants scenes in which two characters alternately helped or hindered an agent in his goal of climbing a hill. In a control condition, the two characters moved up and down the hill in identical ways to the helper and hinderer but did not make contact with the agent; thus, they did not cause him to reach or not reach his goal. Following six alternating familiarization trials of helping and hindering interactions (helphinder condition) or up and down interactions (updown condition), infants were shown one test trial in which they could visually anticipate the agent approaching one of the two characters. As predicted, infants in the helphinder condition made significantly more visual anticipations toward the helping than hindering character, suggesting that they predicted the agent to approach the helping character. In contrast, infants revealed no difference in visual anticipations between the up and down characters. The updown condition served to control for low-level perceptual explanations of the results for the helphinder condition. Thus, together the results reveal that 12-month-old infants make predictions about others' behaviour and social preferences from a third-party perspective.

  • 41.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Liszkowski, Ulf
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Observation and Initiation of Joint Action in Infants2012In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 434-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants imitate others' individual actions, but do they also replicate others' joint activities? To examine whether observing joint action influences infants' initiation of joint action, forty-eight 18-month-old infants observed object demonstrations by 2 models acting together (joint action), 2 models acting individually (individual action), or 1 model acting alone (solitary action). Infants' behavior was examined after they were given each object. Infants in the joint action condition attempted to initiate joint action more often than infants in the other conditions, yet they were equally likely to communicate for other reasons and to imitate the demonstrated object-directed actions. The findings suggest that infants learn to replicate others' joint activity through observation, an important skill for cultural transmission of shared practices.

  • 42.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Markson, Lori
    Children reason about shared preferences2010In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Markson, Lori
    Similarity predicts liking in three-year-old children2010In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tuncgenc, Bahar
    Infants’ use of movement synchrony to anticipate affiliation in others2017In: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, no 160, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    abstractInfants socially engage with others and observe others’ social inter-actions from early in life. One characteristic found to be importantfor signaling and establishing affiliative social relationships isphysical coordination and synchronization of movements. Thisstudy investigated whether synchrony in others’ movements sig-nals affiliation to 12- and 15-month-old infants. The infants wereshown a scene in which two characters moved either syn-chronously or non-synchronously with a third character in the cen-ter. Next, the center character made an affiliation declaration andsubsequently approached and cuddled one of the two characters.Using measures of gaze, we gauged infants’ inferences about whomthe center character would affiliate with before the cuddling tookplace. We found that 15-month-olds, but not 12-month-olds,inferred that the center character would affiliate with the previ-ously synchronous character, suggesting that they can make infer-ences about others’ affiliation based on movement synchrony. Thefindings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the infants’personal preferences and the potential importance of first-personexperience in the development of social cognition.Ó2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an openaccess article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

  • 45.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tunçgenç, Bahar
    Univ Oxford, Inst Cognit & Evolutionary Anthropol, Oxford OX2 6PN, England..
    Infants' use of movement synchrony to infer social affiliation in others2017In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 160, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants socially engage with others and observe others' social interactions from early in life. One characteristic found to be important for signaling and establishing affiliative social relationships is physical coordination and synchronization of movements. This study investigated whether synchrony in others' movements signals affiliation to 12- and 15-month-old infants. The infants were shown a scene in which two characters moved either synchronously or non-synchronously with a third character in the center. Next, the center character made an affiliation declaration and subsequently approached and cuddled one of the two characters. Using measures of gaze, we gauged infants' inferences about whom the center character would affiliate with before the cuddling took place. We found that 15-month-olds, but not 12-month-olds, inferred that the center character would affiliate with the previously synchronous character, suggesting that they can make inferences about others' affiliation based on movement synchrony. The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the infants' personal preferences and the potential importance of first-person experience in the development of social cognition.

  • 46.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wesevich, Victoria
    Washington University School of Medicine.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Pupillary Contagion in Infancy: Evidence for the Spontaneous Transfer of Arousal2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Forsgren, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Further perceptions of probability: The perception-cognition gap and sequence retention models under continuously changing Bernoulli distributions2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hyman Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis (Minsky, 1977) proposes that cyclicality in the financial market is caused by a rational process of learning and inference of probabilities. Although a substantial literature is available on the perception of stationary probability distributions, the learning of non-stationary distributions has received less interest. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate people’s cognitive ability to learn cyclical changes in an underlying probability from feedback. Key aspects of the design of Gallistel et al. (2014) are replicated, but under continuously, rather than stepwise, changing Bernoulli distributions to establish: (i) if the learning process is continuous or discrete, (ii) if there is only local learning or if people induce the underlying functional form, and (iii) if there are any differences in performance between perceptual and cognitive formulations of the task. The step-hold updating model introduced by Gallistel et al. (2014) is compared to two simple trial by trial updating models. The results suggest that (i) the learning process is continuous, (ii) people perceive the functional form explicitly but do not extrapolate, and (iii) there are some differences depending on framing. One of the trial by trial models outperforms the step-hold model for the majority of subjects in this sample and version of the task.

  • 48.
    Frick, Matilda A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Maternal Sensitivity, Infant Temperament, and Inhibition, as Interactive and Independent Predictors of Early ADHD Symptoms2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Frick, Matilda A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fransson, Mari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Maria
    Viksang Maternal & Paediat Hlth Ctr, Vasteras, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The role of sustained attention, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament in the development of early self-regulation2018In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 277-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated infant predictors of early cognitive and emotional self-regulation from an intrinsic and caregiving environmental perspective. Sustained attention, reactive aspects of infant temperament, and maternal sensitivity were assessed at 10months (n=124) and early self-regulation (including executive functions, EF, and emotion regulation) was assessed at 18months. The results indicated that sustained attention predicted early EF, which provide empirical support for the hierarchical framework of EF development, advocating early attention as a foundation for the development of cognitive self-regulation. Maternal sensitivity and surgency predicted emotion regulation, in that infants of sensitive mothers showed more regulatory behaviours and a longer latency to distress, whereas high levels of surgency predicted low emotion regulation, suggesting both the caregiving environment and temperament as important in the development of self-regulation. Interaction effects suggested high sustained attention to be a protective factor for children of insensitive mothers, in relation to emotion regulation. In addition, high levels of maternal sensitivity seemed to foster development of emotion regulation among children with low to medium levels of sustained attention and/or surgency. In all, our findings point to the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors in infant development of self-regulation.

  • 50.
    Gabrielsson, Alf
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aspekte expressiver Gestaltung musikalischer Aufführungen2005In: Enzyklopädie der Psychologie.: Musikpsychologie Bd 1. Allgemeine Musikpsychologie: Allgemeinpsychologische Grundlagen musikalischen Handels, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 2005, p. 843-875Chapter in book (Refereed)
12345 1 - 50 of 213
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