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  • 1.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Treatment Adherence in Internet-Based CBT: The Effects of Presentation, Support and Motivation2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Homework assignments that patient work with between sessions is a key component in both face-to-face and Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). However, adherence to assignments is often low and it is largely unclear what factors predict or affect treatment adherence, and in the end, treatment outcomes. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if treatment presentation and therapist support can affect adherence and treatment outcome in internet-based CBT, whether adherence can be predicted by motivation variables and to compare differences in face-to-face and online conditions in this regard.

    A randomized controlled trial with a brief online relaxation program for people with stress and anxiety symptoms was conducted (n = 162). Participants in the enhanced support conditions completed a larger proportion of the online treatment but adherence was not affected by enhanced treatment presentation (Study I). Participants reported reduced symptoms of stress and anxiety after the relaxation program but there were no significant additional effects of enhanced presentation or support (Study II). Participants who adhered to the prescribed assignments reported lower symptom levels at study end, regardless of treatment conditions. Adherence to the online treatment was predicted by subject factors such as treatment credibility prior to the treatment and intrinsic motivation during the treatment (Study III). To further elucidate how motivation may affect adherence, an experiment with a one-session psychotherapy model was subsequently conducted (n = 100). Participants who were randomized to the face-to-face condition reported higher motivation for the assignment and completed significantly more of the homework compared to participants in the online condition (Study IV). Self-reported intrinsic motivation could predict adherence in both conditions while new motivational variables were identified specifically for the online condition.

    The results from these studies confirm that adherence to assignments in Internet-based CBT is difficult to affect with treatment features but can be predicted early in treatment by subject factors such as treatment credibility and motivation. How such motivational variables can be affected to improve treatments is still unclear.

    List of papers
    1. Is online treatment adherence affected by presentation and therapist support?: A randomized controlled trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is online treatment adherence affected by presentation and therapist support?: A randomized controlled trial
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 60, p. 550-558Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In both face to face and Internet based Cognitive Behavior Therapy, patients' adherence can be improved by different means such as by using motivational techniques or automatic reminders. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether enriched treatment material presentation and/or increased frequency and quality of support would increase participants' adherence to an online relaxation program. One hundred and sixty-two participants with mild to moderate symptoms of stress or worry were included in this study. Participants were randomized to either Normal or Enhanced intervention presentation and Normal or Enhanced support in a full factorial design. Main outcome variables were progress through the online intervention and adherence to prescribed exercises. Participants in the Enhanced support group progressed further through the program than participants in the Normal support group (Z = 2.11, p = .035, r = .17) but there were no significant differences found between the Normal and Enhanced presentation groups. Participants registered a mean of 60% of the prescribed exercises with no significant differences between groups. This study shows that adherence to online interventions can be increased by increased frequency and quality of therapeutic contact. Future studies may investigate how to increase adherence to prescribed homework assignments and whether parts of the therapeutic support may be substituted with automatic systems with retained effects.

    Keywords
    Internet; Psychotherapy; Stress; Adherence
    National Category
    Psychology Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279739 (URN)10.1016/j.chb.2016.01.035 (DOI)000375811900056 ()
    Available from: 2016-03-03 Created: 2016-03-03 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    2. The effects of therapist support and treatment presentation on the clinical outcomes of an Internet based applied relaxation program
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effects of therapist support and treatment presentation on the clinical outcomes of an Internet based applied relaxation program
    2015 (English)In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Symptoms of stress are common in the general population and associated with health risks and economic costs. Applied relaxation training has shown to be effective for reducing stress and worry both as a self-help treatment and as an internet-based intervention with therapist support. However, what factors may affect the outcome of internet based relaxation training is unclear. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of a brief internet based relaxation program for people with symptoms of stress or worry and to assess whether enhancing the quality of intervention presentation or therapist support had an impact on outcomes.

    Participants were randomized in a full factorial design to either Normal or Enhanced treatment Presentation and either Normal or Enhanced therapist Support in a four-week online program with applied relaxation. The main outcome measures were self-report instruments of stress and worry.

    A total of 162 participants were included in the study and 94 and 84 participants completed the post and follow-up measurements respectively. Participants in all conditions improved significantly on the main outcome measures, and the different levels of Presentation or therapist Support did not significantly affect treatment outcome. Registered number of completed exercises was a predictor of better treatment outcome, but this effect was independent of treatment condition. Enhancing internet based interventions by improving presentations and the quality of support may thus not be the best way to further improve the effect of internet based interventions. More specific knowledge of the mechanisms that affect outcomes in online psychotherapy is needed.

    National Category
    Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260069 (URN)10.1016/j.invent.2015.07.005 (DOI)
    Available from: 2015-08-14 Created: 2015-08-14 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Motivation and Treatment Credibility Predicts Dropout, Treatment Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes in an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivation and Treatment Credibility Predicts Dropout, Treatment Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes in an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 18, no 3, article id e52Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In previous research, variables such as age, education, treatment credibility, and therapeutic alliance have shown to affect patients' treatment adherence and outcome in Internet-based psychotherapy. A more detailed understanding of how such variables are associated with different measures of adherence and clinical outcomes may help in designing more effective online therapy.

    Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate demographical, psychological, and treatment-specific variables that could predict dropout, treatment adherence, and treatment outcomes in a study of online relaxation for mild to moderate stress symptoms.

    Methods: Participant dropout and attrition as well as data from self-report instruments completed before, during, and after the online relaxation program were analyzed. Multiple linear and logistical regression analyses were conducted to predict early dropout, overall attrition, online treatment progress, number of registered relaxation exercises, posttreatment symptom levels, and reliable improvement.

    Results: Dropout was significantly predicted by treatment credibility, whereas overall attrition was associated with reporting a focus on immediate consequences and experiencing a low level of intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Treatment progress was predicted by education level and treatment credibility, whereas number of registered relaxation exercises was associated with experiencing intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Posttreatment stress symptoms were positively predicted by feeling external pressure to participate in the treatment and negatively predicted by treatment credibility. Reporting reliable symptom improvement after treatment was predicted by treatment credibility and therapeutic bond.

    Conclusions: This study confirmed that treatment credibility and a good working alliance are factors associated with successful Internet-based psychotherapy. Further, the study showed that measuring adherence in different ways provides somewhat different results, which underscore the importance of carefully defining treatment adherence in psychotherapy research. Lastly, the results suggest that finding the treatment interesting and engaging may help patients carry through with the intervention and complete prescribed assignments, a result that may help guide the design of future interventions.

    National Category
    Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279736 (URN)10.2196/jmir.5352 (DOI)000380777800004 ()26957354 (PubMedID)
    External cooperation:
    Available from: 2016-03-03 Created: 2016-03-03 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: A randomized experiment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: A randomized experiment
    2017 (English)In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients’ behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate whether motivation variables could predict adherence to a prescribed assignment in face-to-face and online interventions using a psychotherapy analog model. Methods: A total of 100 participants were included in this study and randomized to either a face-to-face or online intervention. Participants in both groups received a psychoeducation session and were given an assignment for the subsequent week. The main outcome measurements were self-reported motivation and adherence to the assignment. Results: Participant in the face-to-face condition reported significantly higher levels of motivation and showed higher levels of adherence compared to participants in the online condition. Adherence to the assignment was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility in the whole sample and especially in the online group. Conclusions: This study shows that intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility are strong predictors of adherence to assignments, especially in online interventions. The results indicate that intrinsic motivation may be partly substituted with face-to-face contact with a therapist. It may also be possible to identify patients with low motivation in online interventions who are at risk of dropping out. Methods for making online interventions more intrinsically motivating without increasing external pressure are needed.

    Keywords
    Adherence, Motivation, Psychoeducation, Internet, Homework assignments
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280799 (URN)10.1186/s40359-017-0172-5 (DOI)28126022 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-03-15 Created: 2016-03-15 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare. Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Johansson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Uddling, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: A randomized experiment2017In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients’ behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate whether motivation variables could predict adherence to a prescribed assignment in face-to-face and online interventions using a psychotherapy analog model. Methods: A total of 100 participants were included in this study and randomized to either a face-to-face or online intervention. Participants in both groups received a psychoeducation session and were given an assignment for the subsequent week. The main outcome measurements were self-reported motivation and adherence to the assignment. Results: Participant in the face-to-face condition reported significantly higher levels of motivation and showed higher levels of adherence compared to participants in the online condition. Adherence to the assignment was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility in the whole sample and especially in the online group. Conclusions: This study shows that intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility are strong predictors of adherence to assignments, especially in online interventions. The results indicate that intrinsic motivation may be partly substituted with face-to-face contact with a therapist. It may also be possible to identify patients with low motivation in online interventions who are at risk of dropping out. Methods for making online interventions more intrinsically motivating without increasing external pressure are needed.

  • 3.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Psychology in Healthcare. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden; Linköping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive behavioral therapy: a systematic review2018In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 206-228Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical supervision is a central part of psychotherapist training but the empirical support for specific supervision theories or features is unclear. The aims of this study were to systematically review the empirical research literature regarding the effects of clinical supervision on therapists’ competences and clinical outcomes within Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). A comprehensive database search resulted in 4103 identified publications. Of these, 133 were scrutinized and in the end 5 studies were included in the review for data synthesis. The five studies were heterogeneous in scope and quality and only one provided firm empirical support for the positive effects of clinical supervision on therapists’ competence. The remaining four studies suffered from methodological weaknesses, but provided some preliminary support that clinical supervision may be beneficiary for novice therapists. No study could show benefits from supervision for patients. The research literature suggests that clinical supervision may have some potential effects on novice therapists’ competence compared to no supervision but the effects on clinical outcomes are still unclear. While bug-in-the-eye live supervision may be more effective than standard delayed supervision, the effects of specific supervision models or features are also unclear. There is a continued need for high-quality empirical studies on the effects of clinical supervision in psychotherapy.

  • 4.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Sewall, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lidholm, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The meal pattern questionnaire: A psychometric evaluation using the eating disorder examination2016In: Eating Behaviors, ISSN 1471-0153, E-ISSN 1873-7358, Vol. 21, p. 7-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Meal pattern is an important variable in both obesity treatment and treatment for eating disorders. Momentary assessment and eating diaries are highly valid measurement methods but often cumbersome and not always feasible to use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a self-report instrument for measuring meal patterns.

    Method

    The Pattern of eating item from the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview was adapted to self-report format to follow the same overall structure as the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. The new instrument was named the Meal Patterns Questionnaire (MPQ) and was compared with the EDE in a student sample (n = 105) and an obese sample (n = 111).

    Results

    The individual items of the MPQ and the EDE showed moderate to high correlations (rho = .63–89) in the two samples. Significant differences between the MPQ and EDE were only found for two items in the obese sample. The total scores correlated to a high degree (rho = .87/.74) in both samples and no significant differences were found in this variable.

    Discussion

    The MPQ can provide an overall picture of a person's eating patterns and is a valid way to collect data regarding meal patterns. The MPQ may be a useable tool in clinical practice and research studies when more extensive instruments cannot be used. Future studies should evaluate the MPQ in diverse cultural populations and with more ecological assessment methods.

  • 5.
    Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Movitz, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Whose Side is Technology on Really?: On the Interdependence of Work and Technology.2017In: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] N. Chmiel, F. Fraccaroli, & M. Sverke, Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017, 3, p. 121-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gerbrand, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Låt inte stress hindra dig!: Hur övningar i perspektivtagande inspirerade av ACT kan öka psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet samt minska stressresponsens skadeverkningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressade medarbetare kostar pengar, sänker produktivitet och bidrar till ohälsa. Genom perspektivtagande kan vi ändra förhållningssätt till vårt psykologiska innehåll. ”Självet-som-kontext” ingår i ”psykologisk flexibilitet” och innebär att ta perspektiv till sitt psykologiska innehåll. ”Prosocialt hjälpbeteende” är att ta ett nytt perspektiv till andra. Vår studie undersöker om interventioner i självet-som-kontext och prosocialt hjälpbeteende har effekt på psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet, självupplevd stress samt självet-som-kontext. Även sambandet mellan beroendevariablerna undersöktes. Vi använde en mixad AB-design med intervention. Resultatet visade på minskad självupplevd stress (p=.005) utan effekt av interventionerna (p=.771). Vi fann skillnad mellan interventionerna på psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet (p=.037), men förändringen var inte signifikant (p=.597) Effektstorleken för samtliga skillnader var låg (η2p = .1). Samtliga beroendevariabler korrelerar signifikant (p=<.001).

  • 7.
    Asplund, Robert Persson
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Dagoo, Jesper
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Fjellstrom, Ida
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Niemi, Linnea
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hansson, Katja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zeraati, Forough
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ziuzina, Masha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Geraedts, Anna
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Clin Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Internet-based stress management for distressed managers: results from a randomised controlled trial2018In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 105-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of a guided internet-based stress management intervention (iSMI) among distressed managers compared with a attention control group (AC) with full access to treatment-as-usual.

    Method

    A total sample of 117 distressed managers, mainly employed in the healthcare, IT, communication and educational sector, were randomised to either iSMI (n=59) or an AC group (n=58). The iSMI consisted of eight modules including cognitive behavioural stress management and positive management techniques. Participants received a minimal and weekly guidance from a psychologist or master-level psychology student focusing on support, feedback and adherence to the intervention. Self-report data were assessed at pre, post and 6 months after the intervention. The primary outcome was perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale-14). The secondary outcomes included mental and work-related health outcomes.

    Results

    Participants in the iSMI intervention reported significantly less symptoms of perceived stress (d=0.74, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.19) and burnout (d=0.95, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.37) compared with controls, at postassessment. Significant medium-to-large effect sizes were also found for depression, insomnia and job satisfaction. Longterm effects (6 months) were seen on the mental health outcomes.

    Conclusion

    This is one of the first studies showing that iSMIs can be an effective, accessible and potentially time-effective approach of reducing stress and other mental-related and work-related health symptoms among distressed managers. Future studies are needed addressing distressed managers and the potential of indirect effects on employee stress and satisfaction at work.

  • 8.
    Aucouturier, Jean-Julien
    et al.
    Univ Paris 06, IRCAM, CNRS, STMS,UMR9912, F-74005 Paris, France..
    Johansson, Petter
    Uppsala University, The Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences (SCASSS). Lund Univ, Lund Univ Cognit Sci, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Hall, Lars
    Lund Univ, Lund Univ Cognit Sci, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Segnini, Rodrigo
    Siemens Healthcare, Tokyo 1418644, Japan..
    Mercadie, Lolita
    Nippon Telegraph & Tel NTT Corp, Commun Sci Labs, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2430198, Japan.;Univ Bourgogne, CNRS, LEAD, UMR5022, F-21000 Dijon, France..
    Watanabe, Katsumi
    Waseda Univ, Fac Sci & Engn, Dept Intermedia Art & Sci, Tokyo 1698555, Japan.;Univ Tokyo, Res Ctr Adv Sci & Technol, Tokyo 1538904, Japan..
    Covert digital manipulation of vocal emotion alter speakers' emotional states in a congruent direction2016In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 948-953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that people often exert control over their emotions. By modulating expressions, reappraising feelings, and redirecting attention, they can regulate their emotional experience. These findings have contributed to a blurring of the traditional boundaries between cognitive and emotional processes, and it has been suggested that emotional signals are produced in a goal-directed way and monitored for errors like other intentional actions. However, this interesting possibility has never been experimentally tested. To this end, we created a digital audio platform to covertly modify the emotional tone of participants' voices while they talked in the direction of happiness, sadness, or fear. The result showed that the audio transformations were being perceived as natural examples of the intended emotions, but the great majority of the participants, nevertheless, remained unaware that their own voices were being manipulated. This finding indicates that people are not continuously monitoring their own voice to make sure that it meets a predetermined emotional target. Instead, as a consequence of listening to their altered voices, the emotional state of the participants changed in congruence with the emotion portrayed, which was measured by both self-report and skin conductance level. This change is the first evidence, to our knowledge, of peripheral feedback effects on emotional experience in the auditory domain. As such, our result reinforces the wider framework of self-perception theory: that we often use the same inferential strategies to understand ourselves as those that we use to understand others.

  • 9.
    Axelsson, Anton
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Anderberg, Erik
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Can preschoolers profit from a teachable agent based play-and-learn game in mathematics?2013In: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 16th International Conference, AIED 2013, Memphis, TN, USA, July 9-13, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] H. C. Lane, K. Yacef, J. Mostow & P. Pavlik, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, Vol. 7926 LNAI, p. 289-298Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of studies carried out on pupils aged 8-14 have shown that teachable agent (TA) based games are beneficial for learning. The present pioneering study aimed to initiate research looking at whether TA based games can be used as far down as preschool age. Around the age of four, theory of mind (ToM) is under development and it is not unlikely that a fully developed ToM is necessary to benefit from a TA’s socially engaging characteristics. 10 preschool children participated in an experiment of playing a mathematics game. The participants playing a TA-version of the game engaged socially with the TA and were not disturbed by his presence. Thus, this study unveils exciting possibilities for further research of the hypothesised educational benefits in store for preschoolers with regard to play-and-learn games employing TAs. 

  • 10.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ingemansson Havenvid, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Linné, Åse
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Öberg, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Start-ups and networks: Interactive perspectives and a research agenda2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Baur, Elena
    et al.
    LWL Massregelvollzugsklin, Herne, Germany..
    Forsman, Mats
    Swedish Prison & Probat Serv, Res & Evaluat Unit, POB 44015, S-10073 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Långström, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm.
    Response to Joyal's (2016) "Linking Crime to Paraphilia: Be Careful with Label"2017In: Archives of Sexual Behavior, ISSN 0004-0002, E-ISSN 1573-2800, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 867-868Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Beier, Susanne
    et al.
    Heidelberg University.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholm University.
    Oehmann, Verena
    Heidelberg University.
    Fiedler, Peter
    Heidelberg University.
    Fiedler, Klaus
    Heidelberg University.
    Influence of judges’ behaviors on perceived procedural justice2014In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 46-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of judges’ behavior on procedural justice was analyzed in a field study, observing the judges’ behavior during n = 129 trials and assessing the defendants’ and the audiences’ justice perceptions. The observed judicial behavior was unrelated to the defendants’ justice perceptions. However, the more respectful the judge treated the defendants, the fairer the audience perceived the trial. In general, the effect size of the relationship between observational measures and subjective justice ratings was small in comparison to the relationship within defendants’ or audiences’ ratings. There were striking differences in the justice perception between the two data sources, namely defendants and audience. Thus, the source matters and, to avoid a same-source bias, should be taken into account when analyzing justice perceptions.

  • 13.
    Berlin, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Development psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Development psychology.
    Response inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems among preschool children2002In: Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology, ISSN 1537-4416, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 242-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigated the relation among response inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems in a nonclinical sample of 115 preschool children, using 2 different types of go/no-go tasks well as a Stroop-like task. In line with the assumption that hyperactivity is related to disinhibition, the results showed that it was the measures of response inhibition, and not other performance measures, that were related to teacher ratings of hyperactivity. There was also a significant relation between response inhibition and conduct problems. Interestingly, the correlation between response inhibition and conduct problems was not significant when partialling out the effect of hyperactivity, whereas the correlation between inhibition and hyperactivity did remain significant when controlling for conduct problems. Although the association between inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems appeared to be partly different for boys and girls, these differences were not statistically significant.

  • 14.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Family Check-Up and iComet: a Randomized Controlled Trial in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of online administered parental Strengths and Difficulties Questionnarie (SDQ), and normative data based on combined online and paper-and-pencil administration2013In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To examine the psychometric properties of the online administered parental version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and to provide parental norms from a nationwide Swedish sample.

    Methods

    A total of 1443 parents from of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years completed the SDQ online or as usual (i.e., using paper-and-pencil).

    Results

    The SDQ subscales obtained from the online administration showed high internal consistency (polychoric ordinal alpha), and confirmatory factor analysis of the SDQ five factor model resulted in excellent fit. The Total Difficulties score of the SDQ and its other subscales were significantly related to the Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) rating scale. Norms for the parent version of SDQ obtained from the Internet were identical to those collected using paper-and-pencil. They were thus combined and are presented sorted by child gender and age.

    Conclusions

    The SDQ seems to be a reliable and valid instrument given its high internal consistency, clear factor structure and high correlation with other instruments capturing the intended constructs. Findings in the present study support its use for online data collection, as well as using norms obtained through paper-and-pencil-administration even when SDQ has been administrated online.

  • 16.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The Importance of Parental Knowledge2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor parenting is an important risk factor for development of conduct problems in children and adolescents. Inadequate parental monitoring is an example of a negative parenting behavior that has been shown to predict child conduct problems Findings from previous research on parental monitoring has been mixed due to the use of inconsistent and vague definitions. However, later research suggests that it is "parental knowledge" rather than "parental monitoring" that is associated with child and adolescent conduct problems. In the present study, we used an existing questionnaire that measures three possible sources of parental knowledge: child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control. Our aims were to 1) examine the factor structure of a parenting monitoring/knowledge scale, 2) analyze if a high level of child disclosure and parental control as well as a low level of parental solicitation were associated to low conduct problems, 3) examine if a measure of family warmth correlates with child disclosure, and 4) whether parental knowledge mediates the relation between parental warmth and conduct problems. Parents of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years old were asked to complete a survey including these different scales. A total of 1446 parents completed the questionnaires. Brief description Analysis of the importance of parental knowledge regarding child disruptive behavior using an existing questionnaire that measures parental knowledge through three possible sources: child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control.

  • 17. Blom, Eva Henje
    et al.
    Serlachius, Eva
    Chesney, Margaret A
    Olsson, Erik M G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Adolescent girls with emotional disorders have a lower end-tidal CO2 and increased respiratory rate compared with healthy controls2014In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 412-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyperventilation has been linked to emotional distress in adults. This study investigates end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ), respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate variability (HRV) in adolescent girls with emotional disorders and healthy controls. ETCO2 , RR, HRV, and ratings of emotional symptom severity were collected in adolescent female psychiatric patients with emotional disorders (n = 63) and healthy controls (n = 62). ETCO2 and RR differed significantly between patients and controls. ETCO2 , HR, and HRV were significant independent predictors of group status, that is, clinical or healthy, while RR was not. ETCO2 and RR were significantly related to emotional symptom severity and to HRV in the total group. ETCO2 and RR were not affected by use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It is concluded that emotional dysregulation is related to hyperventilation in adolescent girls. Respiratory-based treatments may be relevant to investigate in future research.

  • 18.
    Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Norra Stationsgatan 69,V 7, S-11364 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Inst Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Social Sustainabil, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenfors, Cecilia
    Univ Chicago, Dept Psychol, Chicago, IL 60637 USA;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Osika, Walter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Norra Stationsgatan 69,V 7, S-11364 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Inst Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Social Sustainabil, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Writer's Block Revisited Micro-Phenomenological Case Study on the Blocking Influence of an Internalized Voice2018In: Journal of consciousness studies, ISSN 1355-8250, E-ISSN 2051-2201, Vol. 25, no 3-4, p. 9-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Writer's block, a common form of procrastination, can have a serious negative impact on an individual's academic performance. In this case study, a student with writer's block was interviewed and asked to perform body movements that represented the process of writing a master's thesis. A micro-phenomenological method was used to investigate the student's experience of writer's block and the role of an inner voice. The analysis unveiled the process by which the inner voice impeded the student, i.e. how the student perceived a set of mental images, movements, and sensations in relation to the 'inner voice'. The findings suggest that non-verbal modes of learning - through movement - may be applied productively to overcome writer's block and other forms of procrastination in broader areas such as research writing. Moreover, the micro-phenomenological method, together with the interpretation of video recordings, can reveal valuable information regarding this learning process in higher education.

  • 19.
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia: How, for Whom and What about Acceptance?2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep is essential for survival but a significant minority of the adult population are dissatisfied with their sleep, and 6-10% meet the criteria for insomnia disorder, characterised by difficulties falling asleep at bedtime, waking up in the middle of the night or too early in the morning, and daytime symptoms. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), an evidence-based sleep-focused intervention, has been suggested as the treatment of choice for chronic insomnia. However, access to specialised sleep therapists is sparse, and a service delivery model based on the principles of ‘stepped care’ has been proposed. Even though CBT-I is shown to be effective, there is a need to continue the development of cognitive behavioural treatments for insomnia. As a complement to traditional interventions, the potential value of acceptance, that is, to make an active choice of openness towards psychological experiences, has been recognized. However, it has not yet been systematically investigated, and specific instruments for studying acceptance in insomnia are lacking.

    The present thesis is based on three studies: Study I showed that manual-guided CBT for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel has a significant effect on perceived insomnia severity, sleep onset latency and wake time after sleep onset. Study II demonstrated that non-responders in Study I reported shorter sleep time at baseline than did responders, a notion that may help select patients for this type of low-end intervention in a stepped care treatment approach. Study III aimed to develop a new assessment instrument for studying acceptance of insomnia, the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), resulting in an eight-item questionnaire with two factors; the first being Activity Engagement, persisting with normal activities even when sleep is unsatisfactory, and the second involving Willingness, avoiding fighting and trying to control sleep problems.

    In conclusion, the present thesis demonstrates that it is feasible to treat patients with insomnia using CBT-I administrated by ordinary primary care personnel in general practice, and that those with relatively longer initial sleep duration benefit most from treatment, enabling allocation to relevant treatment intensity. In addition, acceptance of sleep difficulties may be quantified using the SPAQ.

    List of papers
    1. Manual-guided cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel in general medical practice: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manual-guided cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel in general medical practice: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 688-696Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic insomnia is a prevalent problem in primary health care and tends to be more serious than insomnia in the general population. These patients often obtain little benefit from hypnotics, and are frequently open to exploring various options for medical treatment. However, most general practitioners (GPs) are unable to provide such options. Several meta-analyses have shown that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia results in solid improvements on sleep parameters, and a few studies have demonstrated promising results for nurse-administered CBT in primary care. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of manual-guided CBT for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel in general medical practice with unselected patients. Sixty-six primary care patients with insomnia were randomized to CBT or a waiting-list control group. The CBT group improved significantly more than the control group using the Insomnia Severity Index as the outcome. The effect size was high. Sleep diaries showed a significant, medium-sized treatment effect for sleep onset latency and wake time after sleep onset. However, for all measures there is a marked deterioration at follow-up assessments. Almost half of the treated subjects (47%) reported a clinically relevant treatment effect directly after treatment. It is concluded that this way of delivering treatment may be cost-effective.

    Keywords
    cognitive-behavioural therapy, non-pharmacological, sleep disorder, treatment
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212305 (URN)10.1111/jsr.12067 (DOI)000326884000012 ()
    Available from: 2013-12-10 Created: 2013-12-09 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Initial Sleep Time Predicts Success in Manual-Guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Initial Sleep Time Predicts Success in Manual-Guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Behavioural Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1540-2002, E-ISSN 1540-2010, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 378-388Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive behavioral therapy produces significant and long-lasting improvement for individuals with insomnia, but treatment resources are scarce. A "stepped care" approach has therefore been proposed, but knowledge is limited on how to best allocate patients to different treatment steps. In this study, 66 primary-care patients with insomnia attended a low-end treatment step: manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary-care personnel. Based on clinically significant treatment effects, subjects were grouped into treatment responders or nonresponders. Baseline data were analyzed to identify predictors for treatment success. Long total sleep time at baseline assessment was the only statistically significant predictor for becoming a responder, and sleep time may thus be important to consider before enrolling patients in low-end treatments.

    National Category
    Neurology Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-266762 (URN)10.1080/15402002.2015.1007995 (DOI)000374971100003 ()26323054 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
    3. Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1815-1822Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales "Activity Engagement" and "Willingness", is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia.

    Keywords
    acceptance; experiential avoidance; insomnia; principal component analysis; psychometric evaluation; scale construction; Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire; willingness
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259064 (URN)10.5665/sleep.5170 (DOI)000363740100021 ()
    Available from: 2015-07-25 Created: 2015-07-25 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
  • 20.
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jernelöv, Susanna
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    McCracken, Lance
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire2015In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1815-1822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales "Activity Engagement" and "Willingness", is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia.

  • 21.
    Brav, Agneta
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Andersson, Kin
    Mälaralen University.
    Lantz, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Group initiative and self-organizational activities in industrial work groups2009In: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 347-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous work groups are involved in goal setting and planning and hence can define their jobs and the outcome idiosyncratically. Our interest lies in how job design restricts or creates possibilities for groups to redefine their work and thus go beyond formal requirements. The aim was to test a model of the relationships between dimensions of job design, group processes, group initiative, and self-organizational activities. The results are based on work task analyses and questionnaires administered to 31 work groups at four Swedish industrial companies. The theoretical input-process-output model received substantial support. Dimensions of job design affect whether a group, through collective reflexivity, can redefine work and proactively create conditions and organize work so that uncertainty can be handled and new tasks mastered. Group processes such as cooperation and social support enhance group initiative to achieve such meaningful change. In this study, reflexivity does not impact on group initiative, but does explain the major amount of variance in self-organizational activities. Work task analyses can be a useful tool for providing groups with the prerequisites for self-organizational activities. We believe these to be essential for the groups' capacity to be involved in the innovation process from idea to finished product.

  • 22.
    Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Appell, Petra
    Karlstads universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Cater, Åsa
    Örebro universitet.
    Draxler, Helena
    Karlstads universitet.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Iversen, Clara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Utveckling av bedömningsinstrument och stödinsatser för våldsutsatta barn2015Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Buhrman, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Syk, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Burvall, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Individualized Guided Internet-delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Chronic Pain Patients with Comorbid Depression and Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial2015In: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 504-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression and anxiety are commonly seen in patients with chronic pain which affects the patient´s daily life functioning. Although considerable attention has been devoted to explain why depression and anxiety are frequent comorbid with chronic pain, little empirical work has been conducted on interventions that target depression and anxiety and chronic pain. The present study was designed to test an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment delivered through the internet for persons with chronic pain and emotional distress. A total of 52 patients with chronic pain and depression were included and randomized to either treatment for 8 weeks or to a control group that participated in a moderated online discussion forum. Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant decreases regarding depressive symptoms and pain disability in the treatment group. Results on the primary outcomes of depression and anxiety were in favour of the treatment group. Reductions were also found on pain catastrophizing. One year follow-up showed maintenance of improvements. We conclude that an individualized guided internet-delivered treatment based on cognitive behaviour therapy can be effective for persons with chronic pain comorbid emotional distress.

  • 24.
    Burell, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Norlund, Fredrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Pavulans, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Kurt, Svärdsudd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Affective Outcomes in the SUPRIM Stress Management Program for Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Interheart Study showed that psychosocial stress increased the risk of myocardial infarction (OR 2.67). The Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary healthcare project (SUPRIM) tested whether stress management after myocardial infarction could decrease risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. SUPRIM was a randomized controlled trial in which CHD patients attended a CBT group stress management program. During 94 months of follow-up there was a 45% reduction of recurrent myocardial infarctions (MI) in the intervention group. There were no differences between intervention and control patientes in standard risk factors. Thus, we assumed that psychological mechanisms could explain the effects on hard endpoints.

    Method

    362 MI patients were assessed by a package of self-rating psychometric instrument, and this paper examined whether hostility, time urgency, depression, somatic anxiety, and vital exhaustion decreased more in the intervention group than in the control group. Data collected from 5 points of measurement over 24 months were analyzed with multi-linear regression.

    Results

    The intervention had a significant effect on hostility, time urgency, and somatic anxiety. Vital exhaustion and depression scores showed no differences. There was a significant relationship between attendance rate and decrease of hostility, but no association between attendance rate and levels of vital exhaustion or depression.

    Conclusions

    Treatment effects were demonstrated in measures that assessed emotional reactivity. These changes are possibly linked to physiological and hormonal mechanisms. However, it is to a considerable degree still unknown why and how the stress management intervention impacts disease endpoints.

  • 25.
    Bäckelie, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leadership Style and Readiness Requirement in Job Advertisements: Exploring gender differences in wording appeal within technological corporate culture2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational leadership is predominantly male, even after decades of effort to even out this gap. The gender gap in corporal leadership was here assessed by investigating the possible effect of job advertisement configuration. Requesting a democratic or autocratic leadership style and high or low level of readiness for the leadership position in job advertisements was hypothesized to affect their appreciated appeal differently depending on the reader’s gender. A democratic leadership style and a low level of readiness requirement was thought to appeal more to women. Additionally, an effect of nearness to a manager of the same sex on the appreciated likelihood of applying for a leadership position was investigated, in line with the theory of same-sex role models. Seventy-nine male and seventy-seven female employees from a technical department within a global industrial company were included in the study where they rated manipulated company job advertisements’ appeal and filled out a survey. The results revealed no gender difference in the employees’ appeal ratings depending on the two variables. No difference in likelihood of applying for a leadership position was found, regardless of same-sex managerial nearness. The unique characteristics of the sample used induces a discussion of when advertisement wording matters and matters not.

  • 26.
    Cernvall, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Carlbring, Per
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Guided Self-help via the Internet for Parents of Children Recently Diagnosed with Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Daivadanamn, Meena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Dahl, Jo-Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Empowering towards healthy behaviours2016In: Ending Childhood Obesity: Actions through health and food equity, Uppsala University, 2016, p. 34-39Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Dakanalis, Antonios
    et al.
    Univ Pavia, Dept Brain & Behav Sci, Pavia, Italy.;Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy..
    Clerici, Massimo
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy..
    Caslini, Manuela
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy..
    Gaudio, Santino
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Univ Campus Biomed, Ctr Integrated Res, Rome, Italy..
    Serino, Silvia
    Catholic Univ, Dept Psychol, Milan, Italy..
    Riva, Giuseppe
    Catholic Univ, Dept Psychol, Milan, Italy.;Ist Auxol Italiano, Appl Technol Neuropsychol Lab, Milan, Italy..
    Carra, Giuseppe
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy.;UCL, Fac Brain Sci, Div Psychiat, London, England..
    Predictors of initiation and persistence of recurrent binge eating and inappropriate weight compensatory behaviors in college men2016In: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 581-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveThe transition to college is considered as a risk period for the development of behavioral symptoms of eating disorders (BSEDs) and some evidence suggests that, amongst men, these symptoms occurring on a regular basis remain relatively stable over the college period. Nevertheless, little is known about factors associated with persistent engagement in and initiation of recurrent (or regular) binge eating and inappropriate weight compensatory behaviors in this population. The objective of this report was to address these research gaps. MethodData were examined from 2,555 male first-year college students who completed an assessment of potential vulnerability factors and BSEDs at the beginning of the autumn semester (baseline) and nine months later (end of the spring semester; follow-up). ResultsElevated negative affectivity, body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, and lower self-esteem at baseline were predictive of persistent engagement in regular binge eating and four compensatory behaviors (self-induced vomiting, laxative/diuretic abuse, fasting, exercise) at follow-up, as well as initiation of all these behaviors occurring regularly (i.e., at least weekly for 3 months). Self-objectification (thinking and monitoring the body's outward appearance from a third-person perspective) emerged as the largest contributor of both the initiation and persistence of all behavioral symptoms. DiscussionData emphasize that the same psychological factors underlie initiation and persistence of recurrent BSEDs and should shape the focus of future interventions for college men.

  • 29.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Processes of Organizational Justice: Insights into the perception and enactment of justice2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Well-being at work is of major public interest, and justice at the workplace can be a key factor contributing to employees and managers feeling well. Research has found direct relationships between organizational justice perceptions and work and health outcomes. With research on the justice–health link still emerging, this thesis examines the moderating and mediating processes for the effects of justice perceptions on work outcomes and especially health outcomes. As little is known about those who enact justice, the antecedents and consequences of justice enactment are also studied. In Study I, the relationships between organizational justice and work and health outcomes were in focus, as the moderating role of job characteristics was investigated utilizing the demand–control(–support) model. Organizational justice and job characteristics were associated with work and health outcomes within and across time. The multiplicative effects showed that the organizational justice effects were stronger when perceived job demands were high, job control was low or social support was low. Study II examined the processes through which justice perceptions translate into health outcomes. Building on the allostatic load model, mental preoccupation with work was found to be a relevant mediator of the justice–health relationship, with locus of control moderating the mediated relationships. Study III focused on the actor perspective. Investigating predictions based on the deontic model of justice and ego-depletion theory, moral regard and justice self-efficacy predicted justice enactment positively, and justice enactment had positive effects on feeling professionally recognized but also negative health consequences for the actors themselves. This thesis contributes to advancing the emergent justice–health research stream by providing insights into the processes underlying these aspects, and by incorporating this stream into the actor perspective. 

  • 30.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    University of East Anglia, Stockholm University.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University.
    Organizational justice and health: Studying mental preoccupation with work and social support as mediators for lagged and reversed relationships2018In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational justice perceptions are considered a predictor of health and well-being. To date, empirical evidence about whether organizational justice perceptions predict health or health predicts organizational justice perceptions is mixed. Furthermore, the processes underlying these relationships are largely unknown. In this article, we study whether bidirectional relationships can be explained by 2 different mediation mechanisms. First, based on the allostatic load model, we suggest that the relationships between organizational justice perceptions and different health indicators are mediated through mental preoccupation with work. Second, based on the affective perception and affective reaction assumption, we investigate if the relationships between different health indicators and organizational justice perceptions are mediated by social support at work. Using a large-scale Swedish panel study (N = 3,236), we test the bidirectional mediating relationships between procedural justice perceptions and self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence with a cross-lagged design with 3 waves of data. Significant lagged effects from procedural justice to health were found for models predicting depressive symptoms and sickness absence. Mental preoccupation with work was not found to mediate the longitudinal relationship between procedural justice perceptions and indicators of health. Significant lagged effects from health indicators to procedural justice were found for models involving self-rated health, depressive symptoms, and sickness absence. Social support mediated the longitudinal relationships between all 3 health indicators and procedural justice. Results are discussed in light of previous studies and implications for theory and practice are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record

  • 31.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University.
    Näswall, Katharina
    University of Canterbury.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, North-West University.
    The interaction between organizational justice and job characteristics: Associations with work attitudes and employee health cross-sectionally and over time2015In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 549-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates to what extent main and interactive effects of overall organizational justice and job characteristics shape employees’ work attitudes (organizational commitment, intention to stay) and health (mental health, somatic health) cross-sectionally and over the time of one year. Questionnaire data from 429 Swedish accountants show that generally both organizational justice and job characteristics had main effects on all outcomes at both time points. Interactions between organizational justice and job characteristics were found for every studied job characteristic (demand, control, support), for both time points but mainly for intention to stay and somatic health. The results show that perceptions of organizational justice and job characteristics can have additive and multiplicative synergetic effects for work attitudes and employee health.

  • 32.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholm University.
    Näswall, Katharina
    University of Canterbury.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholm University, North-West University.
    The interaction between organizational justice and job characteristics: Associations with work attitudes and employee health cross-sectionally and over time2015In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 549-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates to what extent main and interactive effects of overall organizational justice and job characteristics shape employees’ work attitudes (organizational commitment, intention to stay) and health (mental health, somatic health) cross-sectionally and over the time of one year. Questionnaire data from 429 Swedish accountants show that generally both organizational justice and job characteristics had main effects on all outcomes at both time points. Interactions between organizational justice and job characteristics were found for every studied job characteristic (demand, control, support), for both time points but mainly for intention to stay and somatic health. The results show that perceptions of organizational justice and job characteristics can have additive and multiplicative synergetic effects for work attitudes and employee health.

  • 33.
    Eib, Constanze
    et al.
    Stockholm University, University of East Anglia.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University.
    Blom, Victoria
    Karolinska Institutet, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Don't let it get to you! A moderated mediated approach to the (in)justice-health relationship.2015In: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 434-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the consequences of overall justice perceptions on employees' mental health and work-family conflict. While many studies have found that perceiving injustice at work is harmful, little is known about the underlying processes. Based on the allostatic load model, it is hypothesized that mental preoccupation with work, defined as a cognitive state, is a mediator linking overall justice perceptions to employee health. Moreover, we argue that locus of control is a moderator for the mediated relationship. We tested our hypotheses with panel data consisting of 412 Swedish office workers. Results support that mental preoccupation with work mediates the relationship between overall justice and mental health, and overall justice and work-family conflict. Results also reveal that mental preoccupation with work plays a greater mediating role for individuals with an external locus of control. Implications and suggestions for future studies on the emerging relationship between organizational justice and health are discussed.

  • 34.
    Elwin, Ebba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Living and Learning: Reproducing Beliefs in Selective Experience2013In: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 327-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People's decisions shape their experience. For example, a recruitment officer decides between job applicants and cannot evaluate the suitability of rejected applicants. The selection decisions thus affect the content of the officer's experience of suitable and unsuitable applicants, and experiential learning is achieved from a selective sample of experiences. It is suggested that people's beliefs are sensitive to the content of the experienced sample, but the mind cannot adjust for the selectivity of the sample even when it results from the individual's own decisions. Two experiments with a recruitment task showed that incorrect prior beliefs survive experiential learning when the beliefs are reproduced and thus appear to be confirmed, in actual experience. When the task was to achieve high performance, incorrect prior beliefs persisted because they were reproduced in a smaller sample of selected job applicants. In contrast, when the task was focused on learning, a greater number of applicants were selected, and a more representative experience therefore revised incorrect beliefs. The actual content of the experienced sample is thus crucial for the persistence, as well as for the revision, of incorrect beliefs. Further, as predicted by the hypothesis of constructivist coding, when feedback was absent for rejected applicants, participants constructed internal feedback in line with the expectation that the rejected applicant was unsuitable. Thus, when fewer applicants were hired, participants came to believe that the actual proportion of suitable applicants was low. Finally, the implications for efforts to reduce bias and improve experiential learning are discussed.

  • 35.
    Enebrink, Pia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet.
    The emotion regulation questionnaire: Psychometric properties and norms for Swedish parents of children aged 10-13 years2013In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 289-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the internal consistency and factor structure of the Swedish version of the 10-item Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and its relation to family warmth and conflict, marital satisfaction, and parental discipline strategies, in addition to obtaining norms from the general population of parents of children aged 10-13 years. The ERQ has two subscales measuring an individual’s use of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression as emotion regulation strategies. A random non-referred sample of parents of 1433 children aged 10-13 years completed the ERQ and other questions targeting the family functioning and couple adjustment (Warmth/Conflict in the family; Dyadic Adjustment Scale-short form) and parental strategies (Parent Practices Interview). The results indicated adequate internal consistencies (Cronbach’s alpha) of the two subscales (cognitive reappraisal .81; expressive suppression .73). Confirmatory factor analysis resulted in close to acceptable fit (RMSEA = 0.089; CFI = 0.912; GFI = 0.93). Norms are presented as percentiles for mothers and fathers. The ERQ cognitive reappraisal scale correlated positively with marital adjustment (DAS), family warmth, appropriate discipline (PPI), and negatively with harsh discipline (PPI). The ERQ expressive suppression subscale was negatively correlated with marital satisfaction (DAS) and family warmth, and positively with harsh discipline (PPI). To conclude, this study showed the adequate reliability and construct validity of the ERQ in a large sample of Swedish parents. Specific use of suppression or reappraisal as a parental emotion regulation strategy was related to couple satisfaction, warmth in the family and employment of adequate discipline strategies in expected direction.

  • 36.
    Evers, Arne
    et al.
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    McCormick, Carina M.
    Buros Ctr Testing, Lincoln, NE USA..
    Hawley, Leslie R.
    Nebraska Acad Methodol, Lincoln, NE USA..
    Muniz, Jose
    Univ Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain..
    Balboni, Giulia
    Univ Perugia, Perugia, Italy..
    Bartram, Dave
    Univ Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Boben, Dusica
    Drustvo Psihologov Slovenije, Slovenije, Slovenia..
    Egeland, Jens
    Vestfold Hosp Trust, Oslo, Norway..
    El-Hassan, Karma
    Amer Univ Beirut, Lebanon, NH USA..
    Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.
    Spanish Psychol Assoc, Madrid, Spain..
    Fine, Saul
    Univ Haifa, Haifa, Israel..
    Frans, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gintiliene, Grazina
    Vilnius Univ, Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Hagemeister, Carmen
    Tech Univ Dresden, Dresden, Germany..
    Halama, Peter
    Univ Trnava, Trnava, Slovakia..
    Iliescu, Dragos
    Univ Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania..
    Jaworowska, Aleksandra
    Psychol Test Lab, Siedlce, Poland..
    Jimenez, Paul
    Graz Univ, Graz, Austria..
    Manthouli, Marina
    Assoc Greek Psychologists, Athens, Greece..
    Matesic, Krunoslav
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia..
    Michaelsen, Lars
    Danish Psychol Assoc, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Mogaji, Andrew
    Benue State Univ, Makurdi, Nigeria..
    Morley-Kirk, James
    China Select, Guangzhou, Peoples R China..
    Rozsa, Sandor
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Budapest, Hungary..
    Rowlands, Lorraine
    New Zealand Council Educ Res, Wellington, New Zealand..
    Schittekatte, Mark
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium..
    Sümer, H. Canan
    Middle East Tech Univ, Ankara, Turkey..
    Suwartono, Tono
    Muhammadiyah Univ Purwokerto, Purwokerto, Indonesia..
    Urbanek, Tomas
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic..
    Wechsler, Solange
    Pontifical Cathol Univ Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Zelenevska, Tamara
    Latvian Profess Psychol Assoc, Riga, Latvia..
    Zanev, Svetoslav
    Oganizzazioni Speciali, Burgas, Bulgaria..
    Zhang, Jianxin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Testing Practices and Attitudes Toward Tests and Testing: An International Survey2017In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 158-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the International Test Commission and the European Federation of Psychologists' Associations a world-wide survey on the opinions of professional psychologists on testing practices was carried out. The main objective of this study was to collect data for a better understanding of the state of psychological testing worldwide. These data could guide the actions and measures taken by ITC, EFPA, and other stakeholders. A questionnaire was administered to 20,467 professional psychologists from 29 countries. Five scales were constructed relating to: concern over incorrect test use, regulations on tests and testing, internet and computerized testing, appreciation of tests, and knowledge and training relating to test use. Equivalence across countries was evaluated using the alignment method, four scales demonstrated acceptable levels of invariance. Multilevel analysis was used to determine how scores were related to age, gender, and specialization, as well as how scores varied between countries. Although the results show a high appreciation of tests in general, the appreciation of internet and computerized testing is much lower. These scales show low variability over countries, whereas differences between countries on the other reported scales are much greater. This implies the need for some overarching improvements as well as country-specific actions.

  • 37.
    Fogelkvist, Maria
    et al.
    University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, SE 701 82 Örebro, Sweden..
    Parling, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kjellin, Lars
    University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, SE 701 82 Örebro, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Sanna Aila
    University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, SE 701 82 Örebro, Sweden..
    A qualitative analysis of participants’ reflections on body image during participation in a randomized controlled trial of acceptance and commitment therapy2016In: Journal Of Eating Disorders, ISSN 2050-2974, Vol. 4, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Negative body image is a risk factor for development and relapse in eating disorders (ED). Many patients continue to be dissatisfied with their body shape or weight after treatment. This study presents a qualitative analysis of written reflections on body image from patients with an ED and a negative body image before and after an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy group treatment at a specialized ED-unit. Method: Before and after the treatment participants (n = 47) answered a questionnaire with open ended questions on their thoughts on body image. Data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. Results: Body image meant different things for different participants. For some it had to do with how you evaluate your body, whereas others focused on whether their body image was realistic or not. Some emphasized their relationship with their body, while some described body image as strongly related to global self-esteem. These different views on the concept of body image affected the participants' descriptions of their own body image, and how they wanted it to change. Body image was considered a state that fluctuated from day to day. After treatment the participants described changes in their body image, for instance perceiving oneself as less judgmental towards one's body, and a shift in focus to the important things in life. Conclusions: The participants had different views on body image and how they wished it to change. Thus treatment interventions targeting negative body image needs to address various aspects of this complex construct.

  • 38.
    Folke, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Parling, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Depression: A Preliminary Randomized Clinical Trial for Unemployed on Long-Term Sick Leave2012In: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, ISSN 1077-7229, E-ISSN 1878-187X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 583-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This preliminaly study investigated the feasibility of a brief Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) in a Swedish sample of unemployed individuals on long-term sick leave due to depression. Participants were randomized to a nonstandardized control condition (N = 16) or to the ACT condition (N = 18) consisting of 1 individual and 5 group sessions. From pretreatment to 18-month follow-up the ACT participants improved significantly on measures of depression, general health, and quality of life compared to participants in the control condition. The conditions did not differ regarding sick leave and employment status at any time point. The results indicate that ACT is a promising treatment for depression. The need for further refinements of future ACT protocols for this population is discussed.

  • 39.
    Forster, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    When Cheap is Good: Cost-Effective Parent and Teacher Interventions for Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is strong empirical support for behavioral parent training (BPT) as an intervention for children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). However, there is a lack of studies that have investigated the effectiveness of BPT in routine care. Furthermore, most families in need of service do not gain access to it. Another issue of concern is that a sizable portion of children who take part in BPT does not show clinical significant improvement. With regard to behavioral teacher training (BTT) for students with EBP, there is a paucity of intervention trials using randomized design. The training procedures have rarely been standardized, which have resulted in interventions that are dependent upon heavy involvement of external consultants. To improve the accessibility to service for students with EBP, intervention models that are feasible for typical school personnel need to be developed.

    Study I investigated the effects of BPT in routine care. The participants were randomized to BPT with full practitioner support (BPT-P), self-administered BPT with minimal practitioner support (BPT-S), or a waitlist control group (WL). The study showed that BPT implemented by briefly trained social service employees (BPT-P) resulted in at least as large effects as previous efficacy studies. PMT-S also showed significant effects compared to the WL, but was less effective than PMT-P. Improvements in child behaviors were mediated by improved parenting behaviors. Study II investigated the effects of an enhanced version of the BPT-program from study I. The program targeted families with risk factors for non-response that were referred to service within the social services. The results showed strong intervention effects on child EBP and parent anxiety/depression for enhanced BPT compared to regular BPT. Study III used a randomized design to evaluate the effects of a standardized and feasible BTT program. At both posttest and follow-up, significant effects favoring the BTT-group over the active control group were found on student EBP, teacher behavior management, and peer problems. The study also showed that the effect on student EBP was mediated by change in teacher behavior management.

    List of papers
    1. A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial of Parent Management Training With Varying Degrees of Therapist Support
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial of Parent Management Training With Varying Degrees of Therapist Support
    2010 (English)In: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 530-542Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effectiveness of a Swedish parent management training (PMT) intervention for parents of children aged 3 to 10 within the context of regular social service. Self-referred parents of 159 children (aged 3–10) with conduct problems were randomly assigned to either eleven practitioner-assisted group sessions (PMT-P), or a single instructional workshop followed by self-administration of the training material (PMT-S), or a waitlist control group. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that both PMT-P and PMT-S improved parent competence and reduced child conduct problems compared to the waitlist at posttest. Both training conditions showed further significant improvements at the 6-month follow-up. In direct comparison, PMT-P was superior to PMT-S on measures of child conduct problems at both posttest and follow-up. Improvement in child conduct was mediated by improvement in parent competencies and homework fidelity. The findings in this study have implications for large-scale dissemination of parent management training through different means of delivery.

    Keywords
    Parent management training, Conduct problems, Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness study, Self-help
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    Clinical Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-129354 (URN)10.1016/j.beth.2010.02.004 (DOI)000284393600008 ()21035616 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2010-08-11 Created: 2010-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    2. An effectiveness study comparing enhanced and regular parent management training for children with conduct problems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An effectiveness study comparing enhanced and regular parent management training for children with conduct problems
    (English)In: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-1045, E-ISSN 1461-7021Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    This controlled effectiveness study compared an enhanced parent management training program (PMT-E) with a regular parent training program (PMT-R). Both programs were part of the routine care at the facilities included in the study. The sample consisted of 42 children aged 3-12 years with conduct problems. The participating families were characterized by risk factors for non-response to treatment, such as parent depression/anxiety, single parenthood and unemployment. Parent ratings of child conduct problems and parent depression/anxiety were collected at baseline and post-intervention. No significant differences were found at baseline between the groups. At posttest large significant effect sizes were found on all outcome measures favoring the PMT-E group, when controlling for differences in sample characteristics. The conclusion was that families at risk for non-response to treatment need sufficient support and training in order to benefit from PMT.

    Keywords
    Barriers to treatment participation, Conduct problems, Enhancement of treatment, Parent management training
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    Clinical Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-129355 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-08-11 Created: 2010-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
    3. A randomized controlled trial of a standardized behavior management intervention for students with externalizing behavior
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A randomized controlled trial of a standardized behavior management intervention for students with externalizing behavior
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, ISSN 1063-4266, E-ISSN 1538-4799, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 169-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the results from a Swedish randomized controlled trial of a standardized behavior management intervention. The intervention targeted students with externalizing behavior in a regular education setting. First- and second-grade students (N = 100) from 38 schools were randomly assigned to either the intervention or an active comparison group. Observer, teacher, and peer ratings were collected at pretest, posttest (6 months later), and follow-up (14 months after pretest). Significant intervention effects were found on student externalizing behavior and teacher behavior management at both posttest and follow-up. The intervention effect on student externalizing behavior was mediated by change in teacher behavior. Moderating effects of demographic and classroom variables were explored, as well as the social validity of the intervention. The results are discussed in relation to cost-effectiveness and feasibility of behavioral interventions in typical school settings.

    Keywords
    Behavior management, Functional behavioral assessment, Externalizing behavior, Randomized controlled trials, externalizing, efficacy/effectiveness, behavioral, functional, cost-effectiveness
    National Category
    Applied Psychology
    Research subject
    Clinical Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-129356 (URN)10.1177/1063426610387431 (DOI)000307643200004 ()
    Available from: 2010-08-11 Created: 2010-08-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
  • 40.
    Forster, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kams, Piret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seppälä, Ella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    An effectiveness study comparing enhanced and regular parent management training for children with conduct problemsIn: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-1045, E-ISSN 1461-7021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This controlled effectiveness study compared an enhanced parent management training program (PMT-E) with a regular parent training program (PMT-R). Both programs were part of the routine care at the facilities included in the study. The sample consisted of 42 children aged 3-12 years with conduct problems. The participating families were characterized by risk factors for non-response to treatment, such as parent depression/anxiety, single parenthood and unemployment. Parent ratings of child conduct problems and parent depression/anxiety were collected at baseline and post-intervention. No significant differences were found at baseline between the groups. At posttest large significant effect sizes were found on all outcome measures favoring the PMT-E group, when controlling for differences in sample characteristics. The conclusion was that families at risk for non-response to treatment need sufficient support and training in order to benefit from PMT.

  • 41.
    Forster, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundell, Knut
    Socialtjänstförvaltningen i Stockholm, The city of Stockholm's executive office.
    Morris, Richard, J.
    College of Education, University of Arizona, USA.
    Karlberg, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Melin, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A randomized controlled trial of a standardized behavior management intervention for students with externalizing behavior2012In: Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, ISSN 1063-4266, E-ISSN 1538-4799, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 169-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the results from a Swedish randomized controlled trial of a standardized behavior management intervention. The intervention targeted students with externalizing behavior in a regular education setting. First- and second-grade students (N = 100) from 38 schools were randomly assigned to either the intervention or an active comparison group. Observer, teacher, and peer ratings were collected at pretest, posttest (6 months later), and follow-up (14 months after pretest). Significant intervention effects were found on student externalizing behavior and teacher behavior management at both posttest and follow-up. The intervention effect on student externalizing behavior was mediated by change in teacher behavior. Moderating effects of demographic and classroom variables were explored, as well as the social validity of the intervention. The results are discussed in relation to cost-effectiveness and feasibility of behavioral interventions in typical school settings.

  • 42.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hjelmstedt, Anna
    Lind, A.
    Bohm, Birgitta
    Mothander, Risholm Pia
    Parents’ experiences of preterm birth2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fransson, Mari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Springer, Lydia
    Lindberg, Lene
    Anknytning hos barn till mödrar med intellektuella funktionshinder: Om vanvård i dubbla bemärkelser.2013In: Psykisk hälsa, Vol. 54, p. 64-71Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44. Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fransson, Mari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Springer, Lydia
    Lindberg, Lene
    Anknytning hos barn till mödrar med intellektuella funktionshinder: Om vanvård i dubbla bemärkelser, del II2014In: Psykisk hälsa, Vol. 55, p. 68-73Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Grina, Jana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sidanius, Jim
    Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Political orientation and dominance: Are people on the political right more dominant?2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 94, p. 113-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social dominance orientation and political orientations are strongly correlated, leading to the notion that right-wing individuals possess a dominant personality disposition. Expressing some caveats toward such an assumption, in four studies we tested the link between political orientation and dominant personality. We assessed dominant personality partly by the use of a newly developed measure of domineering, without reference to intergroup relations or political ideals, and partly by the use of an existing clinical measure of domineering (CAT-PD). The results revealed that all measures of dominance including social dominance were significantly intercorrelated and, in line with previous research, related to both personality (agreeableness) and prejudice. Also, the correlation of political orientation with domineering was significantly lower than that with social dominance. More importantly, in all studies, social dominance fully mediated (or confounded) the relations between domineering and political orientation. Together these findings suggest that a dominant personality is reflected in political orientation only if social dominance (support for group based hierarchies) is also adopted by the individual.

  • 46.
    Guath, Mona
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Millroth, Philip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elwin, Ebba
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Optimizing Electricity Consumption: A Case of Function Learning2015In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 326-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A popular way to improve consumers' control over their electricity consumption is by providing outcome feedback on the cost with in-home displays. Research on function learning, however, suggests that outcome feedback may not always be ideal for learning, especially if the feedback signal is noisy. In this study, we relate research on function learning to in-home displays and use a laboratory task simulating a household to investigate the role of outcome feedback and function learning on electricity optimization. Three function training schemes (FTSs) are presented that convey specific properties of the functions that relate the electricity consumption to the utility and cost. In Experiment 1, we compared learning from outcome feedback with 3 FTSs, 1 of which allowed maximization of the utility while keeping the budget, despite no feedback about the total monthly cost. In Experiment 2, we explored the combination of this FTS and outcome feedback. The results suggested that electricity optimization may be facilitated if feedback learning is preceded by a brief period of function training.

  • 47.
    Hartig, Terry
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Kylin, Camilla
    Johansson, Gunn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    The telework tradeoff: Stress mitigation vs. Constrained restoration2007In: Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, ISSN 0269-994X, E-ISSN 1464-0597, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 231-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a coping strategy, telework may reduce stress from some sources; however, it may also undermine restorative functions of the home. Investigating this tradeoff between stress mitigation and the constraint of restoration, we analysed questionnaire data from 101 full-time Swedish governmental employees whose workplace relocated to another city. After the relocation, 58 employees performed >= 20 per cent of their ordinary paid work at home. Coping with commuting and parenting demands frequently figured among reasons for teleworking. Having a separate room for telework appeared to ameliorate spatial but not temporal or mental overlap of work and non-work life. Teleworkers and non-teleworkers alike experienced the home more as a place of restoration than one of demands. Teleworking was reliably associated with restoration, conditional on gender; of those who teleworked, women reported less, and men more, effective restoration than their counterparts among non-teleworkers.

  • 48.
    Hassler Hallstedt, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Datasets accompanying the article "Tablets instead of paper-based tests for young children?"2016Data set (Refereed)
  • 49. Hirvikoski, T.
    et al.
    Nordenström, A.
    Lindholm, T.
    Olsson, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial oncology and supportive care.
    Nordström, A. -L
    Lajic, S.
    FC14-02 - Biological stress markers, executive functions and self-perceived stress in adults with ADHD (attention-deficit /hyperactivity disorder)2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionThe management of normal daily tasks may be complicated for adults with ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) due to executive dysfunctions. ADHD may thus increase the risk of chronic stress in everyday life.

  • 50.
    Hovén, Emma
    et al.
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Childhood Cancer Research Unit, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lannering, Birgitta
    Department of Pediatrics, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Childhood Cancer Research Unit, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boman, Krister K
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Childhood Cancer Research Unit, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The met and unmet health care needs of adult survivors of childhood central nervous system tumors: A double-informant, population-based study2011In: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 117, no 18, p. 4294-4303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the persistent health care needs (HCNs) of adult survivors of childhood central nervous system tumors.

    METHODS:

    In this population-based study, 526 of 679 eligible survivors and 550 parents provided data. Survivors' HCNs were assessed using a questionnaire covering 4 domains: Medical Care, care coordination and communication (Care Coordination), Illness Education, and Psychosocial Services. Needs were categorized as no need, met need, and unmet need. Outcomes were analyzed specifically in relation to survivors' functional late effects as assessed using the Health Utilities Index Mark 2/3.

    RESULTS:

    Approximately 40% of survivors experienced their HCNs as exceeding the supposed general population average, and 41% had a current HCN that was unmet. The most common unmet need concerned the Psychosocial Services domain (reported by 40%), followed by a lack of Illness Education (35%), Care Coordination (22%), and Medical Care (15%). Survivors experiencing functional late effects had greater HCNs, and a greater percentage of unmet needs. Agreement between survivor-reported and parent proxy-reported HCNs was satisfactory, whereas agreement for survivors' unmet HCNs ranged from poor to satisfactory.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Findings based on reliable double-informant data demonstrated that a considerable percentage of adult survivors report unmet HCNs, with female sex, younger age at diagnosis, and indications of disability and poor health status comprising significant risk factors. Issues critical for improved, comprehensive, long-term follow-up care were identified. Addressing these issues adequately in clinical follow-up extending into adulthood would likely improve the quality of comprehensive care for this patient group.

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