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  • 1.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Treatment Adherence in Internet-Based CBT: The Effects of Presentation, Support and Motivation2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Homework assignments that patient work with between sessions is a key component in both face-to-face and Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). However, adherence to assignments is often low and it is largely unclear what factors predict or affect treatment adherence, and in the end, treatment outcomes. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if treatment presentation and therapist support can affect adherence and treatment outcome in internet-based CBT, whether adherence can be predicted by motivation variables and to compare differences in face-to-face and online conditions in this regard.

    A randomized controlled trial with a brief online relaxation program for people with stress and anxiety symptoms was conducted (n = 162). Participants in the enhanced support conditions completed a larger proportion of the online treatment but adherence was not affected by enhanced treatment presentation (Study I). Participants reported reduced symptoms of stress and anxiety after the relaxation program but there were no significant additional effects of enhanced presentation or support (Study II). Participants who adhered to the prescribed assignments reported lower symptom levels at study end, regardless of treatment conditions. Adherence to the online treatment was predicted by subject factors such as treatment credibility prior to the treatment and intrinsic motivation during the treatment (Study III). To further elucidate how motivation may affect adherence, an experiment with a one-session psychotherapy model was subsequently conducted (n = 100). Participants who were randomized to the face-to-face condition reported higher motivation for the assignment and completed significantly more of the homework compared to participants in the online condition (Study IV). Self-reported intrinsic motivation could predict adherence in both conditions while new motivational variables were identified specifically for the online condition.

    The results from these studies confirm that adherence to assignments in Internet-based CBT is difficult to affect with treatment features but can be predicted early in treatment by subject factors such as treatment credibility and motivation. How such motivational variables can be affected to improve treatments is still unclear.

    Delarbeid
    1. Is online treatment adherence affected by presentation and therapist support?: A randomized controlled trial
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Is online treatment adherence affected by presentation and therapist support?: A randomized controlled trial
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 60, s. 550-558Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In both face to face and Internet based Cognitive Behavior Therapy, patients' adherence can be improved by different means such as by using motivational techniques or automatic reminders. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether enriched treatment material presentation and/or increased frequency and quality of support would increase participants' adherence to an online relaxation program. One hundred and sixty-two participants with mild to moderate symptoms of stress or worry were included in this study. Participants were randomized to either Normal or Enhanced intervention presentation and Normal or Enhanced support in a full factorial design. Main outcome variables were progress through the online intervention and adherence to prescribed exercises. Participants in the Enhanced support group progressed further through the program than participants in the Normal support group (Z = 2.11, p = .035, r = .17) but there were no significant differences found between the Normal and Enhanced presentation groups. Participants registered a mean of 60% of the prescribed exercises with no significant differences between groups. This study shows that adherence to online interventions can be increased by increased frequency and quality of therapeutic contact. Future studies may investigate how to increase adherence to prescribed homework assignments and whether parts of the therapeutic support may be substituted with automatic systems with retained effects.

    Emneord
    Internet; Psychotherapy; Stress; Adherence
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279739 (URN)10.1016/j.chb.2016.01.035 (DOI)000375811900056 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-03 Laget: 2016-03-03 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-30bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. The effects of therapist support and treatment presentation on the clinical outcomes of an Internet based applied relaxation program
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The effects of therapist support and treatment presentation on the clinical outcomes of an Internet based applied relaxation program
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 289-296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Symptoms of stress are common in the general population and associated with health risks and economic costs. Applied relaxation training has shown to be effective for reducing stress and worry both as a self-help treatment and as an internet-based intervention with therapist support. However, what factors may affect the outcome of internet based relaxation training is unclear. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of a brief internet based relaxation program for people with symptoms of stress or worry and to assess whether enhancing the quality of intervention presentation or therapist support had an impact on outcomes.

    Participants were randomized in a full factorial design to either Normal or Enhanced treatment Presentation and either Normal or Enhanced therapist Support in a four-week online program with applied relaxation. The main outcome measures were self-report instruments of stress and worry.

    A total of 162 participants were included in the study and 94 and 84 participants completed the post and follow-up measurements respectively. Participants in all conditions improved significantly on the main outcome measures, and the different levels of Presentation or therapist Support did not significantly affect treatment outcome. Registered number of completed exercises was a predictor of better treatment outcome, but this effect was independent of treatment condition. Enhancing internet based interventions by improving presentations and the quality of support may thus not be the best way to further improve the effect of internet based interventions. More specific knowledge of the mechanisms that affect outcomes in online psychotherapy is needed.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260069 (URN)10.1016/j.invent.2015.07.005 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-08-14 Laget: 2015-08-14 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Motivation and Treatment Credibility Predicts Dropout, Treatment Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes in an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Motivation and Treatment Credibility Predicts Dropout, Treatment Adherence, and Clinical Outcomes in an Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 18, nr 3, artikkel-id e52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In previous research, variables such as age, education, treatment credibility, and therapeutic alliance have shown to affect patients' treatment adherence and outcome in Internet-based psychotherapy. A more detailed understanding of how such variables are associated with different measures of adherence and clinical outcomes may help in designing more effective online therapy.

    Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate demographical, psychological, and treatment-specific variables that could predict dropout, treatment adherence, and treatment outcomes in a study of online relaxation for mild to moderate stress symptoms.

    Methods: Participant dropout and attrition as well as data from self-report instruments completed before, during, and after the online relaxation program were analyzed. Multiple linear and logistical regression analyses were conducted to predict early dropout, overall attrition, online treatment progress, number of registered relaxation exercises, posttreatment symptom levels, and reliable improvement.

    Results: Dropout was significantly predicted by treatment credibility, whereas overall attrition was associated with reporting a focus on immediate consequences and experiencing a low level of intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Treatment progress was predicted by education level and treatment credibility, whereas number of registered relaxation exercises was associated with experiencing intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Posttreatment stress symptoms were positively predicted by feeling external pressure to participate in the treatment and negatively predicted by treatment credibility. Reporting reliable symptom improvement after treatment was predicted by treatment credibility and therapeutic bond.

    Conclusions: This study confirmed that treatment credibility and a good working alliance are factors associated with successful Internet-based psychotherapy. Further, the study showed that measuring adherence in different ways provides somewhat different results, which underscore the importance of carefully defining treatment adherence in psychotherapy research. Lastly, the results suggest that finding the treatment interesting and engaging may help patients carry through with the intervention and complete prescribed assignments, a result that may help guide the design of future interventions.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279736 (URN)10.2196/jmir.5352 (DOI)000380777800004 ()26957354 (PubMedID)
    Eksternt samarbeid:
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-03 Laget: 2016-03-03 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-30bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: A randomized experiment
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: A randomized experiment
    2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients’ behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate whether motivation variables could predict adherence to a prescribed assignment in face-to-face and online interventions using a psychotherapy analog model. Methods: A total of 100 participants were included in this study and randomized to either a face-to-face or online intervention. Participants in both groups received a psychoeducation session and were given an assignment for the subsequent week. The main outcome measurements were self-reported motivation and adherence to the assignment. Results: Participant in the face-to-face condition reported significantly higher levels of motivation and showed higher levels of adherence compared to participants in the online condition. Adherence to the assignment was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility in the whole sample and especially in the online group. Conclusions: This study shows that intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility are strong predictors of adherence to assignments, especially in online interventions. The results indicate that intrinsic motivation may be partly substituted with face-to-face contact with a therapist. It may also be possible to identify patients with low motivation in online interventions who are at risk of dropping out. Methods for making online interventions more intrinsically motivating without increasing external pressure are needed.

    Emneord
    Adherence, Motivation, Psychoeducation, Internet, Homework assignments
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280799 (URN)10.1186/s40359-017-0172-5 (DOI)28126022 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-15 Laget: 2016-03-15 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-08bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 2.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård. Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Johansson, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Uddling, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: A randomized experiment2017Inngår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients’ behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate whether motivation variables could predict adherence to a prescribed assignment in face-to-face and online interventions using a psychotherapy analog model. Methods: A total of 100 participants were included in this study and randomized to either a face-to-face or online intervention. Participants in both groups received a psychoeducation session and were given an assignment for the subsequent week. The main outcome measurements were self-reported motivation and adherence to the assignment. Results: Participant in the face-to-face condition reported significantly higher levels of motivation and showed higher levels of adherence compared to participants in the online condition. Adherence to the assignment was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility in the whole sample and especially in the online group. Conclusions: This study shows that intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility are strong predictors of adherence to assignments, especially in online interventions. The results indicate that intrinsic motivation may be partly substituted with face-to-face contact with a therapist. It may also be possible to identify patients with low motivation in online interventions who are at risk of dropping out. Methods for making online interventions more intrinsically motivating without increasing external pressure are needed.

  • 3.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Forskargrupper (Inst. för kvinnor och barns hälsa), Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parling, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spännargård, Åsa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden; Linköping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Tobias
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of clinical supervision on supervisees and patients in cognitive behavioral therapy: a systematic review2018Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 206-228Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical supervision is a central part of psychotherapist training but the empirical support for specific supervision theories or features is unclear. The aims of this study were to systematically review the empirical research literature regarding the effects of clinical supervision on therapists’ competences and clinical outcomes within Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). A comprehensive database search resulted in 4103 identified publications. Of these, 133 were scrutinized and in the end 5 studies were included in the review for data synthesis. The five studies were heterogeneous in scope and quality and only one provided firm empirical support for the positive effects of clinical supervision on therapists’ competence. The remaining four studies suffered from methodological weaknesses, but provided some preliminary support that clinical supervision may be beneficiary for novice therapists. No study could show benefits from supervision for patients. The research literature suggests that clinical supervision may have some potential effects on novice therapists’ competence compared to no supervision but the effects on clinical outcomes are still unclear. While bug-in-the-eye live supervision may be more effective than standard delayed supervision, the effects of specific supervision models or features are also unclear. There is a continued need for high-quality empirical studies on the effects of clinical supervision in psychotherapy.

  • 4.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Sewall, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lidholm, Henning
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The meal pattern questionnaire: A psychometric evaluation using the eating disorder examination2016Inngår i: Eating Behaviors, ISSN 1471-0153, E-ISSN 1873-7358, Vol. 21, s. 7-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Meal pattern is an important variable in both obesity treatment and treatment for eating disorders. Momentary assessment and eating diaries are highly valid measurement methods but often cumbersome and not always feasible to use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a self-report instrument for measuring meal patterns.

    Method

    The Pattern of eating item from the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview was adapted to self-report format to follow the same overall structure as the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. The new instrument was named the Meal Patterns Questionnaire (MPQ) and was compared with the EDE in a student sample (n = 105) and an obese sample (n = 111).

    Results

    The individual items of the MPQ and the EDE showed moderate to high correlations (rho = .63–89) in the two samples. Significant differences between the MPQ and EDE were only found for two items in the obese sample. The total scores correlated to a high degree (rho = .87/.74) in both samples and no significant differences were found in this variable.

    Discussion

    The MPQ can provide an overall picture of a person's eating patterns and is a valid way to collect data regarding meal patterns. The MPQ may be a useable tool in clinical practice and research studies when more extensive instruments cannot be used. Future studies should evaluate the MPQ in diverse cultural populations and with more ecological assessment methods.

  • 5.
    Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Movitz, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Whose Side is Technology on Really?: On the Interdependence of Work and Technology.2017Inngår i: An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective / [ed] N. Chmiel, F. Fraccaroli, & M. Sverke, Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2017, 3, s. 121-136Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Special Issue in Honour of Lars-Goran Ost2013Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 259-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, Swedish Inst Disabil Res, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Psychiat Sect, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lars-Goran Ost2013Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 260-264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lars-Goran ost is one of the most eminent clinical researchers in the field of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and a founder of CBT in Sweden. He has recently retired from his position as professor in clinical psychology at Stockholm University, Sweden. In this paper, we sketch a brief description of the body of work by ost. Examples of his innovative and pioneering new treatment methods include the one-session treatment for specific phobias, as well as applied relaxation for a range of anxiety disorders and health conditions. While ost remains active in the field, he has contributed significantly to the development and dissemination of CBT in Sweden as well as in the world.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Sanna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gerbrand, Anton
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Låt inte stress hindra dig!: Hur övningar i perspektivtagande inspirerade av ACT kan öka psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet samt minska stressresponsens skadeverkningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Stressade medarbetare kostar pengar, sänker produktivitet och bidrar till ohälsa. Genom perspektivtagande kan vi ändra förhållningssätt till vårt psykologiska innehåll. ”Självet-som-kontext” ingår i ”psykologisk flexibilitet” och innebär att ta perspektiv till sitt psykologiska innehåll. ”Prosocialt hjälpbeteende” är att ta ett nytt perspektiv till andra. Vår studie undersöker om interventioner i självet-som-kontext och prosocialt hjälpbeteende har effekt på psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet, självupplevd stress samt självet-som-kontext. Även sambandet mellan beroendevariablerna undersöktes. Vi använde en mixad AB-design med intervention. Resultatet visade på minskad självupplevd stress (p=.005) utan effekt av interventionerna (p=.771). Vi fann skillnad mellan interventionerna på psykologisk flexibilitet i arbetslivet (p=.037), men förändringen var inte signifikant (p=.597) Effektstorleken för samtliga skillnader var låg (η2p = .1). Samtliga beroendevariabler korrelerar signifikant (p=<.001).

  • 9.
    Arving, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Livsstil och rehabilitering vid långvarig sjukdom.
    Assmus, Jörg
    Thormodsen, Inger
    Berntsen, Sveinung
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Livsstil och rehabilitering vid långvarig sjukdom.
    Nordin, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Livsstil och rehabilitering vid långvarig sjukdom.
    Early rehabilitation of cancer patients: An individual randomized stepped-care stress-management intervention.2019Inngår i: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 301-308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of an individual stepped-care stress-management intervention for cancer patients on cancer-related stress reactions (intrusion/avoidance), and secondarily on psychological distress (anxiety/depression) and emotional reactivity (impatience/hostility).

    METHODS: Consecutively 291 cancer patients were included in a randomized controlled intervention study. Patients randomized to the intervention who did not report clinically significant stress levels (n = 72) after the first counseling session participated in only one counseling session and a follow-up (Step 1). The remaining patients (n = 66) received an additional three to eight sessions, depending on individual needs (Step 2). The intervention used techniques derived from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) such as daily registration of events and behaviors as well as scheduled behavioral and physical activity, along with short relaxation exercises. The intervention was completed within 26 weeks of inclusion. The Impact of Event Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Everyday Life Stress Scale were used to evaluate effects for 2 years.

    RESULTS: The linear mixed effects model analysis showed a difference between the randomization groups in favor of the intervention for avoidance and intrusion after the first 6 weeks (P = 0.001 and P = 0.003) and for emotional reactivity after 17 weeks (P = 0.007). There were no differences in psychological distress. Decreases in cancer-related stress reactions and depression were noted for the Step 2 intervention.

    CONCLUSIONS: An individual stepped-care stress-management intervention for cancer patients, performed by specially educated health professionals using techniques derived from CBT, seems beneficial for cancer patients and may therefore be a realistic complement to routine cancer care.

  • 10.
    Asplund, Robert Persson
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Dagoo, Jesper
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Fjellstrom, Ida
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Niemi, Linnea
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hansson, Katja
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Zeraati, Forough
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ziuzina, Masha
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Geraedts, Anna
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Clin Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Ljotsson, Brjann
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Internet-based stress management for distressed managers: results from a randomised controlled trial2018Inngår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 75, nr 2, s. 105-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of a guided internet-based stress management intervention (iSMI) among distressed managers compared with a attention control group (AC) with full access to treatment-as-usual.

    Method

    A total sample of 117 distressed managers, mainly employed in the healthcare, IT, communication and educational sector, were randomised to either iSMI (n=59) or an AC group (n=58). The iSMI consisted of eight modules including cognitive behavioural stress management and positive management techniques. Participants received a minimal and weekly guidance from a psychologist or master-level psychology student focusing on support, feedback and adherence to the intervention. Self-report data were assessed at pre, post and 6 months after the intervention. The primary outcome was perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale-14). The secondary outcomes included mental and work-related health outcomes.

    Results

    Participants in the iSMI intervention reported significantly less symptoms of perceived stress (d=0.74, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.19) and burnout (d=0.95, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.37) compared with controls, at postassessment. Significant medium-to-large effect sizes were also found for depression, insomnia and job satisfaction. Longterm effects (6 months) were seen on the mental health outcomes.

    Conclusion

    This is one of the first studies showing that iSMIs can be an effective, accessible and potentially time-effective approach of reducing stress and other mental-related and work-related health symptoms among distressed managers. Future studies are needed addressing distressed managers and the potential of indirect effects on employee stress and satisfaction at work.

  • 11.
    Aucouturier, Jean-Julien
    et al.
    Univ Paris 06, IRCAM, CNRS, STMS,UMR9912, F-74005 Paris, France..
    Johansson, Petter
    Uppsala universitet, Kollegiet för samhällsforskning (SCAS). Lund Univ, Lund Univ Cognit Sci, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Hall, Lars
    Lund Univ, Lund Univ Cognit Sci, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Segnini, Rodrigo
    Siemens Healthcare, Tokyo 1418644, Japan..
    Mercadie, Lolita
    Nippon Telegraph & Tel NTT Corp, Commun Sci Labs, Yokohama, Kanagawa 2430198, Japan.;Univ Bourgogne, CNRS, LEAD, UMR5022, F-21000 Dijon, France..
    Watanabe, Katsumi
    Waseda Univ, Fac Sci & Engn, Dept Intermedia Art & Sci, Tokyo 1698555, Japan.;Univ Tokyo, Res Ctr Adv Sci & Technol, Tokyo 1538904, Japan..
    Covert digital manipulation of vocal emotion alter speakers' emotional states in a congruent direction2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, nr 4, s. 948-953Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that people often exert control over their emotions. By modulating expressions, reappraising feelings, and redirecting attention, they can regulate their emotional experience. These findings have contributed to a blurring of the traditional boundaries between cognitive and emotional processes, and it has been suggested that emotional signals are produced in a goal-directed way and monitored for errors like other intentional actions. However, this interesting possibility has never been experimentally tested. To this end, we created a digital audio platform to covertly modify the emotional tone of participants' voices while they talked in the direction of happiness, sadness, or fear. The result showed that the audio transformations were being perceived as natural examples of the intended emotions, but the great majority of the participants, nevertheless, remained unaware that their own voices were being manipulated. This finding indicates that people are not continuously monitoring their own voice to make sure that it meets a predetermined emotional target. Instead, as a consequence of listening to their altered voices, the emotional state of the participants changed in congruence with the emotion portrayed, which was measured by both self-report and skin conductance level. This change is the first evidence, to our knowledge, of peripheral feedback effects on emotional experience in the auditory domain. As such, our result reinforces the wider framework of self-perception theory: that we often use the same inferential strategies to understand ourselves as those that we use to understand others.

  • 12.
    Axelsson, Anton
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Knowledge elicitation as abstraction of purposive behaviour2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers use knowledge elicitation methods to document expert knowledge for the primary purpose of understanding cognitive processes and with this understanding, technical solutions to resolve human factors issues can be produced. This dissertation offers a novel perspective on knowledge elicitation as an abstraction process. Such a theoretical framework has emerged by consolidating the ecological approach of Brunswikian psychology with the ideas of tacit and personal knowledge of Polanyian epistemology. Traditionally, knowledge elicitation has been considered an extraction process in which knowledge can be readily transferred from one individual to another. Here, this traditional position is rejected in favour of Polanyi’s premise that much of the knowledge individuals possess is tacit in nature, which implies that it cannot be documented easily, expressed in explicit form or explained. In this dissertation, knowledge is characterised as a personal process of knowing, highlighting context as a subjective knowledge structure of personal experiences that is formulated implicitly and indirectly over time through a dynamic interaction with the environment. Therefore, tacit knowledge cannot be articulated or shared; however, learners can be inspired by observing other individuals' purposive (i.e., goal-directed) behaviours and thus shape their own tacit knowledge once they practise the observed skills and develop conceptual understanding through reasoning about the learning process. Knowledge elicitation thereby makes use of observations, questions, or more structured process tracing methods in environments familiar to the observed individuals to elicit purposive behaviour from them. Accordingly, functional descriptions can be produced in this process that further conceptual understanding of a particular domain. Knowledge elicitation procedures are a powerful set of methods for reaching such functional descriptions. Moreover, by understanding the resulting knowledge elicitation data as an abstraction derived from multiple collection points in the same environment, the focus shifts from purely subjective mental constructs to the impact of environmental constraints.

    Delarbeid
    1. Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Eliciting strategies in revolutionary design: exploring the hypothesis of predefined strategy categories
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 101-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing automation in a human-machine system changes the tasks performed by human operators. It is difficult to analyse systems for which there are no experienced operators. This issue emerged within a project with the aim to develop a human–machine interface for a highly automated long-haul vehicle. To handle the problem, a formative strategies analysis method with promises to enable desktop analyses through predefined strategy categories was adopted. The method was used to investigate strategies for controlling the future long haul vehicle by conducting workshops with today's drivers. The method was shown to be a valuable asset in eliciting strategies for revolutionary design.

    Emneord
    Cognitive work analysis, strategies analysis, automation, revolutionary systems design, long haul trucks
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292799 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2017.1278805 (DOI)000428728900006 ()
    Prosjekter
    MODAS
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA, 2012-03678
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-01-27 Laget: 2016-05-09 Sist oppdatert: 2020-01-08bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Collegial verbalisation — the value of an independent observer: an ecological approach
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Collegial verbalisation — the value of an independent observer: an ecological approach
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, ISSN 1463-922X, E-ISSN 1464-536X, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 474-494Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-249009 (URN)10.1080/1463922X.2015.1027322 (DOI)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-04-07 Laget: 2015-04-09 Sist oppdatert: 2019-01-09bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. On the importance of mental time frames: A case for the need of empirical methods to investigate adaptive expertise
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>On the importance of mental time frames: A case for the need of empirical methods to investigate adaptive expertise
    2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, ISSN 2211-3681, E-ISSN 2211-369X, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 51-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352734 (URN)10.1016/j.jarmac.2017.12.004 (DOI)000429489400010 ()
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Transport Administration
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-03-03 Laget: 2018-06-07 Sist oppdatert: 2019-01-09bibliografisk kontrollert
    4. Experience and Visual Expertise: A First Look at Eye Behaviour in Train Traffic Control
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Experience and Visual Expertise: A First Look at Eye Behaviour in Train Traffic Control
    (engelsk)Inngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated differences in visual expertise across levels of proficiency in train traffic control during a simulated scenario. Eye tracking metrics found to correlate with expertise reported in a meta-analysis on visual expertise were used. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the same results found in the meta-study could be obtained in the less controlled and dynamic work environment of train traffic control. Studies of this character are rare and also notoriously difficult to conduct due to a high level of potential noise. Results of the study indicates that eye behaviour seemed to correlate with years of experience also in a more naturalistic setting, but it did not correlate with expert ranking by instructors or a post-hoc measure of proactivity in task performance. A discussion is provided where a delineation of experience and expertise is made in light of differences between eye movement behaviour and cognitive aspects of problem-solving.

    Emneord
    visual expertise, eye tracking, experience, train traffic control, rail human factors
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372696 (URN)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Swedish Transport Administration
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-01-08 Laget: 2019-01-08 Sist oppdatert: 2019-01-09
  • 13.
    Axelsson, Anton
    et al.
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Anderberg, Erik
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Haake, Magnus
    Lund University Cognitive Science.
    Can preschoolers profit from a teachable agent based play-and-learn game in mathematics?2013Inngår i: Artificial Intelligence in Education: 16th International Conference, AIED 2013, Memphis, TN, USA, July 9-13, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] H. C. Lane, K. Yacef, J. Mostow & P. Pavlik, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, Vol. 7926 LNAI, s. 289-298Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of studies carried out on pupils aged 8-14 have shown that teachable agent (TA) based games are beneficial for learning. The present pioneering study aimed to initiate research looking at whether TA based games can be used as far down as preschool age. Around the age of four, theory of mind (ToM) is under development and it is not unlikely that a fully developed ToM is necessary to benefit from a TA’s socially engaging characteristics. 10 preschool children participated in an experiment of playing a mathematics game. The participants playing a TA-version of the game engaged socially with the TA and were not disturbed by his presence. Thus, this study unveils exciting possibilities for further research of the hypothesised educational benefits in store for preschoolers with regard to play-and-learn games employing TAs. 

  • 14. Axford, Nick
    et al.
    Warner, Georgina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin/CHAP.
    Hobbs, Tim
    Heilmann, Sarah
    Raja, Anam
    Berry, Vashti
    Ukoumunne, Obioha C
    Matthews, Justin
    Eames, Tim
    Kallitsoglou, Angeliki
    Blower, Sarah
    Wilkinson, Tom
    Timmons, Luke
    Bjornstad, Gretchen
    The effectiveness of the Inspiring Futures parenting programme in improving behavioural and emotional outcomes in primary school children with behavioural or emotional difficulties: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.2018Inngår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a need to build the evidence base of early interventions promoting children's health and development in the UK. Malachi Specialist Family Support Services ('Malachi') is a voluntary sector organisation based in the UK that delivers a therapeutic parenting group programme called Inspiring Futures to parents of children identified as having behavioural and emotional difficulties. The programme comprises two parts, delivered sequentially: (1) a group-based programme for all parents for 10-12 weeks, and (2) one-to-one sessions with selected parents from the group-based element for up to 12 weeks.

    METHODS/DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate Malachi's Inspiring Futures parenting programme. Participants will be allocated to one of two possible arms, with follow-up measures at 16 weeks (post-parent group programme) and at 32 weeks (post-one-to-one sessions with selected parents). The sample size is 248 participants with a randomisation allocation ratio of 1:1. The intervention arm will be offered the Inspiring Futures programme. The control group will receive services as usual. The aim is to determine the effectiveness of the Inspiring Futures programme on the primary outcome of behavioural and emotional difficulties of primary school children identified as having behavioural or emotional difficulties.

    DISCUSSION: This study will further enhance the evidence for early intervention parenting programmes for child behavioural and emotional problems in the UK.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN32083735 . Retrospectively registered 28 October 2014.

  • 15. Baglioni, Chiara
    et al.
    Altena, Ellemarije
    Bjorvatn, Bjørn
    Blom, Kerstin
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Devoto, Alessandra
    Espie, Colin A
    Frase, Lukas
    Gavriloff, Dimitri
    Tuuliki, Hion
    Hoflehner, Andrea
    Högl, Birgit
    Holzinger, Brigitte
    Järnefelt, Heli
    Jernelöv, Susanna
    Johann, Anna F
    Lombardo, Caterina
    Nissen, Christoph
    Palagini, Laura
    Peeters, Geert
    Perlis, Michael L
    Posner, Donn
    Schlarb, Angelika
    Spiegelhalder, Kai
    Wichniak, Adam
    Riemann, Dieter
    The European Academy for Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia: An initiative of the European Insomnia Network to promote implementation and dissemination of treatment.2019Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, artikkel-id e12967Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia, the most prevalent sleep disorder worldwide, confers marked risks for both physical and mental health. Furthermore, insomnia is associated with considerable direct and indirect healthcare costs. Recent guidelines in the US and Europe unequivocally conclude that cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) should be the first-line treatment for the disorder. Current treatment approaches are in stark contrast to these clear recommendations, not least across Europe, where, if any treatment at all is delivered, hypnotic medication still is the dominant therapeutic modality. To address this situation, a Task Force of the European Sleep Research Society and the European Insomnia Network met in May 2018. The Task Force proposed establishing a European CBT-I Academy that would enable a Europe-wide system of standardized CBT-I training and training centre accreditation. This article summarizes the deliberations of the Task Force concerning definition and ingredients of CBT-I, preconditions for health professionals to teach CBT-I, the way in which CBT-I should be taught, who should be taught CBT-I and to whom CBT-I should be administered. Furthermore, diverse aspects of CBT-I care and delivery were discussed and incorporated into a stepped-care model for insomnia.

  • 16.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Ingemansson Havenvid, Malena
    NTNU, Norway.
    Linné, Åse
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Industriell teknik.
    Öberg, Christina
    Örebro University and The Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Start-ups and networks: Interactive perspectives and a research agenda2019Inngår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 80, s. 58-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces Industrial Marketing Management's special issue on start-ups and networks. To begin with, we stress the relevance of understanding the context wherein entrepreneurship unfolds – a context filled with social, technical and economic connections to which the start-up needs to relate. We also present and confront three network perspectives which bring different insights to the interplay between start-ups and networks: Social Network (SN) theory, the Industrial Marketing & Purchasing (IMP) view, and Actor-Network Theory (ANT). Next, we introduce the 12 papers of this special issue and place them on a continuum covering a start-up's process of network embedding and including the three periods of establishment, consolidation and stabilization. We conclude with a research agenda suggesting five avenues for further research: (1) tracing start-ups' process of network embedding, (2) mapping the connections between the different networks affecting a start-up, (3) grasping the negative effects of networks on start-ups, (4) making longitudinal case studies on start-ups and networks more comparable via common analytical tools, and (5) investigating how policy influences the complex interplay between start-ups and networks.

  • 17.
    Baur, Elena
    et al.
    LWL Massregelvollzugsklin, Herne, Germany..
    Forsman, Mats
    Swedish Prison & Probat Serv, Res & Evaluat Unit, POB 44015, S-10073 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Långström, Niklas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm.
    Response to Joyal's (2016) "Linking Crime to Paraphilia: Be Careful with Label"2017Inngår i: Archives of Sexual Behavior, ISSN 0004-0002, E-ISSN 1573-2800, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 867-868Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Beier, Susanne
    et al.
    Heidelberg University.
    Eib, Constanze
    Stockholm University.
    Oehmann, Verena
    Heidelberg University.
    Fiedler, Peter
    Heidelberg University.
    Fiedler, Klaus
    Heidelberg University.
    Influence of judges’ behaviors on perceived procedural justice2014Inngår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 46-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of judges’ behavior on procedural justice was analyzed in a field study, observing the judges’ behavior during n = 129 trials and assessing the defendants’ and the audiences’ justice perceptions. The observed judicial behavior was unrelated to the defendants’ justice perceptions. However, the more respectful the judge treated the defendants, the fairer the audience perceived the trial. In general, the effect size of the relationship between observational measures and subjective justice ratings was small in comparison to the relationship within defendants’ or audiences’ ratings. There were striking differences in the justice perception between the two data sources, namely defendants and audience. Thus, the source matters and, to avoid a same-source bias, should be taken into account when analyzing justice perceptions.

  • 19.
    Berggren, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, 33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Motivated Social Cognition and Authoritarianism: Is It All About Closed-Mindedness?2019Inngår i: Journal of Individual Differences, ISSN 1614-0001, E-ISSN 2151-2299, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 204-212Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The domain of motivated social cognition includes a variety of concepts dealing with a need to seek structure and avoid ambiguity, and several of these concepts are also powerful predictors of social attitudes, such as authoritarianism. It is possible though that these relations are due to certain facets reoccurring in the different scales. In this paper, we tested the notion that authoritarianism is predicted specifically by rigidity in beliefs (closed-mindedness), rather than broader cognitive styles. Thus, we initially identified items in the motivated social cognition scales that are specifically measuring closed-mindedness. These items included the closed-mindedness facet of the need for closure scale and items from intolerance of ambiguity and need for cognition. We used these items to predict right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, and their common factor authoritarianism (generalized). In line with our prediction, two studies showed that the motivated social cognition scales did not provide a significant prediction of authoritarianism beyond the closed-mindedness items. We conclude that the relation between motivated social cognition and authoritarianism is captured entirely by the former's closed-mindedness component.

  • 20.
    Berlin, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Development psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Development psychology.
    Response inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems among preschool children2002Inngår i: Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology, ISSN 1537-4416, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 242-251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigated the relation among response inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems in a nonclinical sample of 115 preschool children, using 2 different types of go/no-go tasks well as a Stroop-like task. In line with the assumption that hyperactivity is related to disinhibition, the results showed that it was the measures of response inhibition, and not other performance measures, that were related to teacher ratings of hyperactivity. There was also a significant relation between response inhibition and conduct problems. Interestingly, the correlation between response inhibition and conduct problems was not significant when partialling out the effect of hyperactivity, whereas the correlation between inhibition and hyperactivity did remain significant when controlling for conduct problems. Although the association between inhibition, hyperactivity, and conduct problems appeared to be partly different for boys and girls, these differences were not statistically significant.

  • 21.
    Berna, Chantal
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Lang, Tamara J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Goodwin, Guy M.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Developing a measure of interpretation bias for depressed mood: An ambiguous scenarios test2011Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 349-354Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The tendency to interpret ambiguous everyday situations in a relatively negative manner (negative interpretation bias) is central to cognitive models of depression. Limited tools are available to measure this bias, either experimentally or in the clinic. This study aimed to develop a pragmatic interpretation bias measure using an ambiguous scenarios test relevant to depressed mood (the AST-D).(1) In Study 1, after a pilot phase (N = 53), the AST-D was presented via a web-based survey (N = 208). Participants imagined and rated each AST-D ambiguous scenario. As predicted, higher dysphoric mood was associated with lower pleasantness ratings (more negative bias), independent of mental imagery measures. In Study 2, self-report ratings were compared with objective ratings of participants' imagined outcomes of the ambiguous scenarios (N = 41). Data were collected in the experimental context of a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner. Consistent with subjective bias scores, independent judges rated more sentences as negatively valenced for the high versus low dysphoric group. Overall, results suggest the potential utility of the AST-D in assessing interpretation bias associated with depressed mood. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Berna, Chantal
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Warneford Hosp, Dept Psychiat, EPACT Grp, Oxford OX3 7JX, England;Univ Oxford, Ctr Funct Magnet Resonance Imaging Brain FMRIB, Dept Clin Neurol, Oxford OX3 7JX, England;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Anaesthet, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Vincent, Katy
    Univ Oxford, Ctr Funct Magnet Resonance Imaging Brain FMRIB, Dept Clin Neurol, Oxford OX3 7JX, England;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Anaesthet, Oxford OX3 7JX, England;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, John Radcliffe Hosp, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Moore, Jane
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Obstet & Gynaecol, John Radcliffe Hosp, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Tracey, Irene
    Univ Oxford, Ctr Funct Magnet Resonance Imaging Brain FMRIB, Dept Clin Neurol, Oxford OX3 7JX, England;Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Anaesthet, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Goodwin, Guy M.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Presence of Mental Imagery Associated with Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Pilot Study2011Inngår i: Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.), ISSN 1526-2375, E-ISSN 1526-4637, Vol. 12, nr 7, s. 1086-1093Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To ascertain whether a small sample of patients with chronic pelvic pain experienced any pain-related cognitions in the form of mental images. Patients. Ten women with chronic pelvic pain consecutively referred from a tertiary referral center by the physicians in charge of their treatment. Outcome measures. An interview was used to determine the presence, emotional valence, content, and impact of cognitions about pain in the form of Inventory (BPI), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (SUIS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed. Results. In a population of patients with a prolonged duration of pain and high distress, all patients reported experiencing cognitions about pain in the form of mental images. For each patient, the most significant image was both negative in valence and intrusive. The associated emotional-behavioral pattern could be described within a cognitive behavioral therapy framework. Eight patients also reported coping imagery. Conclusion. Negative pain-related cognitions in the form of intrusive mental imagery were reported by women with chronic pelvic pain. Targeting such imagery has led to interesting treatment innovation in the emotional disorders. Thus, imagery, hitherto neglected in pain phenomenology, could provide a novel target for cognitive behavioral therapy in chronic pain. These exciting yet preliminary results require replication and extension in a broader population of patients with chronic pain.

  • 23.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Griep, Yannick
    University of Calgary, Canada; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    How do job insecurity and organizational justice relate to depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties: a multilevel study on immediate and prolonged effects in swedish workers2019Inngår i: Psychologie Appliquee: Revue Internationale, ISSN 0269-994X, E-ISSN 1464-0597Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on stress and justice literature, we argue that perceptions of job insecurity induce feelings of low procedural justice, which has immediate and prolonged negative effects on health (depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties). Moreover, we explore whether the strength of the job insecurity–justice relationship differs between individuals as a function of their average level of job insecurity over time. Finally, we explore whether the procedural justice–health relationship differs between individuals as a function of variability in justice perceptions over time. We analyzed Swedish panel data from permanent workers over four consecutive waves (with a two‐year time lag between waves) using multilevel analysis, separating within‐ and between‐person variance. Results showed that job insecurity associated negatively with procedural justice at the same time point for all waves. Prolonged effects were less stable. We found immediate (but not prolonged) indirect effects of job insecurity on health outcomes via procedural justice. Average levels in job insecurity over time moderated the within‐person job insecurity–justice relationship. However, variability in procedural justice over time did not moderate the within‐person justice–health relationship. In conclusion, disentangling within‐ and between‐person variability of job insecurity and justice perceptions contributes to the understanding of health effects.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-09-10 00:00
  • 24.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Family Check-Up and iComet: a Randomized Controlled Trial in Sweden2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of online administered parental Strengths and Difficulties Questionnarie (SDQ), and normative data based on combined online and paper-and-pencil administration2013Inngår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To examine the psychometric properties of the online administered parental version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and to provide parental norms from a nationwide Swedish sample.

    Methods

    A total of 1443 parents from of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years completed the SDQ online or as usual (i.e., using paper-and-pencil).

    Results

    The SDQ subscales obtained from the online administration showed high internal consistency (polychoric ordinal alpha), and confirmatory factor analysis of the SDQ five factor model resulted in excellent fit. The Total Difficulties score of the SDQ and its other subscales were significantly related to the Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) rating scale. Norms for the parent version of SDQ obtained from the Internet were identical to those collected using paper-and-pencil. They were thus combined and are presented sorted by child gender and age.

    Conclusions

    The SDQ seems to be a reliable and valid instrument given its high internal consistency, clear factor structure and high correlation with other instruments capturing the intended constructs. Findings in the present study support its use for online data collection, as well as using norms obtained through paper-and-pencil-administration even when SDQ has been administrated online.

  • 26.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institutet.
    The Importance of Parental Knowledge2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor parenting is an important risk factor for development of conduct problems in children and adolescents. Inadequate parental monitoring is an example of a negative parenting behavior that has been shown to predict child conduct problems Findings from previous research on parental monitoring has been mixed due to the use of inconsistent and vague definitions. However, later research suggests that it is "parental knowledge" rather than "parental monitoring" that is associated with child and adolescent conduct problems. In the present study, we used an existing questionnaire that measures three possible sources of parental knowledge: child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control. Our aims were to 1) examine the factor structure of a parenting monitoring/knowledge scale, 2) analyze if a high level of child disclosure and parental control as well as a low level of parental solicitation were associated to low conduct problems, 3) examine if a measure of family warmth correlates with child disclosure, and 4) whether parental knowledge mediates the relation between parental warmth and conduct problems. Parents of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years old were asked to complete a survey including these different scales. A total of 1446 parents completed the questionnaires. Brief description Analysis of the importance of parental knowledge regarding child disruptive behavior using an existing questionnaire that measures parental knowledge through three possible sources: child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control.

  • 27.
    Blackwell, Simon E.
    et al.
    Med Res Council Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, 15 Chaucer Rd, Cambridge CB2 7EF, England.
    Browning, Michael
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford, England.
    Mathews, Andrew
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Psychol, Davis, CA 95616 USA;Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, London, England.
    Pictet, Arnaud
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford, England;Univ Geneva, Dept Psychol, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Welch, James
    Univ Oxford, Dept Comp Sci, Oxford, England.
    Davies, Jim
    Univ Oxford, Dept Comp Sci, Oxford, England.
    Watson, Peter
    Med Res Council Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, 15 Chaucer Rd, Cambridge CB2 7EF, England.
    Geddes, John R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Med Res Council Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, 15 Chaucer Rd, Cambridge CB2 7EF, England;Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford, England.
    Positive Imagery-Based Cognitive Bias Modification as a Web-Based Treatment Tool for Depressed Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial2015Inngår i: Clinical Psychological Science, ISSN 2167-7026, E-ISSN 2167-7034, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 91-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is a global health problem requiring treatment innovation. Targeting neglected cognitive aspects may provide a useful route. We tested a cognitive-training paradigm using positive mental imagery (imagery cognitive bias modification, imagery CBM), developed via experimental psychopathology studies, in a randomized controlled trial. Training was delivered via the Internet to 150 individuals with current major depression. Unexpectedly, there was no significant advantage for imagery CBM compared with a closely matched control for depression symptoms as a whole in the full sample. In exploratory analyses, compared with the control, imagery CBM significantly improved anhedonia over the intervention and improved depression symptoms as a whole for those participants with fewer than five episodes of depression and those who engaged to a threshold level of imagery. Results suggest avenues for improving imagery CBM to inform low-intensity treatment tools for depression. Anhedonia may be a useful treatment target for future work.

  • 28.
    Blackwell, Simon E.
    et al.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Bochum, Germany;MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden;MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Brightening the Day With Flashes of Positive Mental Imagery: A Case Study of an Individual With Depression2017Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Psychology, ISSN 0021-9762, E-ISSN 1097-4679, Vol. 73, nr 5, s. 579-589Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a case example of an individual with current major depression engaging in a positive mental imagery intervention, specifically a computerized cognitive training paradigm involving repeated practice in generating positive imagery in response to ambiguous scenarios. The patient's reported experience of the intervention suggests the potential of the positive imagery intervention to "brighten" everyday life via promoting involuntary "flashes" of positive mental imagery in situations related to the scenarios, with associated beneficial effects on positive affect, future expectations, and behavior. Enhancing this aspect of the training-i.e., involuntary positive imagery in contexts where it is adaptive-may hold particular promise for reducing anhedonic symptoms of depression. Developing simple computerized interventions to increase the experience of positive mental imagery in everyday life could therefore provide a useful addition to the drive to improve treatment outcomes. (C) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 29. Blom, Eva Henje
    et al.
    Serlachius, Eva
    Chesney, Margaret A
    Olsson, Erik M G
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Psykosocial onkologi och stödjande vård.
    Adolescent girls with emotional disorders have a lower end-tidal CO2 and increased respiratory rate compared with healthy controls2014Inngår i: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 412-418Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyperventilation has been linked to emotional distress in adults. This study investigates end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2 ), respiratory rate (RR), and heart rate variability (HRV) in adolescent girls with emotional disorders and healthy controls. ETCO2 , RR, HRV, and ratings of emotional symptom severity were collected in adolescent female psychiatric patients with emotional disorders (n = 63) and healthy controls (n = 62). ETCO2 and RR differed significantly between patients and controls. ETCO2 , HR, and HRV were significant independent predictors of group status, that is, clinical or healthy, while RR was not. ETCO2 and RR were significantly related to emotional symptom severity and to HRV in the total group. ETCO2 and RR were not affected by use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It is concluded that emotional dysregulation is related to hyperventilation in adolescent girls. Respiratory-based treatments may be relevant to investigate in future research.

  • 30.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Free Univ Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Leek, Linda
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Matson, Lisa
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Browning, Michael
    Univ Oxford, Funct MRI Brain Ctr, Oxford, England.
    MacLeod, Colin
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Psychol, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Behav Sci & Learning, Linkoping, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Psychiat Sect, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Attention Bias Modification for Social Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Comparison of Training towards Negative and Training Towards Positive Cues2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 9, artikkel-id e71760Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biases in attention processes are thought to play a crucial role in the aetiology and maintenance of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). The goal of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a programme intended to train attention towards positive cues and a programme intended to train attention towards negative cues. In a randomised, controlled, double-blind design, the impact of these two training conditions on both selective attention and social anxiety were compared to that of a control training condition. A modified dot probe task was used, and delivered via the internet. A total of 129 individuals, diagnosed with SAD, were randomly assigned to one of these three conditions and took part in a 14-day programme with daily training/control sessions. Participants in all three groups did not on average display an attentional bias prior to the training. Critically, results on change in attention bias implied that significantly differential change in selective attention to threat was not detected in the three conditions. However, symptoms of social anxiety reduced significantly from pre- to follow-up-assessment in all three conditions (d(within) = 0.63-1.24), with the procedure intended to train attention towards threat cues producing, relative to the control condition, a significantly greater reduction of social fears. There were no significant differences in social anxiety outcome between the training condition intended to induce attentional bias towards positive cues and the control condition. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT where a condition intended to induce attention bias to negative cues yielded greater emotional benefits than a control condition. Intriguingly, changes in symptoms are unlikely to be by the mechanism of change in attention processes since there was no change detected in bias per se. Implications of this finding for future research on attention bias modification in social anxiety are discussed. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01463137

  • 31.
    Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Norra Stationsgatan 69,V 7, S-11364 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Inst Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Social Sustainabil, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenfors, Cecilia
    Univ Chicago, Dept Psychol, Chicago, IL 60637 USA;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Osika, Walter
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Norra Stationsgatan 69,V 7, S-11364 Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Inst Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Social Sustainabil, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Writer's Block Revisited Micro-Phenomenological Case Study on the Blocking Influence of an Internalized Voice2018Inngår i: Journal of consciousness studies, ISSN 1355-8250, E-ISSN 2051-2201, Vol. 25, nr 3-4, s. 9-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Writer's block, a common form of procrastination, can have a serious negative impact on an individual's academic performance. In this case study, a student with writer's block was interviewed and asked to perform body movements that represented the process of writing a master's thesis. A micro-phenomenological method was used to investigate the student's experience of writer's block and the role of an inner voice. The analysis unveiled the process by which the inner voice impeded the student, i.e. how the student perceived a set of mental images, movements, and sensations in relation to the 'inner voice'. The findings suggest that non-verbal modes of learning - through movement - may be applied productively to overcome writer's block and other forms of procrastination in broader areas such as research writing. Moreover, the micro-phenomenological method, together with the interpretation of video recordings, can reveal valuable information regarding this learning process in higher education.

  • 32.
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia: How, for Whom and What about Acceptance?2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep is essential for survival but a significant minority of the adult population are dissatisfied with their sleep, and 6-10% meet the criteria for insomnia disorder, characterised by difficulties falling asleep at bedtime, waking up in the middle of the night or too early in the morning, and daytime symptoms. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), an evidence-based sleep-focused intervention, has been suggested as the treatment of choice for chronic insomnia. However, access to specialised sleep therapists is sparse, and a service delivery model based on the principles of ‘stepped care’ has been proposed. Even though CBT-I is shown to be effective, there is a need to continue the development of cognitive behavioural treatments for insomnia. As a complement to traditional interventions, the potential value of acceptance, that is, to make an active choice of openness towards psychological experiences, has been recognized. However, it has not yet been systematically investigated, and specific instruments for studying acceptance in insomnia are lacking.

    The present thesis is based on three studies: Study I showed that manual-guided CBT for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel has a significant effect on perceived insomnia severity, sleep onset latency and wake time after sleep onset. Study II demonstrated that non-responders in Study I reported shorter sleep time at baseline than did responders, a notion that may help select patients for this type of low-end intervention in a stepped care treatment approach. Study III aimed to develop a new assessment instrument for studying acceptance of insomnia, the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), resulting in an eight-item questionnaire with two factors; the first being Activity Engagement, persisting with normal activities even when sleep is unsatisfactory, and the second involving Willingness, avoiding fighting and trying to control sleep problems.

    In conclusion, the present thesis demonstrates that it is feasible to treat patients with insomnia using CBT-I administrated by ordinary primary care personnel in general practice, and that those with relatively longer initial sleep duration benefit most from treatment, enabling allocation to relevant treatment intensity. In addition, acceptance of sleep difficulties may be quantified using the SPAQ.

    Delarbeid
    1. Manual-guided cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel in general medical practice: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Manual-guided cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel in general medical practice: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 688-696Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic insomnia is a prevalent problem in primary health care and tends to be more serious than insomnia in the general population. These patients often obtain little benefit from hypnotics, and are frequently open to exploring various options for medical treatment. However, most general practitioners (GPs) are unable to provide such options. Several meta-analyses have shown that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia results in solid improvements on sleep parameters, and a few studies have demonstrated promising results for nurse-administered CBT in primary care. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness of manual-guided CBT for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary care personnel in general medical practice with unselected patients. Sixty-six primary care patients with insomnia were randomized to CBT or a waiting-list control group. The CBT group improved significantly more than the control group using the Insomnia Severity Index as the outcome. The effect size was high. Sleep diaries showed a significant, medium-sized treatment effect for sleep onset latency and wake time after sleep onset. However, for all measures there is a marked deterioration at follow-up assessments. Almost half of the treated subjects (47%) reported a clinically relevant treatment effect directly after treatment. It is concluded that this way of delivering treatment may be cost-effective.

    Emneord
    cognitive-behavioural therapy, non-pharmacological, sleep disorder, treatment
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212305 (URN)10.1111/jsr.12067 (DOI)000326884000012 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-12-10 Laget: 2013-12-09 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Initial Sleep Time Predicts Success in Manual-Guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Initial Sleep Time Predicts Success in Manual-Guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Behavioural Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1540-2002, E-ISSN 1540-2010, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 378-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive behavioral therapy produces significant and long-lasting improvement for individuals with insomnia, but treatment resources are scarce. A "stepped care" approach has therefore been proposed, but knowledge is limited on how to best allocate patients to different treatment steps. In this study, 66 primary-care patients with insomnia attended a low-end treatment step: manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary-care personnel. Based on clinically significant treatment effects, subjects were grouped into treatment responders or nonresponders. Baseline data were analyzed to identify predictors for treatment success. Long total sleep time at baseline assessment was the only statistically significant predictor for becoming a responder, and sleep time may thus be important to consider before enrolling patients in low-end treatments.

    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-266762 (URN)10.1080/15402002.2015.1007995 (DOI)000374971100003 ()26323054 (PubMedID)
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-11-10 Laget: 2015-11-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-01bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire
    Vise andre…
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, nr 11, s. 1815-1822Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales "Activity Engagement" and "Willingness", is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia.

    Emneord
    acceptance; experiential avoidance; insomnia; principal component analysis; psychometric evaluation; scale construction; Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire; willingness
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-259064 (URN)10.5665/sleep.5170 (DOI)000363740100021 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-07-25 Laget: 2015-07-25 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 33.
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Anestesiologi och intensivvård.
    Psykologiska aspekter vid långvarig smärta2019Inngår i: Smärta i klinisk praxis / [ed] Annica Rhodin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, Andra upplaganKapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jernelöv, Susanna
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    McCracken, Lance
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Measuring Acceptance of Sleep Difficulties: The Development of the Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire2015Inngår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, nr 11, s. 1815-1822Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Acceptance may be an important therapeutic process in sleep medicine, but valid psychometric instruments measuring acceptance related to sleep difficulties are lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of acceptance in insomnia, and to examine its factor structure as well as construct validity. Design: In a cross-sectional design, a principal component analysis for item reduction was conducted on a first sample (A) and a confirmatory factor analysis on a second sample (B). Construct validity was tested on a combined sample (C). Setting: Questionnaire items were derived from a measure of acceptance in chronic pain, and data were gathered through screening or available from pretreatment assessments in four insomnia treatment trials, administered online, via bibliotherapy and in primary care. Participants: Adults with insomnia: 372 in sample A and 215 in sample B. Sample C (n = 820) included sample A and B with another 233 participants added. Measures: Construct validity was assessed through relations with established acceptance and sleep scales. Results: The principal component analysis presented a two-factor solution with eight items, explaining 65.9% of the total variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the solution. Acceptance of sleep problems was more closely related to subjective symptoms and consequences of insomnia than to diary description of sleep, or to acceptance of general private events. Conclusions: The Sleep Problem Acceptance Questionnaire (SPAQ), containing the subscales "Activity Engagement" and "Willingness", is a valid tool to assess acceptance of insomnia.

  • 35.
    Bothelius, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Svirsky, Liv
    God natt!: om små och stora barns sömn2019 (oppl. Första utgåvan)Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 36.
    Brav, Agneta
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Andersson, Kin
    Mälaralen University.
    Lantz, Annika
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Group initiative and self-organizational activities in industrial work groups2009Inngår i: European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 1359-432X, E-ISSN 1464-0643, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 347-377Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous work groups are involved in goal setting and planning and hence can define their jobs and the outcome idiosyncratically. Our interest lies in how job design restricts or creates possibilities for groups to redefine their work and thus go beyond formal requirements. The aim was to test a model of the relationships between dimensions of job design, group processes, group initiative, and self-organizational activities. The results are based on work task analyses and questionnaires administered to 31 work groups at four Swedish industrial companies. The theoretical input-process-output model received substantial support. Dimensions of job design affect whether a group, through collective reflexivity, can redefine work and proactively create conditions and organize work so that uncertainty can be handled and new tasks mastered. Group processes such as cooperation and social support enhance group initiative to achieve such meaningful change. In this study, reflexivity does not impact on group initiative, but does explain the major amount of variance in self-organizational activities. Work task analyses can be a useful tool for providing groups with the prerequisites for self-organizational activities. We believe these to be essential for the groups' capacity to be involved in the innovation process from idea to finished product.

  • 37.
    Broberg, Anders
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstads universitet.
    Appell, Petra
    Karlstads universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Cater, Åsa
    Örebro universitet.
    Draxler, Helena
    Karlstads universitet.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Iversen, Clara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Utveckling av bedömningsinstrument och stödinsatser för våldsutsatta barn2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Browning, Michael
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Grol, Maud
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Ly, Verena
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Goodwin, Guy M.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Harmer, Catherine J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Using an Experimental Medicine Model to Explore Combination Effects of Pharmacological and Cognitive Interventions for Depression and Anxiety2011Inngår i: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 36, nr 13, s. 2689-2697Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive therapies are effective in the treatment of anxiety and depression. Previous research suggests that both forms of treatments may work by altering cognitive biases in the processing of affective information. The current study assessed the effects of combining an SSRI with a cognitive intervention on measures of affective processing bias and resilience to external challenge. A total of 62 healthy participants were randomly assigned to receive either 7 days of citalopram (20 mg) or placebo capsules while also completing either an active or a control version of a computerized cognitive bias training task. After treatment, standard measures of affective processing bias were collected. Participants' resilience to external stress was also tested by measuring the increase in negative symptoms induced by a negative mood induction. Participants who received both citalopram and the active cognitive bias training task showed a smaller alteration in emotional memory and categorization bias than did those who received either active intervention singly. The degree to which memory for negative information was altered by citalopram predicted participants' resistance to the negative mood induction. These results suggest that co-administration of an SSRI and a cognitive training intervention can reduce the effectiveness of either treatment alone in terms of anxiety-and depression-relevant emotional processing. More generally, the findings suggest that pinpointing the cognitive actions of treatments may inform future development of combination strategies in mental health. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 2689-2697; doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.159; published online 10 August 2011

  • 39.
    Browning, Michael
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Harmer, Catherine J.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    The modification of attentional bias to emotional information: A review of the techniques, mechanisms, and relevance to emotional disorders2010Inngår i: Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1530-7026, E-ISSN 1531-135X, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 8-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A negative bias in the deployment of attention to emotional stimuli is commonly found in both anxiety and depression. Recent work has highlighted that such biases are causally related to emotional vulnerability, suggesting that interventions that ameliorate them may be therapeutic. Here, we review the evidence that attentional bias can be modified using both pharmacological and psychological interventions. We highlight the behavioral and neuroimaging studies that suggest that these interventions impact upon attention via alteration of distinct neural mechanisms. Specifically, pharmacological interventions appear to influence the initial deployment of attention via an effect on the amygdala-based stimulus appraisal system, whereas psychological interventions influence attention at later time points and may alter activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex. Finally, we suggest a conceptual framework that embraces both pharmacological and psychological approaches and consider the possible implications of this work for future research and treatment development.

  • 40.
    Buhrman, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Syk, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Burvall, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Individualized Guided Internet-delivered Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Chronic Pain Patients with Comorbid Depression and Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial2015Inngår i: The Clinical Journal of Pain, ISSN 0749-8047, E-ISSN 1536-5409, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 504-516Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression and anxiety are commonly seen in patients with chronic pain which affects the patient´s daily life functioning. Although considerable attention has been devoted to explain why depression and anxiety are frequent comorbid with chronic pain, little empirical work has been conducted on interventions that target depression and anxiety and chronic pain. The present study was designed to test an individualized cognitive-behavioral treatment delivered through the internet for persons with chronic pain and emotional distress. A total of 52 patients with chronic pain and depression were included and randomized to either treatment for 8 weeks or to a control group that participated in a moderated online discussion forum. Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant decreases regarding depressive symptoms and pain disability in the treatment group. Results on the primary outcomes of depression and anxiety were in favour of the treatment group. Reductions were also found on pain catastrophizing. One year follow-up showed maintenance of improvements. We conclude that an individualized guided internet-delivered treatment based on cognitive behaviour therapy can be effective for persons with chronic pain comorbid emotional distress.

  • 41.
    Bujacz, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eib, Constanze
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Academy of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden ; Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Not All Are Equal: A Latent Profile Analysis of Well-Being among the Self-Employed2019Inngår i: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a person-centered approach to distinguish between subpopulations of self-employed individuals using multidimensional well-being indicators. Data were obtained from European Social Survey including a sample of 3461 self-employed individuals from 29 European countries. The analysis has empirically identified six distinct profiles named ‘unhappy’, ‘languishing’, ‘happy’, ‘satisfied’, ‘passionate’, and ‘flourishing’. The profiles were associated with significant differences in well-being, health and work-related variables. The results highlight the heterogeneity of the self-employed population, and describe the complex—both hedonic and eudaimonic—character of the well-being concept in this population.

  • 42.
    Burell, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Norlund, Fredrika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Psykosocial onkologi och stödjande vård.
    Olsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Psykosocial onkologi och stödjande vård.
    Pavulans, Paul
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Psykosocial onkologi och stödjande vård.
    Kurt, Svärdsudd
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Affective Outcomes in the SUPRIM Stress Management Program for Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Interheart Study showed that psychosocial stress increased the risk of myocardial infarction (OR 2.67). The Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary healthcare project (SUPRIM) tested whether stress management after myocardial infarction could decrease risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. SUPRIM was a randomized controlled trial in which CHD patients attended a CBT group stress management program. During 94 months of follow-up there was a 45% reduction of recurrent myocardial infarctions (MI) in the intervention group. There were no differences between intervention and control patientes in standard risk factors. Thus, we assumed that psychological mechanisms could explain the effects on hard endpoints.

    Method

    362 MI patients were assessed by a package of self-rating psychometric instrument, and this paper examined whether hostility, time urgency, depression, somatic anxiety, and vital exhaustion decreased more in the intervention group than in the control group. Data collected from 5 points of measurement over 24 months were analyzed with multi-linear regression.

    Results

    The intervention had a significant effect on hostility, time urgency, and somatic anxiety. Vital exhaustion and depression scores showed no differences. There was a significant relationship between attendance rate and decrease of hostility, but no association between attendance rate and levels of vital exhaustion or depression.

    Conclusions

    Treatment effects were demonstrated in measures that assessed emotional reactivity. These changes are possibly linked to physiological and hormonal mechanisms. However, it is to a considerable degree still unknown why and how the stress management intervention impacts disease endpoints.

  • 43.
    Bäckelie, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Leadership Style and Readiness Requirement in Job Advertisements: Exploring gender differences in wording appeal within technological corporate culture2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational leadership is predominantly male, even after decades of effort to even out this gap. The gender gap in corporal leadership was here assessed by investigating the possible effect of job advertisement configuration. Requesting a democratic or autocratic leadership style and high or low level of readiness for the leadership position in job advertisements was hypothesized to affect their appreciated appeal differently depending on the reader’s gender. A democratic leadership style and a low level of readiness requirement was thought to appeal more to women. Additionally, an effect of nearness to a manager of the same sex on the appreciated likelihood of applying for a leadership position was investigated, in line with the theory of same-sex role models. Seventy-nine male and seventy-seven female employees from a technical department within a global industrial company were included in the study where they rated manipulated company job advertisements’ appeal and filled out a survey. The results revealed no gender difference in the employees’ appeal ratings depending on the two variables. No difference in likelihood of applying for a leadership position was found, regardless of same-sex managerial nearness. The unique characteristics of the sample used induces a discussion of when advertisement wording matters and matters not.

  • 44.
    Cernvall, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Psykosocial onkologi och stödjande vård.
    Carlbring, Per
    Ljungman, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Psykosocial onkologi och stödjande vård.
    Ljungman, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Pediatrik.
    von Essen, Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Klinisk psykologi i hälso- och sjukvård.
    Guided Self-help via the Internet for Parents of Children Recently Diagnosed with Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45.
    Clarke, Patrick J. F.
    et al.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Psychol, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia.
    Nanthakumar, Shenooka
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Psychol, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia.
    Notebaert, Lies
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Psychol, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Blackwell, Simon E.
    MRC, Cognit & Brain Sci Unit, Cambridge, England.
    MacLeod, Colin
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Psychol, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia;Univ Babes Bolyai, Sch Psychol, R-3400 Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Simply Imagining Sunshine, Lollipops and Rainbows Will Not Budge the Bias: The Role of Ambiguity in Interpretive Bias Modification2014Inngår i: Cognitive Therapy and Research, ISSN 0147-5916, E-ISSN 1573-2819, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 120-131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Imagery-based interpretive bias modification (CBM-I) involves repeatedly imagining scenarios that are initially ambiguous before being resolved as either positive or negative in the last word/s. While the presence of such ambiguity is assumed to be important to achieve change in selective interpretation, it is also possible that the act of repeatedly imagining positive or negative events could produce such change in the absence of ambiguity. The present study sought to examine whether the ambiguity in imagery-based CBM-I is necessary to elicit change in interpretive bias, or, if the emotional content of the imagined scenarios is sufficient to produce such change. An imagery-based CBM-I task was delivered to participants in one of four conditions, where the valence of imagined scenarios were either positive or negative, and the ambiguity of the scenario was either present (until the last word/s) or the ambiguity was absent (emotional valence was evident from the start). Results indicate that only those who received scenarios in which the ambiguity was present acquired an interpretive bias consistent with the emotional valence of the scenarios, suggesting that the act of imagining positive or negative events will only influence patterns of interpretation when the emotional ambiguity is a consistent feature.

  • 46.
    Covey, Judith
    et al.
    Durham University.
    Horwell, Claire J.
    Durham University.
    Ogawa, Ryoichi
    Kagoshima University.
    Baba, Takeshi
    Kagoshima University.
    Nishimura, Satoru
    Kagoshima University.
    Hagino, Makoto
    Kagoshima University.
    Merli, Claudia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi. Durham University.
    Community perceptions of protective practices to prevent ash exposures around sakurajima volcano, Japan2020Inngår i: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, E-ISSN 2212-4209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst, globally, volcanic eruptions are unusual and cause anxiety in affected communities, people living near Sakurajima volcano, Japan are exposed to frequent ashfall with little-to-no official intervention. As part of a wider project, this study assessed how this apparently normalised experience affects residents’ perceptions of health impacts, and whether it is important to protect themselves from ash inhalation. A survey of 749 residents found little evidence of normalisation. Respondents identified a range of symptoms (including eye irritation, low mood, sore throat, cough) perceived to be associated with ash exposure, with 67% experiencing at least one symptom. Only 6% of respondents thought it was not important to protect themselves, and path analysis showed that protection was particularly important to older people and those with existing respiratory disease, who were more likely to rate ash as harmful or associate symptoms with exposures. Therefore, some of the most vulnerable sectors of this community are adversely impacted by ash. However, despite the local government recommending protective measures, most respondents said they had not received advice, but would like to. They took actions that they thought were effective (keeping windows/doors closed) or were easily available (wearing surgical masks). Other research has shown that industry-certified (e.g., N95) masks are more effective than surgical masks. Here, respondents recognised this, but high-efficiency masks were rarely used, probably due to unavailability. The results demonstrate a need to provide ash-affected communities with targeted, evidence-based information on options for effective protection, coupled with ensuring that communities have access to suggested interventions.

  • 47.
    Daivadanamn, Meena
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för ABM.
    Dahl, Jo-Anne
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Empowering towards healthy behaviours2016Inngår i: Ending Childhood Obesity: Actions through health and food equity, Uppsala University, 2016, s. 34-39Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 48.
    Dakanalis, Antonios
    et al.
    Univ Pavia, Dept Brain & Behav Sci, Pavia, Italy.;Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy..
    Clerici, Massimo
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy..
    Caslini, Manuela
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy..
    Gaudio, Santino
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Funktionell farmakologi. Univ Campus Biomed, Ctr Integrated Res, Rome, Italy..
    Serino, Silvia
    Catholic Univ, Dept Psychol, Milan, Italy..
    Riva, Giuseppe
    Catholic Univ, Dept Psychol, Milan, Italy.;Ist Auxol Italiano, Appl Technol Neuropsychol Lab, Milan, Italy..
    Carra, Giuseppe
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy.;UCL, Fac Brain Sci, Div Psychiat, London, England..
    Predictors of initiation and persistence of recurrent binge eating and inappropriate weight compensatory behaviors in college men2016Inngår i: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 49, nr 6, s. 581-590Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveThe transition to college is considered as a risk period for the development of behavioral symptoms of eating disorders (BSEDs) and some evidence suggests that, amongst men, these symptoms occurring on a regular basis remain relatively stable over the college period. Nevertheless, little is known about factors associated with persistent engagement in and initiation of recurrent (or regular) binge eating and inappropriate weight compensatory behaviors in this population. The objective of this report was to address these research gaps. MethodData were examined from 2,555 male first-year college students who completed an assessment of potential vulnerability factors and BSEDs at the beginning of the autumn semester (baseline) and nine months later (end of the spring semester; follow-up). ResultsElevated negative affectivity, body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, and lower self-esteem at baseline were predictive of persistent engagement in regular binge eating and four compensatory behaviors (self-induced vomiting, laxative/diuretic abuse, fasting, exercise) at follow-up, as well as initiation of all these behaviors occurring regularly (i.e., at least weekly for 3 months). Self-objectification (thinking and monitoring the body's outward appearance from a third-person perspective) emerged as the largest contributor of both the initiation and persistence of all behavioral symptoms. DiscussionData emphasize that the same psychological factors underlie initiation and persistence of recurrent BSEDs and should shape the focus of future interventions for college men.

  • 49.
    Day, S
    et al.
    UCL, London, England;Camden & Islington Mental Hlth & Social Trust, Traumat Stress Clin, London, England;Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 2JD, England;Inst Psychiat, London, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    UCL, London, England;Camden & Islington Mental Hlth & Social Trust, Traumat Stress Clin, London, England;Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 2JD, England;Inst Psychiat, London, England.
    Hackmann, A
    UCL, London, England;Camden & Islington Mental Hlth & Social Trust, Traumat Stress Clin, London, England;Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford OX1 2JD, England;Inst Psychiat, London, England.
    Occurrence of imagery and its link with early memories in agoraphobia2004Inngår i: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 416-427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent cognitive models suggest that mental imagery can help us understand the maintenance of anxiety disorders (e.g., de Silva, 1986; Hackmann, Surawy, & Clark, 1998). However, imagery is relatively unexplored within agoraphobia. Such images are also thought to be useful in uncovering memories that occurred around the onset of a disorder (Hackmann, Clark, & McManus, 2000). A total of 20 patients with agoraphobia and 20 matched controls took part in this investigation. Participants described any recurrent images they experienced in agoraphobic situations, and also any associated memories. All patients with agoraphobia (but no control participants) reported having distinct recurrent images in "agoraphobic situations". Most images involved several sensory modalities and in the majority of cases appeared to be linked with unpleasant memories of events experienced many years previously. While these exploratory findings require replication, potential treatment implications are discussed.

  • 50.
    Deeprose, Catherine
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    Holmes, Emily A.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX3 7JX, England.
    An Exploration of Prospective Imagery: The Impact of Future Events Scale2010Inngår i: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, ISSN 1352-4658, E-ISSN 1469-1833, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 201-209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mental imagery of the future has clear clinical importance, although little is known about intrusive, prospective imagery of personally-relevant events. Currently, no measure is available to assess this. Aims: The Impact of Future Events Scale (IFES) was created to assess the impact of intrusive, prospective, personally-relevant imagery. It was examined in relation to predictions about dysphoria. Method: To form the IFES, the IES-R (a measure of the impact of a past traumatic event on posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology such as intrusive re-experiencing) was adapted item-by-item to assess intrusive "pre-experiencing" and imagery of specific, future events. Participants (N = 75) completed the IFES and assessments of depression, anxiety and general imagery use. Results: As predicted, the IFES significantly and positively correlated with depression scores. Analyses using subgroups of non-dysphoric and mild-dysphoric participants confirmed that the mild-dysphoric group reported significantly higher IFES scores, indicating higher levels of pre-experiencing of the future and related hyperarousal and avoidance. Conclusions: IFES provides a measure of the impact of "pre-experiencing" in the form of intrusive prospective, personally-relevant imagery, with sensitivity to group differences on the basis of depression scores. Further research is required to extend these finding into clinical depression and other psychopathological conditions.

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