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  • 1. Aalbers, M.
    et al.
    Christophers, Brett
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Centring Housing in Political Economy2014In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 373-394Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Aalbers, Manuel B.
    et al.
    Christophers, Brett
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    The Housing Question under Capitalist Political Economies2014In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 422-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short article is a reply to four commentaries that were written in response to our paper "Centering Housing in Political Economy". Rather than discussing each of the commentaries separately, we have chosen to distil and discuss four themes that appear important both to the commentators and to us: theory and abstraction; land rent; mortgage securitization; and the role of the state. Our discussion of theory advances the claim that theories and frameworks that take not only the economics of housing but also its politics, history, geography and institutions seriously can in principle be commensurate under the critical realist ontology suggested by two of our commentators. Our discussion of securitization adds to the existing literature on the theorization of the spatial fix and the circuits of capital. Finally, in reconsidering the housing question in political economy, we argue that you cannot today come to grips with the laws of the latter without factoring in on the centrality of the former.

  • 3.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Integration på egen hand: En studie av invandrade kvinnoföretagare i Sverige2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The principal aim of this thesis is to discover and analyse the motives that make immigrant women start their own businesses in Sweden and to investigate whether this is a way to achieve integration in working life. The empirical material consists of two types of interviews. One type consisted of interviews with five experts on labour market issues, and the other of interviews with 16 female entrepreneurs of Iranian, Chilean and Turkish origin having their own business in the Greater Stockholm region. Results from the first set of interviews indicate that female immigrants who independently start their enterprise rely mainly on their own resources of power and abilities. They are either women with class resources such as higher educations, previous work experience, language abilities and economic savings, or young women with certificates from high schools or universities. The social environment where they grew up, the gender structure and gender roles in the family before and after immigration and time of residence in Sweden also influence the extent to which women immigrants can act independently. According to the experience of the experts, the motives for starting their business are either different structural reasons, e.g. unemployment, lack of suitable or well-paying jobs, lay-offs etc, or personal reasons such as having a meaningful occupation, to support the family, to earn money of their own, to be independent from men and strive for a better standard of living etc.

    Results from the second set of interviews indicate that the most important resource these women have used when establishing their businesses is class resources such as education and adequate training, different types of work experiences, human capital and in addition to this economic savings. For many of the women in this sample different structural reasons, like unemployment, lack of good job opportunities, discrimination on work places, merge with personal reasons such as strivings to achieve independence, being one’s own boss, to realize one’s plans and ambitions, when starting their business. Independent entrepreneurship is a good way for immigrant women to be integrated in working life especially if they start within certain branches. These are branches in which the women have appropriate university education or vocational training, previous work experience or which correspond to their personal interests. In addition immigrant women become more integrated if an education received abroad is treated as equivalent to the parallel Swedish education or degree. A further factor promoting integration is if they can fully exploit their capacities when developing their own businesses. These conditions help them to feel much more satisfaction in working life as women identify themselves with their actual profession and feel that they have found the “right place” for themselves in the society.

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  • 4.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Johannisson, Bengt
    Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Rylander, David
    Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Bridging Traditional and Experience Industries: Lessons from the Gnosjö Region2010In: Social Capital and Development Trends in Rural Areas / [ed] Hans Westlund & Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Jönköping: Jönköping International Business School & Marg (Marginal Areas Research Group), Kyoto University/Japan , 2010, Vol 5, p. 41-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan/Centre for Innovation system, Entrepreneurship and Growth.
    Johansson-Björk, Siw
    Naturen som inspiration och rekreation2010In: Gnosjöandan i ny riktning: Design, upplevelser, kulturarv / [ed] David Rylander & Saeid Abbasian, Jönköping: EIDI , 2010Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Larsson, Stefan
    Gnosjö kommun.
    Attityder till upplevelseindustri och turism i Gnosjöregionen: Ett interaktivt FOU arbete2009In: Generator/Malmö'09/: Session: SKAPA: Förändra hela regionen!, 2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Rylander, David
    Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Högskolan i Jönköping- samverkan glokalt?2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Rylander, David
    Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Regional samverkan kring upplevelseindustrins utveckling2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Rylander, David
    Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Regional utveckling med design och upplevelser2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Christian
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Units outside the University, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Maktens vinkel/vinkelns makt2008In: Glänta, Vol. 1-2, no Felande länkarArticle in journal (Other scientific)
  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Paradoxal or a grin without a cat2007In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 89B, no 4, p. 381-383Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Units outside the University, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    School of Geography.
    Images – screens, brains and bodies2008Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Moving from the ontological question ”what is an image?” to the more performative, or ontogenetic, question “what can an image do?” this paper will discuss how non-representational theory could offer new ways to approach the materialities of the image.

    Drawing upon Gilles Deleuze’s writings on the cinematic image, Charles Sanders Peirce’s semiotics and Henri Bergson’s writings on duration and memory this paper is interested in how images configure thought. Behind this argument lies the idea that there is more to information and communication than traditional systems of representation suggest. What we will focus on in this paper is some of the practical problems, as well as the benefits, of conceptualising images as something other than representational.

    The paper will outline a discussion which focuses on three images – screens, brains and bodies. An underlying aim of this paper is to ask the much broader question: what would happen to the hyphen of geo-graphy if we were to take Deleuze’s call to create a thought without an image serious?

  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Compost politics:: experimenting with togetherness in vermicomposting2014In: Environmental Humanities, E-ISSN 2201-1919, no 1, p. 125-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging from the question of how to live together with our planet, more-than-human approaches to interspecies relations have often presented ‘cozy’ versions of conviviality (Whatmore 2002; Haraway 2008; Hinchliffe 2010). This was usually set against a (supposedly) exclusionary politics of nature, in a move that betrayed a still largely humanist ethics. From the focus on friendly companions, to the attention to practices of care or living-together, the notion of companion species and their entanglements with humans has been polarized towards a pleasant and ‘nice’ version of coexistence. But, dealing with composting, it becomes clear that relations with the environment are never so neat and clean. What are, then, the modes of being together with the ‘dirty’ side of the ‘green’? What practices emerge at the mundane interstices of the ‘big picture’ of a functional ecology? Wasting, eating, rotting, consuming, transforming and becoming-with are brought together in a variety of ways in practices of composting-with earthworms. Reporting on our own and others' attempts to ‘live-together’ with earthworms, this paper tracks the non-relations and asymmetries of the transformations of more-than-human materialities inside (and outside) domestic composting bins. We argue that the example of living-together with dung earthworms sheds light on the interplays between attachment and detachment (Candea 2010), shifting the notion of conviviality from a green and comfortable ‘democratic collective’ (Latour 2004) to a messy, yet constantly productive and on-going coexistence.

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  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Empiricist interventions:: Strategy and tactics on the ontopolitical battlefield2012In: Science & Technology Studies, E-ISSN 2243-4690, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 52-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent papers by prominent scholars in science and technology studies (notably John Law and Bruno Latour) have crystallized a fundamental disagreement about the scope and purpose of intervention in actor-network theory or what we here choose to bracket as empirical philosophy. While the precept of agnostic description is taken as a given, the desired eff ects of such descriptions are highly debated: Is the goal to interfere with the singularity of the real through the enactment of multiple and possibly confl icting ontologies? Or is it (also) to craft new and comprehensive common worlds supported by notions of due process and parliamentary procedure? In this paper we think about this disagreement as a question of research strategy (a normative discord about the desirable outcome of an intervention) in order to assess its implications for research tactics (a descriptive accord about the practical crafting of an adequate account). A key point here is to challenge the impermeability of such a division and show how the strategic dispute, if to be taken seriously, invariably spills over to swamp the level of tactics. To illustrate this point, we draw upon materials from our recent doctoral research projects and to facilitate the discussion we make two deliberate caricatures: Firstly, we operate with a simplifi ed history of actor-network theory in which a strategy of epistemological critique has been replaced by two contending agendas for ontological intervention. Secondly, we address these two contending agendas as distinct options which map on to the positions of our two main interlocutors. In doing so, it becomes possible to compare their respective tactical implications as we work through two examples of what might constitute an empiricist intervention.

  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Foods2014In: The Routledge Handbook of Mobilities / [ed] Peter Adey; David Bissell; Kevin Hannam; Peter Merriman; Mimi Sheller, London: Routledge, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a book that explores global transportations and mobilities, food definitely deserves to be included.1 Over the last few decades, the total mileage that food travels across the globe – difficult to imagine, let alone calculate – has not just risen, but also become increasingly contested ( Jackson et al., 2006). Many decry that all in all food travels far too far. But how does it do so? How does it move across the globe? The answer is: in many different ways. It moves out and it moves in. It moves fresh and it moves cooked. It moves as ingredients and as a recipe. The implication is that, more often than not, on any single plate many places come together. Here, we will illustrate the topological complexity of ordinary meals by presenting a mundane but intricate case: that of Pizza Hawaii.

  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Peter, Jackson (Contributor)
    Hayes-Conroy, Allison (Contributor)
    Sandover, Rebecca (Contributor)
    Sheller, Mimi (Contributor)
    Henderson, Heike (Contributor)
    Hallet, Lucius (Contributor)
    Imai, Shoko (Contributor)
    Maye, Damian (Contributor)
    Hill, Ann (Contributor)
    Food's cultural geographies:: Texture, creativity and publics2013In: The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Cultural Geography / [ed] Johnson, N.; Schein, R.; Winders, J., Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013, p. 343-354Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In conversation with the body conveniently known as Stelarc2007In: Cultural Geographies, ISSN 1474-4740, E-ISSN 1477-0881, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 293-308Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bertoni, Filippo (Contributor)
    Ibáñez Martín, Rebeca (Contributor)
    Living with Omega-3:: New Materialism and Enduring Concerns2015In: Environment & Planning. D, Society and Space, ISSN 0263-7758, E-ISSN 1472-3433, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 4-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early 21st century quite a few social scientists and scholars in the humanities are arguing that we should pay more attention to things material. For, as they say, not only humans act but so, too, do materials. Joining this discussion, in this paper we will use the case of omega-3 fatty acids to address the questions of how materials may act; in which ways this is relevant; and what is linked up with it. Hence, we will come to speak about research in prisons where inmates were badly nourished; fish being caught in the Global South for Scandinavian fish pills; and the urgency of shifting from the verb ‘to act’ to a differentiated list of modes of doing. Learning from the natural sciences, we will argue, requires that their methods and concerns be carefully attended to. Taking matters seriously comes with the obligation of tracing where such matters come from and where they go. And talking about ‘action’, finally, demands that, beyond liberal notions of isolated individual actors, it be creatively retheorised.

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  • 19.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The limits of the body:: boundaries, capacities, thresholds2011In: Social & cultural geography (Print), ISSN 1464-9365, E-ISSN 1470-1197, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 20.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    Fransson, Urban
    Housing Careers: Immigrants in Local Swedish Housing Markets2002In: Housing Studies, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 445-464Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Fransson, Urban
    Housing Careers of Young Households2002Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 22.
    Adam, Åhlin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Kommunal platsmarknadsföring och invånarnas roll: En studie om Knivsta kommun2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie behandlar kommunal platsmarknadsföring med utgångspunkt i Knivsta kommun. Flera teorier om platsmarknadsföring tas upp. Bland annat om invånarnas betydande roll i platsmarknadsföringen och tidigare exempel på lyckade och mindre lyckade platsmarknadsföringskampanjer. Genom att intervjua representanter för Knivsta kommun och ett antal av kommunens invånare, skapades en överblick av platsmarknadsföringen i området. Resultatet visar att Knivsta kommun har en tydlig vision om vart de vill komma i framtiden, vilket innebär en del förändringar som till exempel att växa från att vara en liten pendlarkommun och villastad, till att bli mer av en småstad. Dessutom framhävs en vilja att etablera flera företag inom kommunen. Om Knivsta kommuns planer på förändring inte får stöd av kommunens egna invånare riskerar planerna att misslyckas. De tillfrågade invånarna i Knivsta kommun ger indikationer på en positiv inställning till kommunens framtidsplaner. Men i vissa frågor som Knivsta kommuns planerade förändring till att bli en småstad är stödet mindre och en mer grundläggande undersökning av kommunens invånare vore därför intressant.

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  • 23.
    Adamek, Michel
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Apples väg till framgång: Bakomliggande faktorer till varför Apple lyckats2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 24.
    Adamsson, Karolin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Delad yta, dubbel yta?: En studie om Dragarbrunnsgatan i Uppsala utifrån konceptet shared space2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 25.
    af Trolle, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Vision om en blandad stad: En komperativ studie av den sociala blandningspolitiken i Stockholm och Uppsala2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom empirisk insamling av material från kommunala styrdokument och intervjuer ämnar denna uppsats att undersöka vilka visioner som genomsyrar den kommunala planeringen i Stockholm och Uppsala för att motverka boendesegregation. Uppsatsen studerar om idén att skapa variation i upplåtelseformer i bostadsområden finns i Stockholm stad och Uppsala kommun för att skapa blandning och därmed motverka segregation. Fokus läggs också på vilka medel och åtgärder de båda kommunerna har för att uppnå sina visioner, samt vilken geografisk nivå kommunerna tänker att en blandning ska ske. Genom att undersöka två kommuners blandningsambitioner kan skillnader och likheter studeras för att få en mer övergripande bild av hur segregationsproblemet hanteras. Resultaten av studien visar att det finns en vision att variera upplåtelseformerna i bostadsområdena i båda kommunerna för att motverka segregationen. Ambitionen i både Stockholm stad och Uppsala kommun är att ett blandat boende ska skapas i hela staden. Dock finns många hinder som står i vägen som riskerar att motverka kommunernas blandningsambitioner.  

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  • 26.
    Aggesund, Pamela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Nyliberal planering och hållbar stadsutveckling: En studie av hur nyliberal planering kan bidra till hållbar stadsutveckling i Stockholms stad2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen redovisar en kvalitativ studie som har gjorts av nyliberal planering och hållbar stadsutveckling i Stockholms stad. Genom att studera plan- och visionsdokument utfärdade av staden är syftet med undersökningen att utreda hur nyliberal planering kan förenas med hållbar stadsutveckling. I undersökningen ingår också att utreda vad hållbar stadsutveckling faktiskt innebär utifrån olika perspektiv på hållbar utveckling, perspektiven som studeras är ekologisk modernisering, traditionell ekologi, miljörättviseperspektivet samt social hållbarhet. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att för att hållbar stadsutveckling ska vara ett resultat av nyliberal planering krävs att utvecklingen samtidigt bidrar till ekonomisk tillväxt alternativt stärker stadens konkurrenskraft.  Det innebär att nyliberal planering är lättare att förena med hållbar stadsutveckling såsom det förstås inom ekologisk modernisering men också att hållbar stadsutveckling såsom det förstås inom traditionell ekologi samt social hållbarhet åtminstone till viss del kan förenas med nyliberal planering. Utifrån ett miljörättviseperspektiv visar sig nyliberal planering vara svårare att förena med hållbar stadsutveckling. Resultatet visar också att nyliberal planering inte på ett fullvärdigt sätt kan bidra till en hållbar stadsutveckling. För att alla aspekter inom hållbar utveckling ska tillgodoses krävs något mer än nyliberal planering.

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  • 27.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Lagerqvist, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Strandin Pers, Annika
    Normkritisk kulturmiljöpraxis: Exemplet Rosersberg2015Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Agnidakis, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Lagerqvist, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Strandin Pers, Annika
    Normkritisk kulturmiljöpraxis: Exemplet Statens fastighetsverk2017Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Ahlin, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Framställningen av Kina i geografiläroböcker: En kvalitativ textanalys2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att analysera hur en utomeuropeisk kultur, Kina, framställs i läroböcker i geografi för grundskolans senare år. Studien utgick från Edward Saids teori om orientalism. I studien togs tidigare läroboksforskning upp, vars resultat visar på att det förekommer stereotyper, fördomar och förenklingar i läroböcker. I tidigare forskning visas också på hur både elever och lärare ofta uppfattar läroböcker som objektiv faktakälla. För att besvara studiens syfte så skapades frågeställningar om, och i sådant fall på vilket sätt, det gick att se spår av orientalism och traditionell gestaltning av Kina, dess kultur och befolkning i läroböckerna. Studien använde sig av metoden kvalitativ textanalys som innebär en närläsning och tolkning av texterna som är föremål för analysen. Resultaten från analysen visar att det går att tolka spår av orientalism i läroböckerna. Resultaten bekräftar därmed delvis resultat som tidigare forskning visat. Resultaten öppnar för vidare och fortsatt analys av läroböcker, exempelvis i större omfattning eller över andra skolämnen för att avgöra om liknande resultat går att få och att därmed en generalisering av resultaten kan göras av läroböcker i ett större perspektiv. 

  • 30.
    Ahlin, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Fysisk planering som främjar hållbart beteende: En studie om hur samhällsplanering kan främja hållbart beteende i Nyhamnen2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att granska om den fysiska planeringen i Nyhamnen kan leda till en hållbar stadsutveckling, genom att undersöka huruvida kommunen planerar för att upprätthålla ett hållbart beteende hos invånarna. Undersökningen ägde rum med hjälp av metoderna backcasting och dokumentanalys av Nyhamnens officiella dokument. Studien undersökte hur kommunen planerar för ett bilfritt samhälle, hur den förenklar sopsortering samt möjliggör närodling och om den ökar möjligheterna till delningsekonomier istället för överkonsumtion. Backcasting går ut på att man lägger fram en framtida vision och sedan ser vilka vägar man behöver ta därifrån för att komma till idag, således ser man vilka vägar man behöver ta för att komma från dagsläget till den önskade framtida visionen. Framtidsvisionen grundades på de mål kommunen satt upp för Nyhamnen. Resultatet visar på att den fysiska planeringen främjar huruvida invånarna har ett hållbart beteende eller inte. Den fysiska planeringen främjar eller hämmar individens val i vardagen. Nyhamnen kan ge sina invånare goda chanser till ett hållbart beteende, men att kommunen för Nyhamnen har några åtgärder att ta i beaktande för att det ska bli fullt troligt.

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  • 31.
    Ahlmark, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Sjökvist, Philip
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Mobiltelefonen som multimedium: En fallstudie om mobiltelefonanvändande hos gymnasieungdomar i Uppsala2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 32.
    Ahlqvist, Carolina Marianne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Svanberg, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Gendered relations to water: A study about water on a household level in Kerala, India2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 33.
    Ahltorp, Olivia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Hållbarhet i det svenska lantbruket: Vad krävs för att möjliggöra en omställning?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks möjliga vägar mot hållbarhet i det svenska lantbruket. Med utgångspunkt i att rådande industriella jordbrukssystem inte är hållbara har åsikter och tankar samlats in från personer med erfarenhet av lantbruk kopplat till yrkesbakgrund inom forskning, ekonomi, politik och praktisk tillämpning. Två tidigare studier används som underlag för att lyfta fram perspektiv från småskaliga, ekologiska lantbrukare. Resultatet visar att det finns många och skiftande åsikter kring vad hållbarhet i det svenska lantbruket innebär samt hur den kan påverkas. Viktigt är att ta hänsyn till såväl sociala som ekonomiska och ekologiska aspekter. I många fall går det att hitta gemensamma lösningar för att uppnå önskvärda tillstånd. Ökad användning av marginalmarker, slutna kretslopp av näringsämnen och samarbete med naturliga ekosystem är några viktiga faktorer. För att möjliggöra en omställning krävs såväl politiska som ekonomiska riktlinjer. Rådande ekonomiska system med fokus på tillväxt utgör ett hinder, då stora produktionsvolymer värderas högt på bekostnad av andra icke-monetära värden så som biologisk mångfald och ekosystemtjänster. 

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  • 34.
    Ahlund, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Tätortsutvecklingen mellan år 1960 och 2020: En fallstudie av Uppsala kommun2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen utgör en fallstudie av tätortsutvecklingen i Uppsala kommun mellan år 1960 och 2020. Uppsatsens syfte har varit att analysera och förklara mönster och utvecklingslinjer i tätortsutvecklingen utifrån planeringsstrategier och för tidpunkten rådande samhällsideal. Detta har uppnåtts genom en kombination av metoder i form av deskriptiv analys av folkmängddata på tätortsnivå samt en dokumentanalys av fyra av Uppsala kommuns tidigare general- och översiktsplaner.

    Resultatet visar att tätortsutvecklingen i Uppsala kommun mellan 1960 och 2020 har genomgått en stor förändring. Perioden från 1960 och som senast mitten till av 1990-talet utgör en första tillväxtperiod som inträffari majoriteten av tätorterna. Efter den första tillväxtperioden avtar befolkningstillväxten som får en stabil till något fluktuerande utvecklingskurva. Denna utveckling kvarstår i flera av tätorterna fram till 2020. På 2000-talet inträffaren ny tillväxtperiod vilket i större utsträckning inkluderar tätorter som inte genomgick den första tillväxtperioden. 2015 och 2020 tillkommer det helt nya tätorter vilket delvis kan förklaras av brist på lämplig tomtmark i befintliga tätorter. Planeringsstrategin för tätortsutvecklingen har förändrats med tiden. Från utbyggnad av befintliga stadsdelar i främst sydlig riktning, till utbyggnad i pärlbandsmönster längs med kommunikationsleder i nord-sydligriktning. På 2010-talet bygger planeringsstrategin på stråkutveckling längs med kommunikationslederna i samtliga av kommunens riktningar. Kommunikationslederna har spelat en avgörande roll för tätortsutvecklingen tillsammans med Uppsala kommuns planeringsstrategier och Uppsalas läge nära Stockholm.

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  • 35.
    Ahrens, Jill
    et al.
    Univ Sussex, Sussex Ctr Migrat Res, Brighton, E Sussex, England.;Univ Oslo, Dept Sociol & Human Geog, Oslo, Norway..
    Kelly, Melissa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Univ Orange Free State, Dept Sociol, Bloemfontein, South Africa..
    van Liempt, Ilse
    Univ Utrecht, Dept Urban Geog, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Free Movement?: The Onward Migration of EU Citizens Born in Somalia, Iran, and Nigeria2016In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 84-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into the mobility of European Union (EU) citizens has contributed to a better understanding of the social effects of European integration. A growing body of literature highlights that naturalised third-country nationals are also making use of their 'freedomof movement'. This paper proposes a typology of 'new EU citizens' who onward migrate between member states. It draws on relevant statistics and qualitative empirical research carried out with Dutch-Somalis, Swedish-Iranians, and German-Nigerians who relocated to the UK. In contrast to research with native-born EU movers, our findings indicate that the majority of naturalised EU citizens onward migrated as a result of the discrimination and racism they experienced in their previous place of residence. In this paper, we conceptualise the interactions of integration and transnationalism as a potential trigger for onward migration. We illustrate how onward migrants are able to complete certain aspects of their integration process in a second member state. Moreover, we show how migrants maintain transnational ties across several destinations and therefore contribute to a broader understanding of transnationalism.

  • 36.
    Ajamlou, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Äldre resenärers inkludering i kollektivtrafik: En studie i hur styrande aktörer i Uppsala län arbetar föratt inkludera äldre resenärer i länetssamhällsfinansierade kollektivtrafik UL2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samhällets äldre invånare lever längre idag och kommer i framtiden således utgöra en större andel av världens totala befolkning. Att bli äldre innebär att konstant anpassa sig efter en utvecklande omgivning och när fler och fler servicefunktioner i samhället digitaliseras krävs det att dessa också anpassas för våra äldre invånare. Denna studie har genom semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer undersökt hur aktörerna Region Uppsala (mer specifikt myndigheten Trafik och Samhälle och den samhällsfinansierade kollektivtrafiken under varumärket UL) och Uppsala kommun upplever, och arbetar för, inkluderingen av äldre resenärer i Uppsala läns kollektivtrafik. Specifikt fokus har legat på hur väl inkluderande UL:s egen applikation, UL-appen, har varit och hur utvecklingsarbetet av denna relaterat till anpassning för äldre resenärer – 65 år gamla och uppåt – ser ut. Resultaten visade att aktörerna upplever att äldre är väl inkluderade i kollektivtrafiken men att ett arbete riktat specifikt mot äldre som målgrupp inte finns i dagsläget. Studien visar dock att det finns en poäng med att arbeta mot äldre som egen målgrupp eftersom dessa uppvisar andra synsätt, attityder och tendenser än deras yngre motparter och därmed blir en viktig variabel att ha i beaktande vid utvecklingen av kollektivtrafiken i Uppsala län.

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    AldresInkluderingIKollektivtrafik
  • 37.
    Akarcay, Pinar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Multi-Voiced Language in ‘Society of Democracy’:: Harmony Far Beyond Being Human2018In: International Journal of Language Academy (IJLA), Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Akarcay, Pinar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Neo-Liberal Public Provision in Nordic Countries:: Case of Senior Housing Services2018In: Journal of Social and Humanities Sciences Research, Vol. 5, no 18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Aksungur, Aziz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Kurder och Identitetsbildning: En diskursanalys av kemalismen och PKK:s manifeste2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 40.
    Alami, Ilias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Contemporary trajectories of state capitalism2024In: Radical Political Economics: Principles, Perspectives, and Post-Capitalist Futures / [ed] Mona Ali; Ann Davis, Routledge, 2024Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Alami, Ilias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Racial capitalism, uneven development, and the abstractive powers of race and money2023In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does the circulation of capital in the form of money and finance mobilize different constructions of “Blackness” across historical-geographical contexts, and how does this produce uneven development? This contribution offers theoretical and methodological provocations to think about this question, drawing on two cases of raced finance: race-based bank lending in the United States, and international investment to sub-Saharan countries. I argue that the impersonal character of social domination under capitalism, expressed in and by the movement of abstract categories (such as the commodity, value, money, the state) requires that we carefully mobilize the notion of abstraction in theorizing the co-production of racialized difference and uneven development. I develop this conceptual argument by way of a sympathetic yet critical engagement with recent scholarship on racial capitalism, and by bringing the critique of political economy into conversation with the Black radical tradition. The key question is not the extent to which cases of raced finance exhibit a paradigmatic “anti-Blackness.” Rather, it is about how the abstractive powers of race and the social forms of capital refract each other in violent configurations, and contribute to giving the capitalist production of space a raced imprint. The co-production of racialized and spatial difference thus enhances processes of capitalist discipline and extraction mediated by money, while the totalizing operations of money reproduce racialized power relations and uneven development. I then turn to the work of Bhandar and Toscano to reflect methodologically on how to mobilize various levels and modalities of abstraction in concrete research.

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  • 42.
    Alami, Ilias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Ten theses on the new state capitalism and its futures2023In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 764-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global capitalism is currently experiencing a turbulent and polymorphous (geo)political reordering, encompassing multiple transformations in the landscapes of state intervention, and a drastic reconfiguration of the state's role as promoter, supervisor and owner of capital across the world economy. Can the concept of state capitalism aid us in grasping these transformations conceptually? My answer is yes, with the proviso that state capitalism is neither conceptualised as a national (or regional) variety of capitalism, nor as a new regime of accumulation, but as a flexible means of problematising this historic arc in the trajectories of state intervention. Based on this approach, I offer in this essay ten theses on the new state capitalism, its roots in the dynamics of capital accumulation, its relations to broader material conflicts and its potential futures.

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  • 43.
    Alami, Ilias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    The spiral of state capitalism: labour transformations or the 'whip of external necessity'?2022In: Global Political Economy, E-ISSN 2635-2257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article opens a conversation between uneven and combined development (U&CD) and state capitalism studies. It reflects on the potential of U&CD to answer the following questions: why has there been an aggregate expansion of the state’s role as promoter, supervisor and owner of capital across the world capitalist economy since the turn of the millennium, and why has this taken an uneven and combined form? I argue that U&CD as an evolving research programme holds great potential in creatively expanding the study of state capitalism and its multi-scalar geographies. It is particularly well positioned to help us elucidate the multilinear and interactive character of present-day state capitalism. U&CD’s heuristics of ‘societal multiplicity’, ‘combination’ and ‘hybridisation’ can help us trace the combinatorial dynamics which result in the cumulative expansion of state prerogatives and their cascading impacts across policy realms and geographic space. Yet the causal mechanisms identified by U&CD (the ‘whip of external necessity’, ‘the privilege of historic backwardness’ and ‘the simultaneity of the non-simultaneous’) are unable to grasp contemporary state capitalist transformations in their historical and geographical fullness, notably due to a tendency to misread spatial unevenness as temporal dislocation. Theorising state capitalism requires that we examine the role of multiple and interacting capitalist states in politically mediating historically determinate transformations in the capitalist labour process, and their ramifications in terms of the temporal and geographical dynamics of value production and circulation. Thus, looking at U&CD from the perspective of the new state capitalism reveals both its analytical strengths and limitations for GPE.

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  • 44.
    Alami, Ilias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Alves, Carolina
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Bonizzi, Bruno
    University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire.
    Kaltenbrunner, Annina
    Leeds University, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Koddenbrock, Kai
    University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.
    Kvangraven, Ingrid
    Kings College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Powell, Jeff
    University of Greenwich, Greenwich, United Kingdom.
    International financial subordination: a critical research agenda2023In: Review of International Political Economy, ISSN 0969-2290, E-ISSN 1466-4526, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 1360-1386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a varied picture in terms of their relative economic strength, Developing and Emerging Economies (DEEs) remain in a subordinate position in the global monetary and financial system. While the IPE and economics literatures provide rich insights about the significance of this phenomenon, research efforts remain fragmented. To address this problem, we offer an umbrella concept—international financial subordination (IFS)—to channel research efforts towards cumulative theory-building. IFS is about unearthing why the structural power of finance takes a particularly violent form of expression in DEEs. To provide structure to IFS as a scholarly field, we first assess the contributions of IPE in analyzing various factors that reproduce IFS. To better ground these efforts in processes of accumulation and the histories of the relation between finance and (post)colonial development, we then offer a critical synthesis of three heterodox traditions—dependency theory, post-Keynesian economics, and Marxism. Next, we develop a pluridisciplinary research agenda organized around six analytical axes: the historical analysis of financial relations, the relations between financial and productive subordinations, the constitutive role of monetary relations as expressions of power, the role of the state, the actions and practices of non-state actors, and the spatial relations of financial subordination.

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  • 45.
    Alami, Ilias
    et al.
    Department of Society Studies, Maastricht University, 6211 SZ Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Dixon, Adam D.
    Department of Society Studies, Maastricht University, 6211 SZ Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    "Expropriation of Capitalist by State Capitalist": Organizational Change and the Centralization of Capital as State Property2022In: Economic Geography, ISSN 0013-0095, E-ISSN 1944-8287, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 303-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State enterprises, sovereign funds, and other state–capital hybrids have become major engines of global capitalism. How can we explain their global rise and organizational transformation into increasingly sophisticated and globally competitive forms? Why do they increasingly emulate the practices and organizational goals of comparable private-sector entities, adopt the techniques of modern finance, resort to mixed ownership, and extend their operations across geographic space? After critically engaging with arguments that emphasize the role of firm strategies, developmentalist logics, financialized norms, and Polanyian double movements, we develop an explanatory model of organizational change grounded in historic–geographic materialism and economic geographies of the firm. We locate the expansion of state ownership (the role of states as owners) in the historic development and geographic remaking of global capitalism and, in particular, the emergence of a new constellation of international divisions of labor. This created the conditions for a massive round of centralization of capital as state property (the mass of capital controlled by states) since the early 2000s. The modern, marketized, globally spread state–capital hybrid emerged as an organizational fix to mediate the geographic contradictions and imperatives associated with this process. Purposive organizational adaption consisted in developing new skills, operational capabilities, and mixed-ownership structures in order to leverage the financial system, allow for the development of liquid forms of state property, and facilitate the expansion of the latter into global circuits of capital. As such, the article contributes to debates on the role of the state in global value chains, the firm-state nexus, and state capitalism.

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  • 46.
    Alami, Ilias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Dixon, Adam D.
    New State Capitalism(s)2024In: Elgar Encyclopedia of International Economic Law, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2024Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Alami, Ilias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Guermond, Vincent
    Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, London, UK.
    The color of money at the financial frontier2023In: Review of International Political Economy, ISSN 0969-2290, E-ISSN 1466-4526, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 1073-1097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes up recent calls to further problematize race in international political economy by focusing on money at the frontier of global finance. We draw upon the Black radical tradition’s theoretical formulations of racial capitalism, which we bring into dialogue with conceptualizations of money and finance as developed within the critique of political economy. Money is the most supreme and abstract incarnation of wealth and class power, yet it is also suffused with racial and colonial logics of differentiation. To explore this tension, we offer a relational-comparison of two sites of frontier finance, namely cross-border investment and digital financial inclusion in developing countries. We trace the mechanisms through which race affects the operations of money and finance across these two sites. We argue that racialized difference is mobilized and reproduced at three key moments in the construction of investibility at the financial frontier: (1) the re/making of a development ‘problem’; (2) the construction of racialized ideal-typical financial subjects; and (3) processes of risk valuation and the legitimation of surveillance, discipline, and extraction. This allows us to characterize the color of money at the financial frontier as a particularly potent and violent combination of the abstractive powers of race and money.

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  • 48.
    Alami, Ilias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Whiteside, Heather
    Department of Political Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
    Dixon, Adam D
    Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Peck, Jamie
    Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Making space for the new state capitalism, part II: Relationality, spatiotemporality and uneven development2023In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 621-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theme issue ‘Making Space for the New State Capitalism’ brings together insights from critical economic geography and heterodox political economy through a series of papers published in three installments, each accompanied by an introductory essay written by the guest editors. In this, the second of these introductory commentaries, we explore the consequences of embracing relationality, spatiotemporality and uneven development, together with the second group of papers. Introducing a final group of papers, the third installment will address the challenges and opportunities of thinking conjuncturally.

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  • 49.
    Alarcón, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Persson, Madeleine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Att cykla fritt är stort, att cykla sikkert är större : En jämförande studie om säker cykelinfrastruktur i Stockholm och Köpenhamn2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att kvalitativt undersöka och jämföra cykelinfrastrukturen i Stockholm och Köpenhamn och hur de  arbetar  för  att  uppnå  högre  säkerhet  för  cyklister.  Arbetet  bygger  på  tre  metoder,  textanalys  av  städernas kommunala  styrdokument  för  en  säkrare  cykelstad,  intervjuer  samt  observationer.  Studien  visar  att  städerna historiskt sett har haft olika prioriteringar då Stockholm utvecklade bilvägar och kollektivtrafik vid inträdet av motorfordon, medan Köpenhamn prioriterade cykeln. Båda städerna satsar på att förbättra säkerheten för cyklister, men Köpenhamn ligger mer i framkant med sin vägutformning jämfört med Stockholm. Olika cykelpassager är olika säkra där ett upphöjt cykelspår är mer säkert än streckat cykelfält. Korsningar är en kritisk punkt för cyklister och  genom  färgmarkerad  cykelled  och  cykelbox  blir  den  säkrare.  Det  är  viktigt  att  kommunerna  prioriterar cyklisterna vid dåligt väder och underlag såsom halka, eftersom det ökar risken för olycka för cyklisterna. Andra viktiga åtgärder är cykelbroar och att begränsa bilars hastighet.

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  • 50.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ostapenko, Oksana V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    The Swedish system: The image cracking when taking a closer look2014In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 53, p. 82-83Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a high international profile regarding social issues and projects an image as one of the best countries in the world in terms of social indicators. Here we argue for a revised view as the reality is that Swedish system is very segregated, particularly in terms of (1) relative lack of women in positions of high influence, (2) it is the worst country in the EU28 regarding long-term unemployment for people born outside the country, and (3) it has a education system that after a number of reforms is involved in a "race towards the bottom" to profit from students. At the same time Sweden undervalues foreign academic qualifications and getting work largely depends on "who you know", not "what you know".

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