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  • 1.
    Edman, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Ohrn, Kerstin
    Holmlund, Anders
    Nordstrom, Birgitta
    Hedin, Mans
    Hellberg, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Comparison of oral status in an adult population 35-75 year of age in the county of Dalarna, Sweden in 1983 and 20082012In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 61-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to study the prevalence and distribution of number of teeth, number of intact and decayed teeth and prevalence and distribution of removable dentures and periodontal disease over 25 years 1983-2008. Two cross-sectional studies (EpiWux) were performed in the County of Dalarna, Sweden in 1983 and 2008. In the 1983 study a random sample of 1012 individuals were invited to participate in this epidemiological and clinical study and 1440 individuals in 2008. A total number of 1695 individuals, stratified into geographical areas (rural and urban areas), in the age groups 35, 50,65 and 75 answered a questionnaire and were also clinically and radiographically examined. The number of edentulous individuals decreased from 15% in 1983 to 3 % in 2008. Number of teeth increased from 22.7 in 1983 to 24.2 in 2008 and decayed surfaces per tooth showed a three-time reduction over this period of time. As a consequence of better oral status the prevalence of complete removable dentures in both jaws decreased from 15 % in 1983 to 2 % in 2008. Individuals with moderate periodontitis decreased from 45 % in 1983 to 16 % in 2008. Conclusion: Covering a period of 25 years the present study can report dramatic improvements in all aspects of dental status that were investigated. This is encouraging for dental care professionals, but will not necessarily lead to less demand for dental care in the future as the population is aging with a substantial increase in number of teeth.

  • 2.
    Ekblom, Karin
    et al.
    Clinic for Prosthetic Dentistry, Public Dental Health Service, Nyköping, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Jan-Ivan
    Moberg, Lars-Erik
    Clinical evaluation of fixed partial dentures made in Sweden and China2011In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 111-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the quality of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) made in a Chinese dental laboratory with corresponding FPDs made in Swedish dental laboratories. Twenty-one patients were fitted with FPDs between March 2007 and December 2008. Single crowns and prostheses of up to seven units were made. All dentures, gold and CoCr alloys covered with ceramic, were produced in duplicate: one by a dental technician in China and the other by a dental technician in Sweden. The dentures were blind-tested with regard to marginal integrity, anatomic form and color, approximal and occlusal contacts, and time taken for adjustments. The composition of dentures was analyzed, and the material used, framework weight, compliance of the laboratories, and costs (material and labour) were recorded. There was no difference in the quality of marginal integrity, anatomic form, color, approximal and occlusal contacts, or in the time taken for adjustments. The bridge frameworks made in China were thinner and lighter (p<0.01) than those made in Sweden. Three FPDs from China showed elastic deformation when tested clinically and were considered too thin for clinical use. In 11 out of 14 orders from the Chinese laboratory, the gold alloy specified was not delivered and the cobalt-chromium alloy contained small amounts (0.19%) of nickel.The prostheses with gold-alloy frameworks from China cost 47% of those from Sweden (p<0.01) and those with cobalt/chromium frameworks 44% (p<0.01). In conclusion, the quality of the FPDs made in Sweden and China was comparable, with the exception of the dimension of the Chinese bridges, which in some cases was considered too weak. The gold alloy ordered from the Chinese laboratory was often not the alloy delivered and the CoCr alloy contained small amounts of nickel. FPDs from China cost less than half the price of those from Sweden.

  • 3.
    Engström, Sevek
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg.
    Holmlund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg.
    Self-estimated oral and general health are related and associated with clinically investigated dental health2011In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 169-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate whether the self-estimation of oral and general health is correlated and related to clinical parameters for dental health. Furthermore, to investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors on the self-assessment of oral and general health. During 2007 a dental health survey was performed in the Community of Gavle located in central Sweden.1,224 subjects randomized from the general population of Gavle (adult population 75, 000) were invited to participate. Seven hundred and forty-eight individuals answered a questionnaire regarding their health and 373 of these subjects participated in a dental examination. Self-estimated oral and general health was correlated (p<0.0001, r= 0.35) and individuals who perceived their oral health as bad had more decayed surfaces, surfaces with secondary caries,fewer teeth and more bleeding on probing than those with good estimated oral health (p<0.017 for all). In a logistic regression analysis with self-estimated oral health as the dependent variable was related to, the independent variables NT, DFT, self-estimated general health and age were related to self-estimated oral health, but not to income or educational level. However, subjects with low disposable income and low education level had significantly more clinical caries and fewer teeth than subjects with high income or a high educational level. Conclusions: In the present study, self-estimation of oral and general health was correlated and related to some clinical oral parameters. Subjects in the low socioeconomic group had worse dental health and a tendency to underestimate their need of dental care.

  • 4.
    Flink, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Publ Dent Hlth Vastmanland, Publ Dent Clin Sala, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Tegelberg, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Malmo Univ, Fac Odontol, Malmo, Sweden..
    Arnetz, Judy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Michigan State Univ, Dept Family Med, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Birkhed, Dowen
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Odontol, Dept Cariol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Patient-reported outcomes of caries prophylaxis among Swedish caries active adults in a long-term perspective2016In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 101-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka patientrapporterade utfallsmått för kariesprofylax och jämföra dem med tidigare dokumenterade journaldata. Ett frågeformulär skickades till 134 kariesaktiva (CA) och 40 kariesinaktiva (CI) vuxna patienter vid folktandvården i Sala, och besvarades av 69%. Frågorna gällde patientupplevelser relaterat till kariesprofylax avseende: 1) behandlingar och rekommendationer vid tandvårdsbesök, 2) genomförd egenvård, och 3) upp-levd effekt och förhoppningar om önskat resultat. Svaren analyserades i förhållande till kliniska data, som hämtades retrospektivt ur patienternas tandvårdsjournaler. Medelvärdet för upp-följningstiden var > 16 år. Information angående karies och profylax (p=0.01) samt rekommen-dationer om egenvård (p=0.04) hade oftare givits till CA än till CI-gruppen. Kompletterande undersökningar och rekommendation av extra riskprofylax var mer vanligt förekommande hos CA-gruppen (p<0.001). CA-patienterna hade även mer ofta gjort extra ansträngningar för att undvika karies genom att ändra matvanor (p<0.001), förbättra munhygien (p=0.04) och använt extra fluor (p=0.001). I CA-gruppen upplevde 60% att de trots sina extra profylaxinsatser inte blivit kariesfria, och 40% var inte nöjda med resultatet. De flesta patienter (>90%) satte dock stort värde till kariesprofylax som förväntades att kunna minska antalet kariesangrepp. Patientrapporterade utfallsmått för kariesprofylax överensstämde med journaldata. Både tandläkare och de kariesaktiva patienterna i denna studie var medvetna om behovet av extra profylax. De kariesaktiva patienterna hade genomfört mer extra profylax, men många hade ej upplevt att de blev kariesfria.

  • 5. Gabre, Pia
    et al.
    Birring, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.
    Gahnberg, Lars
    A 20-year study of dentists' and dental hygienists' assessment of dental caries lesions in bite-wing radiographs2006In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological data reveal that the prevalence of dental caries in western countries has decreased in recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate how dentists and dental hygienists assess dental caries lesions in bite-wing radiographs between 1983 and 2003. All dentists and dental hygienists in Public Dental Health in Uppsala County were offered to take part in the study. The participants assessed manifest and initial caries lesions in eight bite-wing radiographs from three patients individually. An X-ray viewer and binoculars were used. The assessments were repeated in the same radiographs every five years, a total of five times, between 1983 and 2003. In the different test occasions 80-103 dentists and 11-48 dental hygienists participated. The registration of dental caries changed between 1983 and 2003. The number of manifest lesions registered by dentists decreased between 1983 and 1988, but were stable after 1988. Dental hygienists showed no changes in the registration of manifest lesions during the study. Initial lesions registered by dentists and dental hygienists increased between 1988 and 1998. Assessments of initial caries lesions displayed a wider range than manifest lesions. Increasing age and more years in the profession resulted in fewer registered initial caries lesions. Dental hygienists had a tendency to register less caries than dentists. In conclusion, the result of the study indicate that inclusion of initial caries lesions in epidemiological reports should lead to a reduction in reliability. The changes in assessments of manifest caries lesions that took place in the 19805s should be considered when epidemiological data are evaluated.

  • 6. Hedlund, Camilla
    et al.
    Feldmann, Ingalill
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg.
    Success rate, costs and long-term stability of treatment with activator/headgear combinations2016In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 67-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to evaluate treatment outcome with activator-headgear combinations carried out by general dental practitioners, overall costs, long-term stability and patients' satisfaction with treatment outcome. Patients who were recommended to start treatment in 2006 were included in this study (n = 97). Inclusion criteria were: Class II Division 1 with at least half a cusp width distal molar relationship, overjet ≥ 6 mm and presence of dental records. Data were collected, pre-treatment, post-treatment and 3 years after treatment for those with favorable outcome. Patients at follow-up completed a questionnaire about satisfaction with treatment outcome, perceived pain and discomfort during treatment, and subjective need for additional treatment. Eighty-five patients were analyzed, 52 boys and 33 girls (mean age 11.2 years SD 1.39). Thirty-five patients had successful treatment outcome, 15 partially successful and 35 had an unsuccessful outcome. Total costs for all 85 patients amounted to SEK 1 405 000 including both direct and indirect costs. Thirty-eight patients participated in the 3-year follow-up. Treatment outcomes were then categorized as successful in 28 patients, partially successful in 9 patients and 1 patient was judged as unsuccessful. Median values on VAS (0-100) for overall satisfaction with treatment and treatment outcome were high, 78 and 84 respectively. Median value for perceived pain and discomfort during treatment was 42. Just over half of the patients had a favorable treatment outcome. Patients with favorable outcome were stable over time and satisfied with treatment.

  • 7.
    Hirsch, Jan M
    et al.
    Department of Oral Surgery, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
    Livian, G
    Edward, S
    Noren, J G
    Tobacco habits among teenagers in the city of Göteborg, Sweden, and possible association with dental caries1991In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 117-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frome nine dental clinics within the Public Dental Service in the City of Göteborg, 2145 patients aged 14 to 19 answered a questionnaire concerning their tobacco habits. Tobacco was used in some form by 27 per cent of the patients and use increased with age. Smoking was more common among girls than among boys: 24 and 12 per cent, respectively. The statistical analyses showed that smoking as a habit and an increased number of cigarettes smoked per day are positively correlated with increases in the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth and the number of initially decayed proximal surfaces. Further, all caries epidemiological data were significantly higher among patients with tobacco habits compared to non-users. It can be concluded that there is a correlation between the tobacco habit and increased caries prevalence. However, dietary and oral habits have to be further elucidated before any definite conclusions can be made regarding the effect of the tobacco habit per se on the development of caries.

  • 8.
    Hjalmarsson, Lars
    et al.
    The Mälar Hospital, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Jan-Ivan
    Aronsson, Gunilla
    Wennerberg, Ann
    Cellular responses to cobalt-chrome and CP titanium: an in vitro comparison of frameworks for implant-retained oral prostheses2011In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 177-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The responses of cell types in peri-implant tissues to cobalt-chrome and titanium were studied in vitro. Cylinders were made from both a cobalt-chrome alloy and commercially pure titanium (length 6 mm, diameter 7.9 mm). Plastic tubes were placed over the cylinders to create cell culture wells, in which human epithelial cells or mouse fibroblasts were cultivated. Cell viability was studied using the Alamar Blue method. The surface structure of two samples of each material was analyzed with optical interferometry. The morphology of cells grown on cylinders of each material was studied with scanning electronic microscopy. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts in the titanium group were more viable than those in the cobalt-chrome group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.000, respectively). The titanium surfaces had a greater height deviation (S(a), p = 0.027) but were less dense (S(ds), p = 0.044) than the cobalt-chrome group. The scanning electronic microscopy revealed no major deviations from normal cell morphology. Within the limitations of the present study, the findings indicate that epithelial cells as well as fibroblasts have a stronger negative response to cobalt-chrome alloy than to titanium. We suggest that these differences can be explained only bythe material per se and not by the minor differences in surface structure. Further and clinical studies are needed to confirm the significance of these findings.

  • 9. Johansson, Ann-Katrin
    et al.
    Nohlert, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Johansson, Anders
    Norring, Claes
    Tegelberg, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Dentists and eating disorders - knowledge, attitudes, management and experience2009In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to explore the level of knowledge and attitudes among dentists in relation to patients with eating disorders (ED) and evaluate the extent to which patients with ED are identified and/or treated in the dental setting. A postal questionnaire was constructed and sent to all dentists (n=367) in two Swedish counties during November 200S. The questionnaire comprised 29 questions or statements in the following categories: demographics, general knowledge of ED and its oral consequences, experience of and attitudes towards patients with ED and interaction within the health care system,for example, referrals and treatment options regarding this patient group. The response rate was 70% (n=258). Perceived knowledge about ED was most commonly obtained from media sources, namely newspapers, television, etc. Few dentists knew that there existed specialized referral units for ED patients in their county. The majority of dentists stated that they had seen only a few such patients during their practice. Even though the perceived level of general knowledge about ED among female dentists appeared to be better than among male dentists,they also found it more difficult to inform the patient/relatives about their suspicion of the condition. Female dentists referred to specialists significantly more frequently than did males. Eighty-six percent of responders reported that they needed more training in dental management of patients with ED. Knowledge and clinical experience of dentists as regards patients with ED were found to be low. The level of education in this area needs to be improved, which would have the potential to encourage dentists to become more involved in secondary and tertiary prevention and management of ED.

  • 10.
    Källestål, Carina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Fjelddahl, Anna
    A four-year cohort study of caries and its risk factors in adolescents with high and low risk at baseline2007In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 11-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To report and compare risk and preventive factors for caries in high -and low-risk adolescents from a 4-year cohort study on commonly used preventive measures for caries in adolescents in the Swedish Public Dental Service. Subjects and methods: In 1995 a cohort of 12-year-olds was examined for caries and completed a questionnaire. This procedure was repeated at age 14 and 16. The group identified as be in gat high risk was examined every year and this group was randomly assigned to one of four preventive programs. The outcomes examined were the caries increments using the DMF-indices. Poisson regression was used to assess risk and preventive factors. Results: The number of 12-year-olds participating was 3,373 in 1995 and 2,848 were still participating in 1999. A higher risk of caries increment was observed for adolescents from working-class homes, from outside Western Europe, and for those who often ate candy and did not brush their teeth twice a day. Important findings were the different results for the preventive factors when different DMF-indices were used as outcome measures and the fact that there was no difference between the high-risk group and the total group when it came to risk or preventive factors. The clinically tested prevention had a low effect i.e., the semi-annual application of fluoride varnish prevented 10% of the dentine and enamel caries development over 4 years.

  • 11. Lindfors, Erik
    et al.
    Magnusson, Tomas
    Tegelberg, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Interocclusal appliances - Indications and clinical routines in general dental practice in Sweden2006In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 123-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyse what kind of interocclusal appliances that are used in general dental practice in Sweden,the indications for such treatment,to what extent a clinical status is recorded before treatment, as well as the routines for evaluation of treatment results. The study was a retrospective an a lysis of patient records from 320 adult patients who had been treated by general dental practitioners in the Public Dental Service in Sweden. For comparison a group of 88 consecutive patients who had received interocclusal appliance therapy at a specialist clinic was used. The most common indication for treatment with hard acrylic stabilisation appliances, as well as with soft appliances, was occlusal wear due to tooth grinding. The second most common indication for treatment with hard acrylic stabilisation appliances was pain from masticatory muscles, while the second most common indication for soft appliances was tension-type headache. Treatment with soft appliances was more often combined with other treatment modalities compared to treatment with hard acrylic stabilisation appliances. Large variations were found between the 3 general dental clinics and the specialist clinic in respect of treatment indications, combinations with other treatment modalities, recording of clinical findings, follow-ups and evaluation of treatment results. General conclusion should, however, be made with caution due to the risk of selection bias. From the results of this study it is obvious that treatment with soft appliances is common in general dental practice in Sweden, despite the lack of scientific support for their efficacy, as well as effectiveness, compared to hard acrylic stabilisation appliances. There is an obvious need for investigations of the decision-making processes among dentists when performing treatment with interocclusal appliances, as well as for randomised controlled studies concerning efficacy and effectiveness of soft appliances.

  • 12.
    Tegelberg, Åke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    List, T
    Wahlund, K
    Wenneberg, B
    Temporomandibular disorders in children and adolescents: a survey of dentists' attitudes, routine and experience2001In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 119-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to survey the experience and routine of, attitudes toward, and need for specialist resources in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children and adolescents among public dentists. A questionnaire study was conducted in three counties in Sweden: Ostergötland, Västmanland, and Göteborg. The questionnaire was sent to 286 Public Dental Service dentists. It contained questions on demographic issues, quality assurance, clinical experience and expertise, attitudes, and the need for specialist resources. Eighty-seven per cent (250) of the dentists answered the questionnaire. The dentists in the three areas reported good routine and safety in occlusal splint treatments (74%-81%), occlusal equilibration (28%-55%), jaw exercise (25%-29%), and medication treatments (3%-55%). Good experience concerning diagnostics and therapy decision was reported by 25%-50% of the dentists. A significantly greater portion of the dentists in Västmanland had attended courses in TMD compared with the two other counties (p = 0.001). Registrations of quality variables such as verbal and/or written case histories with questions on facial pain and tension-type headache (1%-39%) and measurements of jaw openings were performed less frequently in the three counties (0%-5%). Fifty-five per cent of the dentists had a positive attitude toward the care of children and adolescents with TMD. A large need for specialist resources with the possibility to send referrals or to consult was reported by 98%-100% of the respondents, to participate in continuing education by 97%-98%, and to do auscultation by 61%-82%. In conclusion, many of the dentists lacked routines for making diagnoses, deciding therapy, and judging treatment results. Good routines were reported only in occlusal splint therapy. The majority of the dentists had a positive attitude toward the care of children and adolescents with TMD-related symptoms. The majority of the dentists reported a great need for TMD specialists.he

  • 13.
    Tegelberg, Åke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nohlert, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Bergman, Lars-Eric
    Andrén, Ann
    Bed partners' and patients' experiences after treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea with an oral appliance2012In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate bed-partners' and patients' self-reports of general well-being, physical strength and mental energy after treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with a mandibular advancement oral appliance (OA). Patients (N = 134) referred from medical physicians diagnosed with true OSA, i.e. an apnoea-hypopnoea index of > 10, were treated with an OA for more than one year. The somnographic evaluations were undertaken in a patient's home before the start of, and six months after, treatment. An individually designed monobloc OA was manufactured by a dental technician for nightly use. After one year of treatment, a follow-up questionnaire was sent to patients whose sleep disorder was reduced > 50% from baseline values and to their bed partners. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions or statements with multi-answer alternatives concerning well-being, physical strength, mental energy, sleep, day and night symptoms, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS: eight questions). The questionnaire was answered by 82% (110/134) of the patients and 85 bed partners. Both patients and bed partners reported improvement in general well-being, physical strength and mental energy, between 70-80% for patients and 55-68% for bed partners sharing the same bed-room. Similar results were found for concentration ability, joyfulness and strength of effort in social intercourse, as well as decreased daytime sleepiness, improvement in the feeling of getting enough sleep and reduced nocturia. Conclusions: In all dimensions, the treatment effect had a great influence, not only on patients but on bed partners as well.

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