uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 120
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Abbott, Jessica K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Intra-locus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphroditic animals2011In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 278, no 1703, p. 161-169Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intra-locus sexual conflict results when sex-specific selection pressures for a given trait act against the intra-sexual genetic correlation for that trait. It has been found in a wide variety of taxa in both laboratory and natural populations, but the importance of intra-locus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphroditic organisms has rarely been considered. This is not so surprising given the conceptual and theoretical association of intra-locus sexual conflict with sexual dimorphism, but there is no a priori reason why intra-locus sexual conflict cannot occur in hermaphroditic organisms as well. Here, I discuss the potential for intra-locus sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals and review the available evidence for such conflict, and for the existence of sexually antagonistic genetic variation in hermaphrodites. I argue that mutations with asymmetric effects are particularly likely to be important in mediating sexual antagonism in hermaphroditic organisms. Moreover, sexually antagonistic genetic variation is likely to play an important role in inter-individual variation in sex allocation and in transitions to and from gonochorism (separate sexes) in simultaneous hermaphrodites. I also describe how sequential hermaphrodites may experience a unique form of intra-locus sexual conflict via antagonistic pleiotropy. Finally, I conclude with some suggestions for further research.

  • 2. Alatalo, R V
    et al.
    Hoglund, J
    Lundberg, A
    Rintamaki, P T
    Silverin, B
    Testosterone and male mating success on the black grouse leks1996In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 263, no 1377, p. 1697-1702Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Andres, J A
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Genetic divergence of the seminal signal-receptor system in houseflies: the footprints of sexually antagonistic coevolution?2001In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 268, no 1465, p. 399-405Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Aplin, Lucy M.
    et al.
    Farine, Damien R.
    Mann, Richard P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Individual-level personality influences social foraging and collective behaviour in wild birds2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1789, p. 20141016-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence that animal groups can maintain coordinated behaviour and make collective decisions based on simple interaction rules. Effective collective action may be further facilitated by individual variation within groups, particularly through leader-follower polymorphisms. Recent studies have suggested that individual-level personality traits influence the degree to which individuals use social information, are attracted to conspecifics, or act as leaders/followers. However, evidence is equivocal and largely limited to laboratory studies. We use an automated data-collection system to conduct an experiment testing the relationship between personality and collective decision-making in the wild. First, we report that foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) show strikingly synchronous behaviour. A predictive model of collective decision-making replicates patterns well, suggesting simple interaction rules are sufficient to explain the observed social behaviour. Second, within groups, individuals with more reactive personalities behave more collectively, moving to within-flock areas of higher density. By contrast, proactive individuals tend to move to and feed at spatial periphery of flocks. Finally, comparing alternative simulations of flocking with empirical data, we demonstrate that variation in personality promotes within-patch movement while maintaining group cohesion. Our results illustrate the importance of incorporating individual variability in models of social behaviour.

  • 5.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sayadi, Ahmed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hotzy, Cosima
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Rankin, Daniel
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Tuda, Midori
    Kyushu Univ, Dept Bioresource Sci, Lab Insect Nat Enemies, Fukuoka 8128581, Japan.;Kyushu Univ, Inst Biol Control, Fac Agr, Fukuoka 8128581, Japan..
    Hjelmen, Carl E.
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Entomol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA..
    Johnston, J. Spencer
    Texas A&M Univ, Dept Entomol, College Stn, TX 77843 USA..
    Genome size correlates with reproductive fitness in seed beetles2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1815, article id 20151421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimate cause of genome size (GS) evolution in eukaryotes remains a major and unresolved puzzle in evolutionary biology. Large-scale comparative studies have failed to find consistent correlations between GS and organismal properties, resulting in the 'C-value paradox'. Current hypotheses for the evolution of GS are based either on the balance between mutational events and drift or on natural selection acting upon standing genetic variation in GS. It is, however, currently very difficult to evaluate the role of selection because within-species studies that relate variation in life-history traits to variation in GS are very rare. Here, we report phylogenetic comparative analyses of GS evolution in seed beetles at two distinct taxonomic scales, which combines replicated estimation of GS with experimental assays of life-history traits and reproductive fitness. GS showed rapid and bidirectional evolution across species, but did not show correlated evolution with any of several indices of the relative importance of genetic drift. Within a single species, GS varied by 4-5% across populations and showed positive correlated evolution with independent estimates of male and female reproductive fitness. Collectively, the phylogenetic pattern of GS diversification across and within species in conjunction with the pattern of correlated evolution between GS and fitness provide novel support for the tenet that natural selection plays a key role in shaping GS evolution.

  • 6.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Tuda, Midori
    Sexual conflict and the gender load: correlated evolution between population fitness and sexual dimorphism in seed beetles2010In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 277, no 1686, p. 1345-1352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although males and females share much of the same genome, selection is often distinct in the two sexes. Sexually antagonistic loci will in theory cause a gender load in populations, because sex-specific selection on a given trait in one sex will compromise the adaptive evolution of the same trait in the other sex. However, it is currently not clear whether such intralocus sexual conflict (ISC) represents a transient evolutionary state, where conflict is rapidly resolved by the evolution of sexual dimorphism (SD), or whether it is a more chronic impediment to adaptation. All else being equal, ISC should manifest itself as correlated evolution between population fitness and SD in traits expressed in both sexes. However, comparative tests of this prediction are problematic and have been unfeasible. Here, we assess the effects of ISC by comparing fitness and SD across distinct laboratory populations of seed beetles that should be well adapted to a shared environment. We show that SD in juvenile development time, a key life-history trait with a history of sexually antagonistic selection in this model system, is positively related to fitness. This effect is due to a correlated evolution between population fitness and development time that is positive in females but negative in males. Loosening the genetic bind between the sexes has evidently allowed the sexes to approach their distinct adaptive peaks.

  • 7.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Vellnow, Nikolas
    Rowe, Locke
    The effect of epistasis on sexually antagonistic genetic variation2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1787, p. 20140489-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence of segregating sexually antagonistic (SA) genetic variation for fitness in laboratory and wild populations, yet the conditions for the maintenance of such variation can be restrictive. Epistatic interactions between genes can contribute to the maintenance of genetic variance in fitness and we suggest that epistasis between SA genes should be pervasive. Here, we explore its effect on SA genetic variation in fitness using a two locus model with negative epistasis. Our results demonstrate that epistasis often increases the parameter space showing polymorphism for SA loci. This is because selection in one locus is affected by allele frequencies at the other, which can act to balance net selection in males and females. Increased linkage between SA loci had more marginal effects. We also show that under some conditions, large portions of the parameter space evolve to a state where male benefit alleles are fixed at one locus and female benefit alleles at the other. This novel effect of epistasis on SA loci, which we term the 'equity effect', may have important effects on population differentiation and may contribute to speciation. More generally, these results support the suggestion that epistasis contributes to population divergence.

  • 8.
    Berg, Elena C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Sexes suffer from suboptimal lifespan because of genetic conflict in a seed beetle2012In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 279, no 1745, p. 4296-4302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males and females have different routes to successful reproduction, resulting in sex differences in lifespan and age-specific allocation of reproductive effort. The trade-off between current and future reproduction is often resolved differently by males and females, and both sexes can be constrained in their ability to reach their sex-specific optima owing to intralocus sexual conflict. Such genetic antagonism may have profound implications for evolution, but its role in ageing and lifespan remains unresolved. We provide direct experimental evidence that males live longer and females live shorter than necessary to maximize their relative fitness in Callosobruchus maculatus seed beetles. Using artificial selection in a genetically heterogeneous population, we created replicate long-life lines where males lived on average 27 per cent longer than in short-life lines. As predicted by theory, subsequent assays revealed that upward selection on male lifespan decreased relative male fitness but increased relative female fitness compared with downward selection. Thus, we demonstrate that lifespan-extending genes can help one sex while harming the other. Our results show that sexual antagonism constrains adaptive life-history evolution, support a novel way of maintaining genetic variation for lifespan and argue for better integration of sex effects into applied research programmes aimed at lifespan extension.

  • 9.
    Berger, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Stångberg, Josefine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Grieshop, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Martinossi-Allibert, Ivain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Temperature effects on life-history trade-offs, germline maintenance and mutation rate under simulated climate warming2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1866, article id 20171721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutation has a fundamental influence over evolutionary processes, but how evolutionary processes shape mutation rate remains less clear. In asexual unicellular organism, increased mutation rates have been observed in stressful environments and the reigning paradigm ascribes this increase to selection for evolvability. However, this explanation does not apply in sexually reproducing species, where little is known about how the environment affects mutation rate. Here we challenged experimental lines of seed beetle, evolved at ancestral temperature or under simulated climate warming, to repair induced mutations at ancestral and stressful temperature. Results show that temperature stress causes individuals to pass on a greater mutation load to their grand-offspring. This suggests that stress-induced mutation rates, in unicellular and multicellular organisms alike, can result from compromised germline DNA repair in low condition individuals. Moreover, lines adapted to simulated climate warming had evolved increased longevity at the cost of reproduction, and this allocation decision improved germline repair. These results suggest that mutation rates can be modulated by resource allocation trade-offs encompassing life-history traits and the germline and have important implications for rates of adaptation and extinction as well as our understanding of genetic diversity in multicellular organisms.

  • 10.
    Birnir, Bryndis
    et al.
    John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University.
    Tierney, M L
    Howitt, S M
    Cox, G B
    Gage, P W
    A combination of human alpha 1 and beta 1 subunits is required for formation of detectable GABA-activated chloride channels in Sf9 cells.1992In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 250, no 1329, p. 307-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The baculovirus expression system was used to produce alpha 1 and beta 1 subunits of the human GABAA receptor in Sf9 cells. In cells infected with both alpha 1 and beta 1 recombinant viruses, GABA elicited an outwardly rectifying chloride current that was blocked by bicuculline and potentiated by pentobarbitone. GABA did not produce detectable currents in cells infected with either alpha 1 or beta 1 recombinant viruses alone. In these cells, and in control (non-infected) Sf9 cells, pentobarbitone depressed the leakage current (Ki = 55 microM). Fluorescently labelled monoclonal antibodies to the alpha 1 subunit showed greater amounts of the alpha 1 subunit in cells infected with only the alpha 1 recombinant virus than in cells co-infected with the alpha 1 and beta 1 recombinant viruses. Fluorescence of the plasma membrane was seen in cells co-infected with the alpha 1 and beta 1 recombinant viruses, but was absent in cells infected with only the alpha 1 recombinant virus. It was concluded that the alpha 1 subunit normally interacts with the beta 1 subunit to be transported to the plasma membrane in Sf9 cells.

  • 11.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Stone, Jon
    Delayed prezygotic isolating mechansims: evolution with a twist2002In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 269, p. 861-865Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Both, C
    et al.
    Artemyev, A V
    Blaauw, B
    Cowie, R J
    Dekhuijzen, A J
    Eeva, T
    Enemar, A
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ivankina, E V
    Jarvinen, A
    Metcalfe, N B
    Nyholm, N E I
    Potti, J
    Ravussin, P A
    Sanz, J J
    Silverin, B
    Slater, F M
    Sokolov, L V
    Torok, J
    Winkel, W
    Wright, J
    Zang, H
    Visser, M E
    Large-scale geographical variation confirms that climate change causes birds to lay earlier2004In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 271, no 1549, p. 1657-1662Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Bousquet, Christophe A. H.
    et al.
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
    Manser, Marta B.
    Moving calls: a vocal mechanism underlying quorum decisions in cohesive groups2011In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 278, no 1711, p. 1482-1488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Members of social groups need to coordinate their behaviour when choosing between alternative activities. Consensus decisions enable group members to maintain group cohesion and one way to reach consensus is to rely on quorums. A quorum response is where the probability of an activity change sharply increases with the number of individuals supporting the new activity. Here, we investigated how meerkats (Suricata suricatta) use vocalizations in the context of movement decisions. Moving calls emitted by meerkats increased the speed of the group, with a sharp increase in the probability of changing foraging patch when the number of group members joining the chorus increased from two up to three. These calls had no apparent effect on the group's movement direction. When dominant individuals were involved in the chorus, the group's reaction was not stronger than when only subordinates called. Groups only increased speed in response to playbacks of moving calls from one individual when other group members emitted moving calls as well. The voting mechanism linked to a quorum probably allows meerkat groups to change foraging patches cohesively with increased speed. Such vocal coordination may reflect an aggregation rule linking individual assessment of foraging patch quality to group travel route.

  • 14. Braga Goncalves, Ines
    et al.
    Mobley, Kenyon B.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sagebakken, Gry
    Jones, Adam G.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Reproductive compensation in broad-nosed pipefish females2010In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 277, no 1687, p. 1581-1587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The differential allocation hypothesis assumes that animals should weigh costs and benefits of investing into reproduction with a current mate against the expected quality of future mates, and predicts that they should invest more into reproduction when pairing with a high-quality mate. In the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), males care for the embryos in a brood pouch and females compete for access to male mating partners. Both sexes prefer mating with large partners. In the present study, we show that the same female provides both large and small mating partners with eggs of similar size, weight and lipid content when mated to two males in succession. Importantly, however, eggs provided to small males (less preferred) had higher egg protein content (11% more) than those provided to large males (preferred). Thus, contrary to the differential allocation hypothesis, eggs did not contain more resources when females mated with a larger male. Instead, the pattern observed in our results is consistent with a compensatory reproductive strategy.

  • 15. Brooks, Robert
    et al.
    Scott, Isabel M.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Kasumovic, Michael M.
    Clark, Andrew P.
    Penton-Voak, Ian S.
    National income inequality predicts women's preferences for masculinized faces better than health does2011In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 278, no 1707, p. 810-812Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16. Bruckner, Tim A.
    et al.
    Helle, Samuli
    Bolund, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lummaa, Virpi
    Culled males, infant mortality and reproductive success in a pre-industrial Finnish population2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical and empirical literature asserts that the sex ratio (i.e. M/F) at birth gauges the strength of selection in utero and cohort quality of males that survive to birth. We report the first individual-level test in humans, using detailed life-history data, of the 'culled cohort' hypothesis that males born to low annual sex ratio cohorts show lower than expected infant mortality and greater than expected lifetime reproductive success. We applied time-series and structural equation methods to a unique multi-generational dataset of a natural fertility population in nineteenth century Finland. We find that, consistent with culled cohorts, a 1 s.d. decline in the annual cohort sex ratio precedes an 8% decrease in the risk of male infant mortality. Males born to lower cohort sex ratios also successfully raised 4% more offspring to reproductive age than did males born to higher cohort sex ratios. The offspring result, however, falls just outside conventional levels of statistical significance. In historical Finland, the cohort sex ratio gauges selection against males in utero and predicts male infant mortality. The reproductive success findings, however, provide weak support for an evolutionarily adaptive explanation of male culling in utero.

  • 17.
    Butler, Aodhán D.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Cunningham, John A.
    Budd, Graham E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Donoghue, Philip C. J.
    Experimental taphonomy of Artemia reveals the role of endogenous microbes in mediating decay and fossilization2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1808, article id 20150476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exceptionally preserved fossils provide major insights into the evolutionary history of life. Microbial activity is thought to play a pivotal role in both the decay of organisms and the preservation of soft tissue in the fossil record, though this has been the subject of very little experimental investigation. To remedy this, we undertook an experimental study of the decay of the brine shrimp Artemia, examining the roles of autolysis, microbial activity, oxygen diffusion and reducing conditions. Our findings indicate that endogenous gut bacteria are the main factor controlling decay. Following gut wall rupture, but prior to cuticle failure, gut-derived microbes spread into the body cavity, consuming tissues and forming biofilms capable of 1 mediating authigenic mineralization, that pseudomorph tissues and structures such as limbs and the haemocoel. These observations explain patterns observed in exceptionally preserved fossil arthropods. For example, guts are preserved relatively frequently, while preservation of other internal anatomy is rare. They also suggest that gut-derived microbes play a key role in the preservation of internal anatomy and that differential preservation between exceptional deposits might be because of factors that control autolysis and microbial activity. The findings also suggest that the evolution of a through gut and its bacterial microflora increased the potential for exceptional fossil preservation in bilaterians, providing one explanation for the extreme rarity of internal preservation in those animals that lack a through gut.

  • 18.
    Carter, Mauricio J.
    et al.
    Univ Chile, Ctr Nacl Medio Ambiente, Ave Larrain 9975, Santiago, Chile.;Univ Andres Bello, Dept Ecol, Fac Ecol & Recursos Nat, Santiago, Chile..
    Lind, Martin I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Dennis, Stuart R.
    Eawag, Dept Aquat Ecol, Uberlandstr 133, CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland..
    Hentley, William
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England..
    Beckerman, Andrew P.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England..
    Evolution of a predator-induced, nonlinear reaction norm2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1861, article id 20170859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inducible, anti-predator traits are a classic example of phenotypic plasticity. Their evolutionary dynamics depend on their genetic basis, the historical pattern of predation risk that populations have experienced and current selection gradients. When populations experience predators with contrasting hunting strategies and size preferences, theory suggests contrasting micro-evolutionary responses to selection. Daphnia pulex is an ideal species to explore the microevolutionary response of anti-predator traits because they face heterogeneous predation regimes, sometimes experiencing only invertebrate midge predators and other times experiencing vertebrate fish and invertebrate midge predators. We explored plausible patterns of adaptive evolution of a predator-induced morphological reaction norm. We combined estimates of selection gradients that characterize the various habitats that D. pulex experiences with detail on the quantitative genetic architecture of inducible morphological defences. Our data reveal a fine scale description of daphnid defensive reaction norms, and a strong covariance between the sensitivity to cues and the maximum response to cues. By analysing the response of the reaction norm to plausible, predator-specific selection gradients, we show how in the context of this covariance, micro-evolution may be more uniform than predicted from size-selective predation theory. Our results show how covariance between the sensitivity to cues and the maximum response to cues for morphological defence can shape the evolutionary trajectory of predator-induced defences in D. pulex.

  • 19.
    Carter, Mauricio J.
    et al.
    Universidad de Chile, Centro Nacional del Medio Ambiente; Universidad Andres Bello, Facultad de Ecología y Recursos Naturales, Departamento de Ecología.
    Lind, Martin I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Dennis, Stuart R.
    Eawag, Department of Aquatic Ecology.
    Hentley, William
    University of Sheffield, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences.
    Beckerman, Andrew P.
    University of Sheffield, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences.
    Evolution of a predator-induced, nonlinear reaction norm2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1861, article id 20170859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inducible, anti-predator traits are a classic example of phenotypic plasticity. Their evolutionary dynamics depend on their genetic basis, the historical pattern of predation risk that populations have experienced and current selection gradients. When populations experience predators with contrasting hunting strategies and size preferences, theory suggests contrasting micro-evolutionary responses to selection. Daphnia pulex is an ideal species to explore the microevolutionary response of anti-predator traits because they face heterogeneous predation regimes, sometimes experiencing only invertebrate midge predators and other times experiencing vertebrate fish and invertebrate midge predators. We explored plausible patterns of adaptive evolution of a predator-induced morphological reaction norm. We combined estimates of selection gradients that characterize the various habitats that D. pulex experiences with detail on the quantitative genetic architecture of inducible morphological defences. Our data reveal a fine scale description of daphnid defensive reaction norms, and a strong covariance between the sensitivity to cues and the maximum response to cues. By analysing the response of the reaction norm to plausible, predator-specific selection gradients, we show how in the context of this covariance, micro-evolution may be more uniform than predicted from size-selective predation theory. Our results show how covariance between the sensitivity to cues and the maximum response to cues for morphological defence can shape the evolutionary trajectory of predator-induced defences in D. pulex.

  • 20. Chen, Yu-Chia
    et al.
    Harrison, Peter W.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Mank, Judith E.
    Panula, Pertti
    Expression change in Angiopoietin-1 underlies change in relative brain size in fish2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1810, article id 20150872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain size varies substantially across the animal kingdom and is often associated with cognitive ability; however, the genetic architecture underpinning natural variation in these key traits is virtually unknown. In order to identify the genetic architecture and loci underlying variation in brain size, we analysed both coding sequence and expression for all the loci expressed in the telencephalon in replicate populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) artificially selected for large and small relative brain size. A single gene, Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), a regulator of angiogenesis and suspected driver of neural development, was differentially expressed between large-and small-brain populations. Zebra fish (Danio rerio) morphants showed that mild knock down of Ang-1 produces a small-brained phenotype that could be rescued with Ang-1 mRNA. Translation inhibition of Ang-1 resulted in smaller brains in larvae and increased expression of Notch-1, which regulates differentiation of neural stem cells. In situ analysis of newborn large-and small-brained guppies revealed matching expression patterns of Ang-1 and Notch-1 to those observed in zebrafish larvae. Taken together, our results suggest that the genetic architecture affecting brain size in our population may be surprisingly simple, and Ang-1 may be a potentially important locus in the evolution of vertebrate brain size and cognitive ability.

  • 21. Collet, Julie M.
    et al.
    Dean, Rebecca F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Worley, Kirsty
    Richardson, David S.
    Pizzari, Tommaso
    The measure and significance of Bateman's principles2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1782, p. 20132973-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  • 22. Covas, R
    et al.
    Griesser, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Life history and the evolution of family living in birds2007In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 274, no 1616, p. 1349-1357Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reason why some bird species live in family groups is an important question of evolutionary biology that remains unanswered. Families arise when young delay the onset of independent reproduction and remain with their parents beyond independence. Explanations for why individuals forgo independent reproduction have hitherto focused on dispersal constraints, such as the absence of high-quality breeding openings. However, while constraints successfully explain within-population dispersal decisions, they fail as an ultimate explanation for variation in family formation across species. Most family-living species are long-lived and recent life-history studies demonstrated that a delayed onset of reproduction can be adaptive in long-lived species. Hence, delayed dispersal and reproduction might be an adaptive life-history decision rather than ‘the best of a bad job’. Here, we attempt to provide a predictive framework for the evolution of families by integrating life-history theory into family formation theory. We suggest that longevity favours a delayed onset of reproduction and gives parents the opportunity of a prolonged investment in offspring, an option which is not available for short-lived species. Yet, parents should only prolong their investment in offspring if this increases offspring survival and outweighs the fitness cost that parents incur, which is only possible under ecological conditions, such as a predictable access to resources. We therefore propose that both life-history and ecological factors play a role in determining the evolution of family living across species, yet we suggest different mechanisms than those proposed by previous models.

  • 23.
    Cunha, M
    et al.
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, CIBIO InBIO, Vairao, Portugal.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Mendes, S
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, CIBIO InBIO, Vairao, Portugal.
    Monteiro, N
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, CIBIO InBIO, Vairao, Portugal; Univ Fernando Pessoa, Fac Ciencias Saude, CEBIMED, Porto, Portugal.
    The ‘Woman in Red’ effect: pipefish males curb pregnancies at the sight of an attractive female2018In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 285, no 1885, article id 20181335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an old Gene Wilder movie, an attractive woman dressed in red devastated a man’s current relationship. We have found a similar ‘Woman in Red’ effect in pipefish, a group of fish where pregnancy occurs in males. We tested for the existence of pregnancy blocks in pregnant male black-striped pipefish (Syngnathus abaster). We allowed pregnant males to see females that were larger and even more attractive than their original high-quality mates and monitored the survival and growth of developing offspring. After exposure to these extremely attractive females, males produced smaller offspring in more heterogeneous broods and showed a higher rate of spontaneous offspring abortion. Although we did not observe a full pregnancy block, our results show that males are able to reduce investment in current broods when faced with prospects of a more successful future reproduction with a potentially better mate. This ‘Woman in Red’ life-history trade-off between present and future reproduction has similarities to the Bruce effect, and our study represents, to our knowledge, the first documentation of such a phenomenon outside mammals.

  • 24. Dacks, JB
    et al.
    Davis, LAM
    Sjögren, ÅM
    Andersson, Jan O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Molecular Evolution.
    Roger, AJ
    Doolittle, WF
    Evidence for cryptic Golgi in putatively ‘Golgi-lacking’ lineages2003In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 270, p. S168-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Golgi bodies are nearly ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells. The apparent lack of such structures in certain eukaryotic lineages might be taken to mean that these protists evolved prior to the acquisition of the Golgi, and it raises questions of how these orga

  • 25.
    Dahlgren, Johan Petter
    et al.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Max Planck Odense Ctr Biodemog Aging, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.;Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Biol, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark..
    Colchero, Fernando
    Univ Southern Denmark, Max Planck Odense Ctr Biodemog Aging, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.;Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Math & Comp Sci, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark..
    Jones, Owen R.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Max Planck Odense Ctr Biodemog Aging, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.;Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Biol, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark..
    Oien, Dag-Inge
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU Univ Museum, Dept Nat Hist, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Moen, Asbjorn
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU Univ Museum, Dept Nat Hist, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Actuarial senescence in a long-lived orchid challenges our current understanding of ageing2016In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 283, no 1842, article id 20161217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant evolutionary theory of actuarial senescence-an increase in death rate with advancing age-is based on the concept of a germ cell line that is separated from the somatic cells early in life. However, such a separation is not clear in all organisms. This has been suggested to explain the paucity of evidence for actuarial senescence in plants. We used a 32 year study of Dactylorhiza lapponica that replaces its organs each growing season, to test whether individuals of this tuberous orchid senesce. We performed a Bayesian survival trajectory analysis accounting for reproductive investment, for individuals under two types of land use, in two climatic regions. The mortality trajectory was best approximated by a Weibull model, showing clear actuarial senescence. Rates of senescence in this model declined with advancing age, but were slightly higher in mown plots and in the more benign climatic region. At older ages, senescence was evident only when accounting for a positive effect of reproductive investment on mortality. Our results demonstrate actuarial senescence as well as a survival-reproduction trade-off in plants, and indicate that environmental context may influence senescence rates. This knowledge is crucial for understanding the evolution of demographic senescence and for models of plant population dynamics.

  • 26. Davis, Alison R.
    et al.
    Corl, Ammon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Surget-Groba, Yann
    Sinervo, Barry
    Convergent evolution of kin-based sociality in a lizard2011In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 278, no 1711, p. 1507-1514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of social birds and mammals have produced extensive theory regarding the formation and dynamics of kin-based social groups in vertebrates. However, comparing kin dynamics in birds and mammals to social reptiles provides the opportunity to identify selective factors that promote independent origins of kin sociality across vertebrates. We combined a 5-year mark-recapture study with a DNA microsatellite analysis of relatedness in a social lizard (Xantusia vigilis) to examine the formation and stability of kin groups. We found that these lizards are highly sedentary and that groups often form through the delayed dispersal of offspring. Groups containing juveniles had higher relatedness than adult-only groups, as juveniles were commonly found in aggregations with at least one parent and/or sibling. Groups containing nuclear family members were more stable than groups of less-related lizards, as predicted by social theory. We conclude that X. vigilis aggregations conform to patterns of kin sociality observed in avian and mammalian systems and represent an example of convergent evolution in social systems. We suggest that kin-based sociality in this and other lizards may be a by-product of viviparity, which can promote delayed juvenile dispersal by allowing prolonged interaction between a neonate and its mother.

  • 27.
    Davis, Robert B
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of York.
    Baldauf, Sandra L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Mayhew, Peter J
    Department of Biology, University of York.
    Many hexapod groups originated earlier and withstood extinction events better than previously realized: inferences from supertrees2010In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 277, no 1687, p. 1597-1606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprising over half of all described species, the hexapods are central to understanding the evolution of global biodiversity. Direct fossil evidence suggests that new hexapod orders continued to originate from the Jurassic onwards, and diversity is presently higher than ever. Previous studies also suggest that several shifts in net diversification rate have occurred at higher taxonomic levels. However, their inferred timing is phylogeny dependent. We re-examine these issues using the supertree approach to provide, to our knowledge, the first composite estimates of hexapod order-level phylogeny. The Purvis matrix representation with parsimony method provides the most optimal supertree, but alternative methods are considered. Inferring ghost ranges shows richness of terminal lineages in the order-level phylogeny to peak just before the end-Permian extinction, rather than the present day, indicating that at least 11 more lineages survived this extinction than implied by fossils alone. The major upshift in diversification is associated with the origin of wings/wing folding and for the first time, to our knowledge, significant downshifts are shown associated with the origin of species-poor taxa (e.g. Neuropterida, Zoraptera). Polyneopteran phylogeny, especially the position of Zoraptera, remains important resolve because this influences findings regarding shifts in diversification. Our study shows how combining fossil with phylogenetic information can improve macroevolutionary inferences.

  • 28.
    de Boer, Hugo J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway.;Nat Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Ghorbani, Abdolbaset
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Manzanilla, Vincent
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway..
    Raclariu, Ancuta-Cristina
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, Oslo, Norway.;NIRDBIS, Stejarul Res Ctr Biol Sci, Piatra Neamt, Romania..
    Kreziou, Anna
    Argonafton 30, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Ounjai, Sarawut
    Chiang Mai Univ, Dept Biol, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Osathanunkul, Maslin
    Chiang Mai Univ, Dept Biol, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Gravendeel, Barbara
    Nat Biodivers Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands..
    DNA metabarcoding of orchid-derived products reveals widespread illegal orchid trade2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1863, article id 20171182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In eastern Mediterranean countries orchids continue to be collected from the wild for the production of salep, a beverage made of dried orchid tubers. In this study we used nrITS1 and nrITS2 DNA metabarcoding to identify orchid and other plant species present in 55 commercial salep products purchased in Iran, Turkey, Greece and Germany. Thirty samples yielded a total of 161 plant taxa, and 13 products (43%) contained orchid species and these belonged to 10 terrestrial species with tuberous roots. Another 70% contained the substitute ingredient Cyamopsis tetraganoloba (Guar). DNA metabarcoding using the barcoding markers nrITS1 and nrITS2 shows the potential of these markers and approach for identification of species used in salep products. The analysis of interspecific genetic distances between sequences of these markers for the most common salep orchid genera shows that species level identifications can be made with a high level of confidence. Understanding the species diversity and provenance of salep orchid tubers will enable the chain of commercialization of endangered species to be traced back to the harvesters and their natural habitats, and thus allow for targeted efforts to protect or sustainably use wild populations of these orchids.

  • 29. Doligez, Blandine
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Pärt, Tomas
    'Heritability' of dispersal propensity in a patchy population2009In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, no 1668, p. 2829-2836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although dispersal is often considered to be a plastic, condition-dependent trait with low heritability, growing evidence supports medium to high levels of dispersal heritability. Obtaining unbiased estimates of dispersal heritability in natural populations nevertheless remains crucial to understand the evolution of dispersal strategies and their population consequences. Here we show that dispersal propensity (i.e. the probability of dispersal between habitat patches) displays a significant heritability in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis, as estimated by within-family resemblance when accounting for environmental factors. Offspring of dispersing mothers or fathers had a higher propensity to disperse to a new habitat patch themselves. The effect of parental dispersal status was additional to that of local habitat quality, as measured by local breeding population size and success, confirming previous results about condition-dependent dispersal in this population. The estimated levels of heritability varied between 0.30+/-0.07 and 0.47+/-0.10, depending on parent-offspring comparisons made and correcting for a significant assortative mating with respect to dispersal status. Siblings also displayed a significant resemblance in dispersal propensity. These results suggest that variation in between-patch natal dispersal in the collared flycatcher is partly genetically determined, and we discuss ways to quantify this genetic basis and its implications.

  • 30. Domenici, P.
    et al.
    Wilson, A. D. M.
    Kurvers, R. H. J. M.
    Marras, S.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Steffensen, J. F.
    Krause, S.
    Viblanc, P. E.
    Couillaud, P.
    Krause, J.
    How sailfish use their bills to capture schooling prey2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1784, p. 20140444-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The istiophorid family of billfishes is characterized by an extended rostrum or 'bill'. While various functions (e.g. foraging and hydrodynamic benefits) have been proposed for this structure, until now no study has directly investigated the mechanisms by which billfishes use their rostrum to feed on prey. Here, we present the first unequivocal evidence of how the bill is used by Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) to attack schooling sardines in the open ocean. Using high-speed video-analysis, we show that (i) sailfish manage to insert their bill into sardine schools without eliciting an evasive response and (ii) subsequently use their bill to either tap on individual prey targets or to slash through the school with powerful lateral motions characterized by one of the highest accelerations ever recorded in an aquatic vertebrate. Our results demonstrate that the combination of stealth and rapid motion make the sailfish bill an extremely effective feeding adaptation for capturing schooling prey.

  • 31.
    Dougherty, Liam R.
    et al.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Ctr Evolutionary Biol, Australia..
    van Lieshout, Emile
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Ctr Evolutionary Biol, Australia..
    McNamara, Kathryn B.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Ctr Evolutionary Biol, Crawley, Australia..
    Moschilla, Joe A.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Ctr Evolutionary Biol, Australia..
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Simmons, Leigh W.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Biol Sci, Ctr Evolutionary Biol, Australia..
    Sexual conflict and correlated evolution between male persistence and female resistance traits in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1855, article id 20170132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic mating (or copulatory wounding) is an extreme form of sexual conflict whereby male genitalia physically harm females during mating. In such species females are expected to evolve counter-adaptations to reduce male-induced harm. Importantly, female counter-adaptations may include both genital and non-genital traits. in this study, we examine evolutionary associations between harmful male genital morphology and female reproductive tract morphology and immune function across 13 populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We detected positive correlated evolution between the injuriousness of male genitalia and putative female resistance adaptations across populations. Moreover, we found evidence for a negative relationship between female immunity and population productivity, which suggests that investment in female resistance may be costly due to the resource trade-offs that are predicted between immunity and reproduction. Finally, the degree of female tract scarring (harm to females) was greater in those populations with both longer aedeagal spines and a thinner female tract lining. Our results are thus consistent with a sexual arms race, which is only apparent when both male and female traits are taken into account. Importantly, our study provides rare evidence for sexually antagonistic coevolution of male and female traits at the within-species level.

  • 32. Dussutour, A
    et al.
    Beekman, M
    Nicolis, S. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
    Meyer, B
    Noise improves collective decision-making by ants in dynamic environments2009In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, no 1677, p. 4353-4361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recruitment via pheromone trails by ants is arguably one of the best-studied examples of self-organization in animal societies. Yet it is still unclear if and how trail recruitment allows a colony to adapt to changes in its foraging environment. We study foraging decisions by colonies of the ant Pheidole megacephala under dynamic conditions. Our experiments show that P. megacephala, unlike many other mass recruiting species, can make a collective decision for the better of two food sources even when the environment changes dynamically. We developed a stochastic differential equation model that explains our data qualitatively and quantitatively. Analysing this model reveals that both deterministic and stochastic effects (noise) work together to allow colonies to efficiently track changes in the environment. Our study thus suggests that a certain level of noise is not a disturbance in self-organized decision-making but rather serves an important functional role.

  • 33.
    Dutoit, Ludovic
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Vijay, Nagarjun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Univ Michigan, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Lab Mol & Genom Evolut, Ann Arbor, MI USA..
    Mugal, Carina F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Bossu, Christen M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Burri, Reto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Friedrich Schiller Univ, Inst Ecol, Dept Ecol, Dornburger Str 159 07743 Jena, Jena, Germany.
    Wolf, Jochen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Fac Biol 2, Div Evolutionary Biol, Grosshaderner Str 2, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany..
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Covariation in levels of nucleotide diversity in homologous regions of the avian genome long after completion of lineage sorting2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1849, article id 20162756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Closely related species may show similar levels of genetic diversity in homologous regions of the genome owing to shared ancestral variation still segregating in the extant species. However, after completion of lineage sorting, such covariation is not necessarily expected. On the other hand, if the processes that govern genetic diversity are conserved, diversity may potentially covary even among distantly related species. We mapped regions of conserved synteny between the genomes of two divergent bird speciescollared flycatcher and hooded crow-and identified more than 600 Mb of homologous regions (66% of the genome). From analyses of whole-genome resequencing data in large population samples of both species we found nucleotide diversity in 200 kb windows to be well correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.407). The correlation remained highly similar after excluding coding sequences. To explain this covariation, we suggest that a stable avian karyotype and a conserved landscape of recombination rate variation render the diversity-reducing effects of linked selection similar in divergent bird lineages. Principal component regression analysis of several potential explanatory variables driving heterogeneity in flycatcher diversity levels revealed the strongest effects from recombination rate variation and density of coding sequence targets for selection, consistent with linked selection. It is also possible that a stable karyotype is associated with a conserved genomic mutation environment contributing to covariation in diversity levels between lineages. Our observations imply that genetic diversity is to some extent predictable.

  • 34. Edvardsson, M
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Copulatory courtship and cryptic female choice in red flour beetles Tribolium castaneum2000In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 267, no 1443, p. 559-563Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Egea-Serrano, Andres
    et al.
    Hangartner, Sandra
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rasanen, Katja
    Multifarious selection through environmental change: acidity and predator-mediated adaptive divergence in the moor frog (Rana arvalis)2014In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 281, no 1780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental change can simultaneously cause abiotic stress and alter biological communities, yet adaptation of natural populations to co-changing environmental factors is poorly understood. We studied adaptation to acid and predator stress in six moor frog (Rana arvalis) populations along an acidification gradient, where abundance of invertebrate predators increases with increasing acidity of R. arvalis breeding ponds. First, we quantified divergence among the populations in anti-predator traits (behaviour and morphology) at different rearing conditions in the laboratory (factorial combinations of acid or neutral pH and the presence or the absence of a caged predator). Second, we evaluated relative fitness (survival) of the populations by exposing tadpoles from the different rearing conditions to predation by free-ranging dragonfly larvae. We found that morphological defences (relative tail depth) as well as survival of tadpoles under predation increased with increasing pond acidity (under most experimental conditions). Tail depth and larval size mediated survival differences among populations, but the contribution of trait divergence to survival was strongly dependent on prior rearing conditions. Our results indicate that R. arvalis populations are adapted to the elevated predator pressure in acidified ponds and emphasize the importance of multifarious selection via both direct (here: pH) and indirect (here: predators) environmental changes.

  • 36.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Characteristics, causes and evolutionary consequences of male-biased mutation2007In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 274, no 1606, p. 1-10Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutation has traditionally been considered a random process, but this paradigm is challenged by recent evidence of divergence rate heterogeneity in different genomic regions. One facet of mutation rate variation is the propensity for genetic change to correlate with the number of germ cell divisions, reflecting the replication-dependent origin of many mutations. Haldane was the first to connect this association of replication and mutation to the difference in the number of cell divisions in oogenesis (low) and spermatogenesis (usually high), and the resulting sex difference in the rate of mutation. The concept of male-biased mutation has been thoroughly analysed in recent years using an evolutionary approach, in which sequence divergence of autosomes and/or sex chromosomes are compared to allow inference about the relative contribution of mothers and fathers in the accumulation of mutations. For instance, assuming that a neutral sequence is analysed, that rate heterogeneity owing to other factors is cancelled out by the investigation of many loci and that the effect of ancestral polymorphism is properly taken into account, the male-to-female mutation rate ratio, αm, can be solved from the observed difference in rate of X and Y chromosome divergence. The male mutation bias is positively correlated with the relative excess of cell divisions in the male compared to the female germ line, as evidenced by a generation time effect: in mammals, αm is estimated at approximately 4–6 in primates, approximately 3 in carnivores and approximately 2 in small rodents. Another life-history correlate is sexual selection: when there is intense sperm competition among males, increased sperm production will be associated with a larger number of mitotic cell divisions in spermatogenesis and hence an increase in αm. Male-biased mutation has implications for important aspects of evolutionary biology such as mate choice in relation to mutation load, sexual selection and the maintenance of genetic diversity despite strong directional selection, the tendency for a disproportionate large role of the X (Z) chromosome in post-zygotic isolation, and the evolution of sex.

  • 37.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Genomic evidence for a large-Z effect2009In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, no 1655, p. 361-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 'large-X effect' suggests that sex chromosomes play a disproportionate role in adaptive evolution. Theoretical work indicates that this effect may be most pronounced in genetic systems with female heterogamety under both good-genes and Fisher's runaway models of sexual selection (males ZZ, females ZW). Here, I use a comparative genomic approach (alignments of several thousands of chicken-zebra finch-human-mouse-opossum orthologues) to show that avian Z-linked genes are highly overrepresented among those bird-mammalian orthologues that show evidence of accelerated rate of functional evolution in birds relative to mammals; the data suggest a twofold excess of such genes on the Z chromosome. A reciprocal analysis of genes accelerated in mammals found no evidence for an excess of X-linkage. This would be compatible with theoretical expectations for differential selection on sex-linked genes under male and female heterogamety, although the power in this case was not sufficient to statistically show that 'large-Z' was more pronounced than 'large-X'. Accelerated Z-linked genes include a variety of functional categories and are characterized by higher non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios than both accelerated autosomal and non-accelerated genes. This points at a genomic 'large-Z effect', which is widespread and of general significance for adaptive divergence in birds.

  • 38. Forstmeier, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Trisomy and triploidy are sources of embryo mortality in the zebra finch2010In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 277, no 1694, p. 2655-2660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hatching failure is a surprisingly common phenomenon given that natural selection constantly works against it. In birds, an average of about 10 per cent of eggs across species fail to hatch, often owing to the death of embryos. While embryo mortality owing to inbreeding is both well-documented and evolutionarily plausible, this is not true for other sources of mortality. In fact, the basis for hatching failure in natural populations remains largely unexplained. Here, we demonstrate that embryo mortality in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) follows from chromosomal aneuploidy or polyploidy. As part of microsatellite genotyping of a captive breeding population, we found 12 individuals ( 3.6%) with three alleles among 331 embryos that had died during development, while there were no such cases observed among 1210 adult birds. Subsequent genotyping of 1920 single nucleotide polymorphism markers distributed across the genome in birds with three alleles at microsatellite loci, and in greater than 1000 normal birds, revealed that the aberrant karyotypes involved cases of both trisomies and triploidy. Cases of both maternally and paternally inherited trisomies resulted from non-disjunction during meiosis. Maternally inherited cases of triploidy were attributable to failure of meiosis leading to diploid eggs, while paternally inherited triploidy could have arisen either from diploid sperm or from dispermy. Our initial microsatellite screening set only had the power to detect less than 10 per cent of trisomies and by extrapolation, our data therefore tentatively suggest that trisomy might be a major cause of embryo mortality in zebra finches.

  • 39. Gavrilets, S
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Friberg, U
    The evolution of female mate choice by sexual conflict2001In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 268, no 1466, p. 531-539Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Germain, Marion
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Univ Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5558, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, F-69000 Lyon, France.;Univ Lyon 1, 18 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.;Univ Lyon 2, Univ Lyon, F-69000 Lyon, France..
    Part, Tomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Doligez, Blandine
    Univ Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5558, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, F-69000 Lyon, France.;Univ Lyon 1, 18 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Natal dispersers pay a lifetime cost to increased reproductive effort in a wild bird population2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1851, article id 20162445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natal dispersal is assumed to be costly. Such costs can be difficult to detect, and fitness consequences of dispersal are therefore poorly known. Because of lower phenotypic quality and/or familiarity with the environment, natal dispersers may be less buffered against a sudden increase in reproductive effort. Consequently, reproductive costs associated with natal dispersal may mostly be detected in harsh breeding conditions. We tested this prediction by comparing lifetime reproductive success between natal dispersers and non- dispersers in a patchy population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) when they reared either a non- manipulated brood or an experimentally increased or decreased brood. Natal dispersers achieved lower lifetime reproductive success than non- dispersers only under more stressful breeding conditions (i. e. when brood size was experimentally increased). This was mostly due to a lower number of recruits produced in the year of the increase. Our results suggest a cost associated with natal dispersal paid immediately after an increase in reproductive effort and not subsequently compensated for through increased survival or future offspring recruitment. Natal dispersers adjusted their breeding investment when reproductive effort is as predicted but seemed unable to efficiently face a sudden increase in effort, which could affect the influence of environmental predictability on dispersal evolution.

  • 41.
    Gioti, Anastasia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Wigby, S.
    Wertheim, B.
    Schuster, E.
    Martinez, P.
    Pennington, C. J.
    Partridge, L.
    Chapman, T.
    Sex peptide of Drosophila melanogaster males is a global regulator of reproductive processes in females2012In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 279, no 1746, p. 4423-4432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) alter female behaviour and physiology and can mediate sexual conflict. In Drosophila melanogaster, a single Sfp, the sex peptide (SP), triggers remarkable post-mating responses in females, including altered fecundity, feeding, immunity and sexual receptivity. These effects can favour the evolutionary interests of males while generating costs in females. We tested the hypothesis that SP is an upstream master-regulator able to induce diverse phenotypes through efficient induction of widespread transcriptional changes in females. We profiled mRNA responses to SP in adult female abdomen (Abd) and head+thorax (HT) tissues using microarrays at 3 and 6 h following mating. SP elicited a rich, subtle signature of temporally and spatially controlled mRNAs. There were significant alterations to genes linked to egg development, early embryogenesis, immunity, nutrient sensing, behaviour and, unexpectedly, phototransduction. There was substantially more variation in the direction of differential expression across time points in the HT versus Abd. The results support the idea that SP is an important regulator of gene expression in females. The expression of many genes in one sex can therefore be under the influence of a regulator expressed in the other. This could influence the extent of sexual conflict both within and between loci.

  • 42.
    Goncalves, Ines Braga
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Anim Behav, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    The evolutionary puzzle of egg size, oxygenation and parental care in aquatic environments2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1813, article id 20150690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Offspring fitness generally improves with increasing egg size. Yet, eggs of most aquatic organisms are small. A common but largely untested assumption is that larger embryos require more oxygen than they can acquire through diffusion via the egg surface, constraining egg size evolution. However, we found no detrimental effects of large egg size on embryo growth and survival under hypoxic conditions. We tested this in the broad-nosed pipelish, Syngnathus typhle, whose males provide extensive care (nourishment, osmoregulation and oxygenation) to their young in a brood pouch on their bodies. We took advantage of this species' pronounced variation in egg size, correlating positively with female size, and tested the effect of hypoxia (40% dissolved oxygen) versus fully oxygenated (100%) water on embryo size and survival of large versus small eggs after 18 days of paternal brooding. Egg size did not affect embryo survival, regardless of O-2 treatment. While hypoxia affected embryo size negatively, both large and small eggs showed similar reductions in growth. Males in hypoxia ventilated more and males with large eggs swam more, but neither treatment affected their position in the water column. Overall, our results call into question the most common explanation for constrained egg size evolution in aquatic environments.

  • 43.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Social fishes and single mothers: brain evolution in African cichlids2009In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, no 1654, p. 161-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As with any organ, differences in brain size-after adequate control of allometry-are assumed to be a response to selection. With over 200 species and an astonishing diversity in niche preferences and social organization, Tanganyikan cichlids present an excellent opportunity to study brain evolution. We used phylogenetic comparative analyses of sexed adults from 39 Tanganyikan cichlid species in a multiple regression framework to investigate the influence of ecology, sexual selection and parental care patterns on whole brain size, as well as to analyse sex-specific effects. First, using species-specific measures, we analysed the influence of diet, habitat, form of care (mouthbrooding or substrate guarding), care type (biparental or female only) and intensity of sexual selection on brain size, while controlling for body size. Then, we repeated the analyses for male and female brain size separately. Type of diet and care type were significantly correlated with whole brain size. Sex-specific analyses showed that female brain size correlated significantly with care type while male brain size was uncorrelated with care type. Our results suggest that more complex social interactions associated with diet select for larger brains and further that the burden of uniparental care exerts high cognitive demands on females.

  • 44.
    Griesser, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species2009In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, no 1669, p. 2887-2892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls.

  • 45.
    Griesser, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Nystrand, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Ekman, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Reduced mortality selects for family cohesion in a social species2006In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 273, no 1596, p. 1881-1886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delayed dispersal is the key to family formation in most kin-societies. Previous explanations for the evolution of families have focused on dispersal constraints. Recently, an alternative explanation was proposed, emphasizing the benefits gained through philopatry. Empirical data have confirmed that parents provide their philopatric offspring with preferential treatment through enhanced access to food and predator protection. Yet it remains unclear to what extent such benefits translate into fitness benefits such as reduced mortality, which ultimately can select for the evolution of families. Here, we demonstrate that philopatric Siberian jay (Perisoreus infaustus) offspring have an odds ratio of being killed by predators 62% lower than offspring that dispersed promptly after independence to join groups of unrelated individuals (20.6% versus 33.3% winter mortality). Predation was the sole cause of mortality killing 20 out of 73 juveniles fitted with radio tags. The higher survival rate among philopatric offspring was associated with parents providing nepotistic predator protection that was withheld from unrelated group members. Natal philopatry usually involves the suppression of personal reproduction. However, a lower mortality of philopatric offspring can overcome this cost and may thus select for the formation of families and set the scene for cooperative kin-societies.

  • 46.
    Hemborg, Christer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    Merilä, Juha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    A sexual conflict in collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis: early male moult reduces female fitness1998In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 265, no 1409, p. 2003-2007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sexual conflict over levels of parental care occurs in most animals with biparental care, and studies of sexual differences in levels of parental care have usually focused on its intra-annual fitness consequences. We investigated inter-annual fitness consequences of a sexual difference in timing of feather replacement (moult) in collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). In this study, males overlapped reproduction and moult more often than females, they also initiated their moult at an earlier stage of breeding than females. Females mated to males with a moult-breeding overlap had significantly lowered survival chances than females mated with males initiating moult after breeding. Furthermore, females mated with moulting males risked a lowered future fecundity in terms of a delayed start to breeding in the following season. However, early moulting males achieved a similar reproductive success as males initiating moult after breeding. Likewise, male survival probability to the following breeding season did not differ between early and late moulting individuals, nor was there any evidence that males gained or lost in future mating advantages by moulting early. These results show not only that a sexual conflict over timing of moult may operate, but also that it can impose severe fitness consequences, in terms of reduced future fecundity and survival probability, upon the 'losing' sex.

  • 47.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Krause, S.
    Morrell, L. J.
    Schaerf, T. M.
    Krause, J.
    Ward, A. J. W.
    The role of individuality in collective group movement2013In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 280, no 1752, p. 20122564-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How different levels of biological organization interact to shape each other's function is a central question in biology. One particularly important topic in this context is how individuals' variation in behaviour shapes group-level characteristics. We investigated how fish that express different locomotory behaviour in an asocial context move collectively when in groups. First, we established that individual fish have characteristic, repeatable locomotion behaviours (i.e. median speeds, variance in speeds and median turning speeds) when tested on their own. When tested in groups of two, four or eight fish, we found individuals partly maintained their asocial median speed and median turning speed preferences, while their variance in speed preference was lost. The strength of this individuality decreased as group size increased, with individuals conforming to the speed of the group, while also decreasing the variability in their own speed. Further, individuals adopted movement characteristics that were dependent on what group size they were in. This study therefore shows the influence of social context on individual behaviour. If the results found here can be generalized across species and contexts, then although individuality is not entirely lost in groups, social conformity and group-size-dependent effects drive how individuals will adjust their behaviour in groups.

  • 48.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Romanczuk, Pawel
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Muggelseedamm 310, Berlin, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, D-10115 Berlin, Germany.;Princeton Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Krause, Stefan
    Lubeck Univ Appl Sci, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany..
    Strömbom, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics. Lafayette Coll, Dept Biol, Easton, PA 18042 USA..
    Couillaud, Pierre
    Univ Paris 06, Dept Licence Sci & Technol, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Domenici, Paolo
    CNR, IAMC, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Muggelseedamm 310, Berlin, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Ctr Adapt Rational, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Marras, Stefano
    CNR, IAMC, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Steffensen, John F.
    Univ Copenhagen, Marine Biol Sect, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Wilson, Alexander D. M.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Deakin Univ, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Waurn Ponds, Vic 3216, Australia..
    Krause, Jens
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Muggelseedamm 310, Berlin, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Proto-cooperation: group hunting sailfish improve hunting success by alternating attacks on grouping prey2016In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 283, no 1842, article id 20161671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present evidence of a novel form of group hunting. Individual sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) alternate attacks with other group members on their schooling prey (Sardinella aurita). While only 24% of attacks result in prey capture, multiple prey are injured in 95% of attacks, resulting in an increase of injured fish in the school with the number of attacks. How quickly prey are captured is positively correlated with the level of injury of the school, suggesting that hunters can benefit from other conspecifics' attacks on the prey. To explore this, we built a mathematical model capturing the dynamics of the hunt. We show that group hunting provides major efficiency gains (prey caught per unit time) for individuals in groups of up to 70 members. We also demonstrate that a free riding strategy, where some individuals wait until the prey are sufficiently injured before attacking, is only beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre-cursor to more complex group-hunting strategies.

  • 49.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics. Stockholm University, Department of Zoology.
    Rosén, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Szorkovszky, Alex
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Ioannou, Christos C.
    University of Bristol, School of Biological Science.
    Rogell, Björn
    Stockholm University, Department of Zoology.
    Perna, Andrea
    Roehampton University, Department of Life Sciences.
    Ramnarine, Indar W.
    The University of the West Indies, Department of Life Science.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Department of Zoology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Department of Zoology.
    Krause, Jens
    Humboldt-University zu Berlin, Albrecht Daniel Thaer-Institut, Faculty of Life Science; Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Biology and Ecology of Fishes.
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    How predation shapes the social interaction rules of shoaling fish2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1861, article id 20171126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predation is thought to shape the macroscopic properties of animal groups, making moving groups more cohesive and coordinated. Precisely how predation has shaped individuals' fine-scale social interactions in natural populations, however, is unknown. Using high-resolution tracking data of shoaling fish (Poecilia reticulata) from populations differing in natural predation pressure, we show how predation adapts individuals' social interaction rules. Fish originating from high predation environments formed larger, more cohesive, but not more polarized groups than fish from low predation environments. Using a new approach to detect the discrete points in time when individuals decide to update their movements based on the available social cues, we determine how these collective properties emerge from individuals' microscopic social interactions. We first confirm predictions that predation shapes the attraction-repulsion dynamic of these fish, reducing the critical distance at which neighbours move apart, or come back together. While we find strong evidence that fish align with their near neighbours, we do not find that predation shapes the strength or likelihood of these alignment tendencies. We also find that predation sharpens individuals' acceleration and deceleration responses, implying key perceptual and energetic differences associated with how individuals move in different predation regimes. Our results reveal how predation can shape the social interactions of individuals in groups, ultimately driving differences in groups' collective behaviour.

  • 50. Hoglund, J
    et al.
    Alatalo, R V
    Lundberg, A
    Rintamaki, P T
    Lindell, J
    Microsatellite markers reveal the potential for kin selection on black grouse leks1999In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 266, no 1421, p. 813-816Article in journal (Refereed)
123 1 - 50 of 120
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf