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  • 1. Bertenthal, B.
    et al.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Boyer, T. W.
    Differential Contributions of Development and Learning to Infants’ Knowledge of Object Continuity and Discontinuity2013Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 84, nr 2, s. 413-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty infants divided evenly between 5 and 7months of age were tested for their knowledge of object continuity versus discontinuity with a predictive tracking task. The stimulus event consisted of a moving ball that was briefly occluded for 20 trials. Both age groups predictively tracked the ball when it disappeared and reappeared via occlusion, but not when it disappeared and reappeared via implosion. Infants displayed high levels of predictive tracking from the first trial in the occlusion condition, and showed significant improvement across trials in the implosion condition. These results suggest that infants possess embodied knowledge to support differential tracking of continuously and discontinuously moving objects, but this tracking can be modified by visual experience.

  • 2. Bertenthal, B.
    et al.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Boyer, T.W.
    Infants´ knowledge of object continuity and discontinuity2013Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 84, nr 2, s. 413-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty infants divided evenly between 5 and 7 months of age were tested for their knowledge of object continuity versus discontinuity with a predictive tracking task. The stimulus event consisted of a moving ball that was briefly occluded for 20 trials. Both age groups predictively tracked the ball when it disappeared and reappeared via occlusion, but not when it disappeared and reappeared via implosion. Infants displayed high levels of predictive tracking from the first trial in the occlusion condition, and showed significant improvement across trials in the implosion condition. These results suggest that infants possess embodied knowledge to support differential tracking of continuously and discontinuously moving objects, but this tracking can be modified by visual experience.

  • 3. Chen, Yu-ping
    et al.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Keen, Rachel
    Movement Planning Reflects Skill Level and Age Changes in Toddlers2010Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 81, nr 6, s. 1846-1858Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Kinematic measures of children's reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18-21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were retested on the same tasks a year later. Longer deceleration as the hand approached the block for pickup was found in the tower task compared with the imprecise task, indicating planning for the second movement. More skillful toddlers who could build high towers had a longer deceleration phase when placing blocks on the tower than toddlers who built low towers. Kinematic differences between the groups remained a year later when all children could build high towers.

  • 4.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Carlström, Christoffer
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Johansson, Martin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eye Contact Modulates Cognitive Processing Differently in Children With Autism2015Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 86, nr 1, s. 37-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In humans, effortful cognitive processing frequently takes place during social interaction, with eye contact being an important component. This study shows that the effect of eye contact on memory for nonsocial information is different in children with typical development than in children with autism, a disorder of social communication. Direct gaze facilitated memory performance in children with typical development (n = 25, 6 years old), but no such facilitation was seen in the clinical group (n = 10, 6 years old). Eye tracking conducted during the cognitive test revealed strikingly similar patterns of eye movements, indicating that the results cannot be explained by differences in overt attention. Collectively, these findings have theoretical significance and practical implications for testing practices in children.

  • 5.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liszkowski, Ulf
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Observation and Initiation of Joint Action in Infants2012Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 83, nr 2, s. 434-441Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants imitate others' individual actions, but do they also replicate others' joint activities? To examine whether observing joint action influences infants' initiation of joint action, forty-eight 18-month-old infants observed object demonstrations by 2 models acting together (joint action), 2 models acting individually (individual action), or 1 model acting alone (solitary action). Infants' behavior was examined after they were given each object. Infants in the joint action condition attempted to initiate joint action more often than infants in the other conditions, yet they were equally likely to communicate for other reasons and to imitate the demonstrated object-directed actions. The findings suggest that infants learn to replicate others' joint activity through observation, an important skill for cultural transmission of shared practices.

  • 6.
    Forssman, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Univ Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Wass, Sam
    Univ East London, London, England.
    Training basic visual attention leads to changes in responsiveness to social communication cues in 9-month-old infants2018Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 89, nr 3, s. E199-E213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated transfer effects of gaze‐interactive attention training to more complex social and cognitive skills in infancy. Seventy 9‐month‐olds were assigned to a training group (n = 35) or an active control group (n = 35). Before, after, and at 6‐week follow‐up both groups completed an assessment battery assessing transfer to nontrained aspects of attention control, including table top tasks assessing social attention in seminaturalistic contexts. Transfer effects were found on nontrained screen‐based tasks but importantly also on a structured observation task assessing the infants’ likelihood to respond to an adult's social‐communication cues. The results causally link basic attention skills and more complex social‐communicative skills and provide a principle for studying causal mechanisms of early development.

  • 7.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Astor, Kim
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gaze Following Is Not Dependent on Ostensive Cues: A Critical Test of Natural Pedagogy2018Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 89, nr 6, s. 2091-2098Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of natural pedagogy stipulates that infants follow gaze because they are sensitive to the communicative intent of others. According to this theory, gaze following should be present if, and only if, accompanied by at least one of a set of specific ostensive cues. The current article demonstrates gaze following in a range of contexts, both with and without expressions of communicative intent in a between-subjects design with a large sample of 6-month-old infants (n = 94). Thus, conceptually replicating prior results from Szufnarowska et al. (2014) and falsifying a central pillar of the natural pedagogy theory. The results suggest that there are opportunities to learn from others’ gaze independently of their displayed communicative intent.

  • 8.
    Green, Dorota
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Li, Qi
    Lockman, Jeffrey
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Culture influences action understanding in infancy: prediction of actions performed with chopsticks and spoons in Chinese and Swedish infants2016Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 87, nr 3, s. 736-746Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The cultural specificity of action prediction was assessed in 8-month-old Chinese and Swedish infants. Infants were presented with an actor eating with a spoon or chopsticks. Predictive goal-directed gaze shifts were examined using eye tracking. The results demonstrate that Chinese infants only predict the goal of eating actions performed with chopsticks, whereas Swedish infants exclusively predict the goal of eating actions per- formed with a spoon. Infants in neither culture predicted the goal of object manipulation actions (e.g., picking up food) performed with a spoon or chopsticks. The results support the view that multiple processes (both visual/cultural learning and motor-based direct matching processes) facilitate goal prediction during observa- tion of other peoples’ actions early in infancy.

  • 9.
    Juvrud, Joshua
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bakker, Marta
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaduk, Katharina
    DeValk, Josje M.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kenward, Benjamin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Oxford Brookes University.
    Longitudinal Continuity in Understanding and Production of Giving-Related Behavior From Infancy to Childhood2019Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 90, nr 2, s. e182-e191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants have an early understanding of giving (the transfer of an item by one agent to another), but little is known about individual differences in these abilities or their developmental outcomes. Here, 9-month-olds (N = 59) showing clearer neural processing (Event-related potential, ERP) of a give-me gesture also evidenced a stronger reaction (pupil dilation) to an inappropriate response to a give-me gesture, and at 2 years were more likely to give in response to a give-me gesture. None of the differences in understanding and production of giving-related behaviors were associated with other sociocognitive variables investigated: language, gaze-following, and nongiving helping. The early developmental continuity in understanding and production of giving behavior is consistent with the great importance of giving for humans throughout the life span.

  • 10.
    Kayhan, Ezgi
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Human Cognit & Brain Sci, Leipzig, Germany; Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Infants distinguish between two events based on their relative likelihood2018Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 89, nr 6, s. e507-e519Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Likelihood estimations are crucial for dealing with the uncertainty of life. Here, infants' sensitivity to the difference in likelihood between two events was investigated. Infants aged 6, 12, and 18 months (N = 75) were shown animated movies of a machine simultaneously drawing likely and unlikely samples from a box filled with different colored balls. In different trials, the difference in likelihood between the two samples was manipulated. The infants' looking patterns varied as a function of the magnitude of the difference in likelihood and were modulated by the number of items in the samples. Looking patterns showed qualitative similarities across age groups. This study demonstrates that infants' looking responses are sensitive to the magnitude of the difference in likelihood between two events.

  • 11.
    Kleberg, Johan L.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    del Bianco, Teresa
    Univ Trento, Trento, Italy; Birkbeck University.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala universitet, Kollegiet för avancerade studier (SCAS). Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    How Infants Arousal Influences their Visual Search2019Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 90, nr 4, s. 1413-1423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of arousal on visual attention was examined in 6.5-month-old infants (N = 42) in the context of a visual search task. Phasic increases in arousal were induced with brief sounds and measured with pupil dilation. Evidence was found for an inverted U-shaped relation between pupil dilation amplitude and visual orienting, with highest likelihood of a target fixation at intermediate levels of arousal. Effects were similar for facial stimuli and simple objects. Together, these results contribute to our understanding of the relation between arousal and attention in infancy. The study also demonstrates that infants have a bias to orient to human eyes, even when presented in isolation.

  • 12.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Preverbal infants anticipate that food will be brought to the mouth: An eye tracking study of manual feeding and flying spoons2010Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, nr 81, s. 1729-1738Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Preverbal Infants Anticipate that Food will be Brought to the Mouth: An Eye Tracking Study of Manual Feeding and Flying Spoons2010Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 81, nr 6, s. 1729-1738Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study relies on eye tracking technology to investigate how humans perceive others' feeding actions. Results demonstrate that 6-month-olds (n = 54) anticipate that food is brought to the mouth when observing an adult feeding herself with a spoon. Still, they fail to anticipate self-propelled (SP) spoons that move toward the mouth and manual combing actions directed toward the head. Ten-month-olds (n = 54) and adults (n = 32) anticipate SP spoons; however, only adults anticipate combing actions. These results suggest that goal anticipation during observation of feeding actions develops earlier and is less dependent on directly perceived actions than goal anticipation during observation of other manual actions. These results are discussed in relation to experience and a possible phylogenetic influence on perception and understanding of feeding.

  • 14. Parise, Eugenio
    et al.
    Handl, Andrea
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palumbo, Letizia
    Friederici, Angela D.
    Influence of Eye Gaze on Spoken Word Processing: An ERP Study With Infants2011Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 82, nr 3, s. 842-853Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye gaze is an important communicative signal, both as mutual eye contact and as referential gaze to objects. To examine whether attention to speech versus nonspeech stimuli in 4- to 5-month-olds (= 15) varies as a function of eye gaze, event-related brain potentials were used. Faces with mutual or averted gaze were presented in combination with forward- or backward-spoken words. Infants rapidly processed gaze and spoken words in combination. A late Slow Wave suggests an interaction of the 2 factors, separating backward-spoken word + direct gaze from all other conditions. An additional experiment (= 15) extended the results to referential gaze. The current findings suggest that interactions between visual and auditory cues are present early in infancy.

  • 15. Pearce, Michelle J
    et al.
    Jones, Stephanie M
    Schwab-Stone, Mary E
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale Child Study Center.
    The protective effects of religiousness and parent involvement on the development of conduct problems among youth exposed to violence.2003Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 74, nr 6, s. 1682-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the protective effects of religiousness and parent involvement for the development of conduct problems beyond the effects of risk factors. Measures of violence exposure, conduct problems, parent involvement, and religiousness, from the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment survey, were completed by 1,703 high-risk urban adolescents (12.5 +/- 1.7 years; 53% female). Witnessing of and victimization by community violence appeared to be significant risk factors for an increase in conduct problems over a 1-year period. Religiousness and parental involvement were each uniquely associated with a decrease in conduct problems. Moreover, several dimensions of religiousness moderated the relationship between violence exposure and conduct problems, buffering the negative effects of violence exposure. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.

  • 16. Peltola, Mikko J
    et al.
    Forssman, Linda
    University of Tampere.
    Puura, Kaija
    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H
    Leppänen, Jukka M
    Attention to Faces Expressing Negative Emotion at 7 Months Predicts Attachment Security at 14 Months2015Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 86, nr 5, s. 1321-1332Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate potential infant-related antecedents characterizing later attachment security, this study tested whether attention to facial expressions, assessed with an eye-tracking paradigm at 7 months of age (N = 73), predicted infant-mother attachment in the Strange Situation Procedure at 14 months. Attention to fearful faces at 7 months predicted attachment security, with a smaller attentional bias to fearful expressions associated with insecure attachment. Attachment disorganization in particular was linked to an absence of the age-typical attentional bias to fear. These data provide the first evidence linking infants' attentional bias to negative facial expressions with attachment formation and suggest reduced sensitivity to facial expressions of negative emotion as a testable trait that could link attachment disorganization with later behavioral outcomes.

  • 17.
    Shutts, Kristin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin.
    Örnkloo, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Keen, Rachel
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia.
    Spelke, Elizabeth
    Young Children’s Representations of Spatial and Functional Relations Between Objects2009Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 80, nr 6, s. 1612-1627Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Three experiments investigated changes from 15 to 30 months of age in children's (N = 114) mastery of relations between an object and an aperture, supporting surface, or form. When choosing between objects to insert into an aperture, older children selected objects of an appropriate size and shape, but younger children showed little selectivity. Further experiments probed the sources of younger children's difficulty by comparing children's performance placing a target object in a hole, on a 2-dimensional form, or atop another solid object. Together, the findings suggest that some factors limiting adults' object representations, including the difficulty of comparing the shapes of positive and negative spaces and of representing shapes in 3 dimensions, contribute to young children's errors in manipulating objects.

     

  • 18. Tuncgenc, Bahar
    et al.
    Cohen, Emma
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rock With Me: The Role of Movement Synchrony in Infants' Social and Nonsocial Choices2015Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 86, nr 3, s. 976-984Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Matching the timing of one's movements to the movements of others has been proposed to increase affiliation and prosociality. Although coordinated movements facilitate early social interactions, not much is known about the mechanisms and effects of movement synchrony throughout development. Two studies investigated 12-month-olds' (Study 1, N=40) and 9-month-olds' (Study 2, N=41) preferences for synchronous others in a social as opposed to a nonsocial context. It was found that movement synchrony exclusively guides infants' social choices at 12months. In contrast, 9-month-olds did not show any preferences for synchronous movements in social or nonsocial contexts. Results suggest that movement synchrony is important in guiding infants' social preferences and its effects emerge toward the end of the 1st year of life.

  • 19.
    Tuncgenc, Bahar
    et al.
    University of Oxford.
    Cohen, Emma
    University of Oxford.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rock with me: The role of movement synchrony in infants’ social and non-social choices2015Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Özdemir, Sevgi Bayram
    et al.
    Orebro Univ, Orebro, Sweden.
    Özdemir, Metin
    Orebro Univ, Orebro, Sweden.
    Stattin, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ethnic Harassment and Immigrant Youth's Engagement in Violent Behaviors: Understanding the Risk Factors2019Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 90, nr 3, s. 808-824Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine whether ethnic harassment was related to violent behaviors among immigrant youth over time and to identify the risk factors. The sample comprised immigrant adolescents living in Sweden (N=365; M-age=13.93, SD=0.80). Results showed that the more youth were ethnically harassed, the more they engaged in violent acts over time. A separated identity significantly moderated the effect of ethnic harassment on youth's engagement in violent behaviors. Specifically, ethnic harassment positively predicted engagement in violent behaviors only at high levels of separated identity. Impulsivity and school ethnic composition did not act as moderators. The findings suggest that preventing violent behaviors among immigrant youth requires a focus on promoting positive interethnic relationships, and multicultural identity among immigrant youth.

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