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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    The coordination between train traffic controllers and train drivers: a distributed cognition perspective on railway2019Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 417-443Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has long been a call for a holistic systems perspective to better understand real work in the complex domain of railway traffic, prior research has not strongly emphasised the socio-technical perspective. In operational railway traffic, the successful planning and execution of the traffic are the product of the socio-technical system comprised by both train drivers and traffic controllers. This paper presents a study inspired by cognitive ethnography with the aim to characterise the coordinating activities that are conducted by train traffic controllers and train drivers in the work practices of the socio-technical system of Swedish railway. The theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) is used as a conceptual and analytical tool to make sense of the complex railway domain and the best practices as they are developed and performed “in the wild”. The analysis reveals a pattern of collaboration and coordination of actions among the workers and we introduce the concept of enacted actionable practices as a key concern for understanding how a successfully executed railway traffic emerges as a property of the socio-technical system. The implications for future railway research are briefly discussed.

  • 2.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Thorvald, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens2017Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 85-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study examining interruptionsin the wild by portraying the handling of interruptionsin manufacturing from a distributed cognitionlens. By studying how interruptions occur and are handledin the daily activities of a work team at a large foundry forcasting heavy diesel engines, we highlight situations whenthe propagation, transformation, and representation ofinformation are not supported by prescribed work processesand propose recommendations for how this can beamended. The study was conducted by several visits to theaforementioned factory with cognitive ethnography as thebasis for the data collection. The focus was on identifyinginterruptions and analysing these through a distributedcognition framework as an initial step towards studyinginterruptions in a manufacturing environment. The keyfindings include the identification of three, previouslyundefined, types of interruptions and the conclusion thatinterruptions do indeed affect the distributed workload ofthe socio-technical system and thus the overall productionperformance at the casting line.

  • 3. Corrigan, S.
    et al.
    Mårtensson, L.
    Kay, A.
    Okwir, S.
    Ulfvengren, P.
    McDonald, N.
    Preparing for Airport Collaborative Decision Making (A-CDM) implementation: an evaluation and recommendations2015Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 207-218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The key objective of this paper was to report on one of the industrial-based change case studies of the MASCA project (MAnaging System Change in Aviation—EU FP7, 2010–2013). This case study provides a systematic insight into one airport’s approach to their preparation for full implementation of Airport Collaborative Decision Making (A-CDM). An action-based methodological approach was applied over a 3-year period, and a particular focus of this paper is on the application of the MASCA system change and operational evaluation tool (SCOPE/Structured Enquiry). Key recommendations resulted in research-led interventions, such as the development of a Serious Game to facilitate co-ordination and communications. The paper also reports on future recommendations for the implementation of A-CDM, such as prioritising social relations and trust building amongst airport stakeholders as opposed to viewing A-CDM solely as an IT-led project. Recommendations and learning from this case study can also be disseminated to other airports who are about to embark on the preparation for full A-CDM implementation and compliance.

  • 4.
    Erlandsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Jansson, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Verbal reports and domain-specific knowledge: a comparison between collegial and retrospective verbalisation2013Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 239-254Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One way to investigate and account for the role of experience in dynamic decision-making tasks is to use a knowledge elicitation method, for example verbal protocols. Recently, methods for verbalisation by other subjects have been suggested as a way to elicit more information on thinking. One of these methods is here investigated in a quasi-experimental study on highly experienced and skilled train dispatchers. Collegial verbalisation is based on the procedure of videotaping practitioners while they perform their normal work tasks in their normal work setting. This is followed up by having a close colleague of the practitioner watch the video recordings and verbalise. The general hypothesis that verbal reports based on collegial verbalisations can provide protocol data that are close to the structure and content of verbal reports based on retrospective verbalisations was investigated. From this systematic comparison it is concluded that collegial verbalisations produce verbal protocols that are close to the retrospective verbal protocols on protocol and topic levels, but not on statement level. From this study, we conclude that the collegial protocols can be used as an independent source of data. It seems possible for a colleague to report verbally on a practitioners' observable behaviour in the same way as when the practitioner is doing a retrospective verbalisation and it may also be possible for a colleague to explain some of the non-observable behaviour of the practitioner.

  • 5.
    Jansson, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Olsson, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Erlandsson, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Människa-datorinteraktion.
    Bridging the gap between analysis and design: Improving existing driver interfaces with tools from the framwork of cognitive work analysis2006Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 41-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies of train driving are presented, both within the framework of cognitive work analysis. In the first study, the modelling tool abstraction–decomposition space is adapted to routine conditions, making the analysis more representative for normal procedures. A major contribution to these analyses was the use of the method for ‘collegial verbalisation’. One particular advantage with this method over other verbalisation methods is that it supplies the analysts with data that contain much more information, but not at the expense of being more subjective. On the contrary, this method produces think-aloud protocols from video-recordings that do not have to be interpreted by the researcher. From these analyses, it was possible to distinguish information that is an intrinsic part of the train driver task from information that is dependent on the configuration and design of the current support system. The analyses show that the driver works in three rather separate time intervals with a long-range, a short-term and an immediate sense of perspective. The driver switches between these while travelling between two stations. Based on these behaviour-shaping constraints, a prototype of a planning area of a driver interface was developed, making feed-forward planning possible for the driver. Four design iterations were completed, using a user-centred system design (UCSD) approach. Early tests show that the planning area of the interface supports the feed-forward decision strategy used by drivers who prefer an active driving style. However, the driver group also made substantial changes in the design, indicating that UCSD is an efficient tool in order to capture user competencies, and to bridge the gap between analysis and design.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Institutionen för datavetenskap, Linköpings universitet, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University.
    Persson, Mats
    Institutionen för krigsvetenskap, Försvarshögskolan, Department of War Studies, Swedish National Defence College.
    Granlund, Rego
    Institutionen för datavetenskap, Linköpings universitet, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University.
    Mattsson, Peter
    Institutionen för krigsvetenskap, Försvarshögskolan, Department of War Studies, Swedish National Defence College.
    C3Fire in command and control research2003Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 191-196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New and envisioned technological means and abilities for exerting command and control have increased the interest of man-machine research in a military context. Although there are many current proposals for how new command and control systems should be designed, many of the proposed properties that are considered advantageous have never been tested or could even be impossible to test in real-world situations. In spite of that, proposed design solutions are generally held valid in many Western countries where developments of major command and control system projects are in progress. An important question is how microworlds can be used for research on team decision-making. The use of microworlds gives us the possibility to create controlled settings and the opportunity to use advanced monitoring tools to study the subjects. Our studies indicate that the microworld concept, even though the simulation is fairly simple, reflects some of the crucial aspects of team-work in dynamic settings. The article presents results from a study in command and control using the C3Fire microworld (http:// www.c3fire.org). Results and methodological issues are discussed.

  • 7.
    Persson, Mats
    et al.
    Militärvetenskapliga institutionen, Försvarshögskolan, Department of military studies, Swedish National Defence College.
    Rigas, Georgios
    Militärvetenskapliga institutionen, Försvarshögskolan, Department of military studies, Swedish National Defence College.
    Complexity: the dark side of network-centric warfare2014Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 103-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Military theoretical considerations suggest that a networked command and control architecture will provide a more effective form of command and control under complex operations that demand a high tempo of action. This article presents an experimental study with the purpose to examine team performance under different conditions of command and control architectures and their resilience to complexity. The experiment was performed with the task to extinguish simulated fires in a microworld. Three factors were varied in the experiment: command and control architecture, the number of simulated units, and tempo. The dependent variable was the number of lost cells in the microworld. Three command and control architectures were investigated; command by negation, directive command, and a control condition. The general conclusion from this experiment was that all command and control architectures performed equally poorly under the condition of many subordinate units and fast tempo. This was in contradiction to suggestions made in the military theoretical literature. Command by negation was presumably the more effective command and control architecture under the other conditions.

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