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  • 1. Achard, B.
    et al.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Development of the infant's ability to retrieve food through a slit2002Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 43-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the present study is to explore infants' ability to comprehend task manipulation, and whether they can feed themselves with a spoon when food has to be retrieved through a slit in a lid placed over a plate. To access the food, the infant has to align the bowl of the spoon with the slit. The orientation of the slit is manipulated, and certain orientations require more elaborate modifications of the feeding action than others. The infants are observed at monthly intervals, from 12 to 17 months of age. The presence of the lid affects the behaviour of the infants at all ages. Some behaviours become more immature. The infants grasp the spoon with more primitive grasp configurations, they grasp the spoon less consistently at the top of the handle, and they orient the spoon less consistently, with its bowl facing upwards. These differences decrease with age. The infants also make attempts to adjust to the constraints of the task, mainly by inclining the spoon more vertically, and rotating the hand in such a way as to align the spoon with the orientation of the slit. These adjustments improve with age.

  • 2. Achard, Benedicte
    et al.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Development of the Infant’sAbility to Retrieve Food Througha Slit2002Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 11, s. 43-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the present study is to explore infants’ability to comprehend task manipulation, and whether they canfeed themselves with a spoon when food has to be retrievedthrough a slit in a lid placed over a plate. To access the food, theinfant has to align the bowl of the spoon with the slit. Theorientation of the slit is manipulated, and certain orientationsrequire more elaborate modifications of the feeding action thanothers. The infants are observed at monthly intervals, from 12 to17 months of age. The presence of the lid affects the behaviourof the infants at all ages. Some behaviours become more immature.The infants grasp the spoon with more primitive graspconfigurations, they grasp the spoon less consistently at the topof the handle, and they orient the spoon less consistently, withits bowl facing upwards. These differences decrease with age.The infants also make attempts to adjust to the constraints of thetask, mainly by inclining the spoon more vertically, and rotatingthe hand in such a way as to align the spoon with the orientationof the slit. These adjustments improve with age.

  • 3.
    Brocki, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of psychiatry, New York, USA.
    Tillman, Carin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Mental Set Shifting in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory and Inhibitory Control2014Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 588-604Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of working memory (WM) and inhibition in mental set shifting was examined from an individual difference perspective in children aged 5-14years (N=117). Using the Hearts and Flowers task the rationale of the present study was to directly test the theoretical assumption that mental set shifiting in childhood primarily builds on WM and inhibitory processes. Theoretical predictions about WM and inhibitory demands in the congruent and incongruent conditions of the Hearts and Flowers task were also considered because these blocks underlie relevant measures of set shifting. The findings show that both WM and inhibition (extracted as factors in confirmatory factor analysis) are important for set shifting but that this general association is driven by the link between these executive functions (EFs) and the goal-representation aspect (i.e. global switch costs) of shifting, rather than to the actual switch-implementation process (i.e. local switch costs). In addition, our findings are novel in showing that, despite a substantial correlation between the two EF components, it was the variance specific to WM and inhibition that was important for mental set shifting.

  • 4.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Max Planck Res Grp Commun Language, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Liszkowski, Ulf
    Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Max Planck Res Grp Commun Language, Nijmegen, Netherlands.; Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Infants anticipate others’ social preferences2012Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 239-249Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current eye-tracking study, we explored whether 12-month-old infants can predict others' social preferences. We showed infants scenes in which two characters alternately helped or hindered an agent in his goal of climbing a hill. In a control condition, the two characters moved up and down the hill in identical ways to the helper and hinderer but did not make contact with the agent; thus, they did not cause him to reach or not reach his goal. Following six alternating familiarization trials of helping and hindering interactions (helphinder condition) or up and down interactions (updown condition), infants were shown one test trial in which they could visually anticipate the agent approaching one of the two characters. As predicted, infants in the helphinder condition made significantly more visual anticipations toward the helping than hindering character, suggesting that they predicted the agent to approach the helping character. In contrast, infants revealed no difference in visual anticipations between the up and down characters. The updown condition served to control for low-level perceptual explanations of the results for the helphinder condition. Thus, together the results reveal that 12-month-old infants make predictions about others' behaviour and social preferences from a third-party perspective.

  • 5.
    Henricsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Children with behavior problems: The influence of social competence and social relations on problem stability, school achievement and peer acceptance across the first six years of school2006Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 347-366Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the role for problematic children of the child's social competence, teacher relations and behaviour with peers for later problem persistence, school performance and peer acceptance, in terms of moderating (protective and exacerbating) and independent effects. Groups of children with externalizing (n = 26) and internalizing (n = 25) problems and a non-problematic group (n = 44) were followed from grade 1-6. Teachers rated behaviour problems and social competence in the first, third and sixth grades, the teacher-child relationship in third grade, and school achievement in sixth grade. Behaviour with peers was assessed in observations in later elementary school. Peer acceptance was assessed through peer nominations in sixth grade. Both problem groups had lower social competence, school achievement and peer acceptance in sixth grade than the non-problematic group. There were moderating and independent effects of social competence, teacher and peer relations on outcomes, but these applied mainly to children with internalizing problems.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Brocki, K. C.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Individual differences in early executive functions: A longitudinal study from 12 to 36 months2016Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 25, nr 6, s. 533-549Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that executive functions develop in a hierarchical fashion, such that early, simple abilities seen already during the first year of life become increasingly coordinated with development, thereby enabling the emergence of more complex abilities. Although this hierarchical model has received support from empirical studies comparing executive function task performance across age groups, necessary support from longitudinal studies taking an individual differences perspective on development is missing. In addition, the model stresses the importance of attention in executive function development, but we do not know in what way attention contributes to the continued development once the earliest forms of simple functions have emerged. Using a longitudinal design, the present study investigated the relations between individual differences in simpler forms of executive functions as well as sustained attention at age 12months and more complex executive functions at 24 and 36months. The results indicated partial support for the hierarchical model, with infant inhibition being predictive of working memory in toddlerhood. In addition, at 12months, sustained attention contributed to the development of toddler executive functions via the simple executive functions. This suggests that by this age, sustained attention has become an integrated part of early, simple executive functions.

  • 7.
    Nyberg, Lilianne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Berlin, Lisa
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Janols, Lars-Olof
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Differentiating Type A behaviour and hyperactivity using observed motivation during a reaction time task2003Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 145-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of the previously found overlap between Type A behaviour as measured by the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) and hyperactivity scales, the overall aim of this study was to clarify the standing of MYTH‐defined Type A behaviour relative to hyperactivity and Attention‐Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), using observed task motivation and performance on a choice reaction‐time task, the Complex Reaction Time (CRT) measure. This study included 21 boys exhibiting Type A behaviour, 22 ADHD boys, 20 non‐clinically hyperactive boys, and 20 non‐hyperactive boys, between the ages of 6 and 13 years. It was proposed that a differentiation of constructs would be possible using observed task motivation if the MYTH were a discriminantly valid measure of Type A behaviour. Results showed that the MYTH‐defined Type A group differed from the clinically diagnosed ADHD group, although it was markedly similar to the non‐clinical hyperactive group, displaying comparable CRT performance and low level of task motivation. Type A behaviour correlated to CRT performance and task motivation in a way which was conceptually more indicative of hyperactivity than of Type A behaviour, which questions the validity of the MYTH as a measure of the Type A construct. The MYTH Impatience subscale was found to be particularly impure with regard to hyperactivity.

  • 8.
    Nyberg, Lilianne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Henricsson, Lisbeth
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Low social inclusion in childhood: Adjustment and early predictors2008Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 639-656Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The principal aim of the present study was to obtain a deeper understanding than hitherto of the concurrent correlates and prospective predictors of loneliness and poor peer acceptance, both falling under the umbrella term low social inclusion. Problematic and socially competent behaviours were investigated as possible predictors of low social inclusion in grade 6, as defined by self-rated loneliness and degree of peer non-acceptance, respectively. In grade 6 808 children participated whereof 323 were followed longitudinally from first grade. Loneliness in grade 6 was distinctively associated with high levels of internalizing problems, concurrently as well as prospectively. Peer acceptance, on the other hand, emerged as a complex, multifaceted aspect, with concurrent, independent predictions from both externalizing and internalizing problem behaviours as well as social competence, although prospective analyses found early externalizing problems to be the strongest predictor of peer acceptance. Moderating effects of social competence were sparse, although peer nominated social competence buffered peer acceptance for children with high levels of aggression in the concurrent analyses and social competence boosted peer acceptance for children with low problem levels in the predictive analyses. Social competence did not appear to buffer the negative impact of early problem behaviours on peer relations.

  • 9. Perry, Lynn K
    et al.
    Axelsson, Emma L
    Horst, Jessica S
    Learning What to Remember: Vocabulary Knowledge and Children’s Memory for Object Names and Features2016Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 25, s. 247-258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although young children can map a novel name to a novel object, it remains unclear what they actually remember about objects when they initially make such a name–object association. In the current study we investigated (1) what children remembered after they were initially introduced to name–object associations and (2) how their vocabulary size and vocabulary structure influenced what they remembered. As a group, children had difficulty remembering each of the features of the original novel objects. Further analyses revealed that differences in vocabulary structure predicted children’s ability to remember object features. Specifically, children who produced many names for categories organized by similarity in shape (e.g. ball, cup) had the best mem-ory for newly-learned objects’ features—especially their shapes. In addition, the more features children remembered, the more likely they were to retain the newly learned name–object associa-tions. Vocabulary size, however, was not predictive of children’s feature memory or retention. Taken together, these findings dem-onstrate that children’s existing vocabulary structure, rather than simply vocabulary size, influences what they attend to when en-countering a new object and subsequently their ability to remem-ber new name–object associations.

  • 10.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm Brain Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjowall, Douglas
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm Brain Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Diamatopoulou, Sofia
    Univ Murcia, Dept Basic Psychol & Methodol, Murcia, Spain..
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Emotional functioning, ADHD symptoms, and peer problems: A longitudinal investigation of children age 6-9.5years2017Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 26, nr 4, artikkel-id e2008Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interplay between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and emotional functioning in relation to peer problems. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms and regulation/reactivity with regard to four emotions (anger, sadness, fear, and happiness/exuberance) at age six were investigated in relation to sociometric peer nominations 3years later in a non-clinical sample (n=91). Reactivity and regulation were only modestly correlated, and these two aspects of emotional functioning did not show the same relation to peer problems. The main finding was that, it was primarily children with high levels of ADHD symptoms in combination with either high dysregulation or low reactivity with regard to happiness/exuberance who received many negative peer nominations. In addition, high levels of ADHD symptoms in combination with high reactivity with regard to anger were associated with nominations of physical aggression. The modest relation between reactivity and regulation emphasizes the importance of separating these two constructs. The fact that it was primarily happiness/exuberance, as opposed to negative emotions, that was associated with negative peer nominations suggests that future studies are needed to clarify the role of specific emotions in relation to the functional impairments associated with ADHD symptoms. Highlights The present study aimed to investigate the interplay between ADHD symptoms and emotional functioning in relation to peer problems using a longitudinal design (age 6-9 years). Ratings of ADHD symptoms and emotional functioning were investigated in relation to sociometric peer nominations and results showed that it was primarily children with high levels of ADHD symptoms in combination with either high dysregulation or low reactivity with regard to happiness/exuberance who received many negative peer nominations. The fact that it was primarily happiness/exuberance, as opposed to negative emotions, that was associated with negative peer nominations suggests that future studies are needed to clarify the role of specific emotions in relation to the functional impairments associated with ADHD symptoms.

  • 11.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wåhlstedt, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Executive functioning deficits in relation to symptoms of ADHD and/or ODD in preschool children2006Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 503-518Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the relation between executive functioning and symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children aged 4-6. A population-based sample (n=201) was used and laboratory measures of inhibition, working memory and verbal fluency and teacher ratings of disruptive behaviour problems were collected. Both group differences and linear relations were studied and comorbidity was controlled for dimensionally. In both categorical and dimensional analyses, executive functioning was associated with symptoms of ADFID, but not with symptoms of ODD when controlling for comorbidity, and no significant interactive effects of ADHD and ODD symptoms were found. Effect sizes for significant effects were generally in the medium range. Regarding sex differences, the control for comorbid ODD symptoms appeared to affect the relation between ADHD symptoms and executive functioning somewhat more for girls compared with boys. In conclusion, poor executive functioning in preschool appears to be primarily related to symptoms of ADHD, whereas the relation to symptoms of ODD can be attributed to the large overlap between these two disruptive disorders.

  • 12.
    Östberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hagelin, Elisabet
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Stability and prediction of parenting stress2007Inngår i: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 207-223Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focused on stability and prediction of parenting stress experiences over a 6-year period. Mothers (N=93) who had received a clinical intervention for feeding or sleeping problems during infancy (Time 1; T 1) were followed-up when the children were 5-10 years old (Time 2; T 2). An age- and sex-of-child matched normal group was used for comparison of stress levels at T 2. Parenting stress was measured by the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire, which consists of a general parenting stress scale and sub-scales tapping different aspects of parenting stress experiences. T 1 predictors were clinical assessments of child problem load, maternal unresponsiveness, and family psychosocial problems. T 2 predictors were mother-reported concurrent child problem load and psychosocial problems. The individual stability in stress experiences was moderate. Effect sizes indicated that mothers with early clinical contacts had reduced their stress to levels close to those in the normal sample. Parenting stress at T 2 could be predicted from early and from concurrent child and family problems. The results point to the relevance of early clinical assessments and to the importance of a sub-area approach in parenting stress research, as there were differences between stress sub-areas regarding both prediction and stability.

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