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  • 1.
    Adam, Maurits
    et al.
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Reitenbach, Ivanina
    Euro FH Univ Appl Sci, Dept Psychol, Hamburg, Germany..
    Papenmeier, Frank
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Psychol, Tubingen, Germany..
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Elsner, Claudia
    Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Max Planck Res Grp Naturalist Social Cognit, Berlin, Germany..
    Elsner, Birgit
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Goal saliency boosts infants' action prediction for human manual actions, but not for mechanical claws2016Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 44, s. 29-37Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that infants' prediction of the goals of observed actions is influenced by own experience with the type of agent performing the action (i.e., human hand vs. non-human agent) as well as by action-relevant features of goal objects (e.g., object size). The present study investigated the combined effects of these factors on 12-month-olds' action prediction. Infants' (N=49) goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed 14 trials in which either a human hand or a mechanical claw reached for a small goal area (low-saliency goal) or a large goal area (high-saliency goal). Only infants who had observed the human hand reaching for a high-saliency goal fixated the goal object ahead of time, and they rapidly learned to predict the action goal across trials. By contrast, infants in all other conditions did not track the observed action in a predictive manner, and their gaze shifts to the action goal did not change systematically across trials. Thus, high-saliency goals seem to boost infants' predictive gaze shifts during the observation of human manual actions, but not of actions performed by a mechanical device. This supports the assumption that infants' action predictions are based on interactive effects of action-relevant object features (e.g., size) and own action experience.

  • 2. Bakker, Marta
    et al.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    Von Hofsten, Claes
    Development of social perception: a conversation study of 6-, 12- and 36-month-old children.2011Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 34, s. 363-370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Bakker, Marta
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Development of social perception: A conversation study of 6-, 12-and 36-month-old children2011Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 363-370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A conversation is made up of visual and auditory signals in a complex flow of events. What is the relative importance of these components for young children's ability to maintain attention on a conversation? In the present set of experiments the visual and auditory signals were disentangled in four filmed events. The visual events were either accompanied by the speech sounds of the conversation or by matched motor sounds and the auditory events by either the natural visual turn taking of the conversation or a matched turn taking of toy trucks. A cornea-reflection technique was used to record the gaze-pattern of subjects while they were looking at the films. Three age groups of typically developing children were studied; 6-month-olds, 1-year-olds and 3-year-olds. The results show that the children are more attracted by the social component of the conversation independent of the kind of sound used. Older children find spoken language more interesting than motor sound. Children look longer at the speaking agent when humans maintain the conversation. The study revealed that children are more attracted to the mouth than to the eyes area. The ability to make more predictive gaze shifts develops gradually over age.

  • 4.
    Cunha, Andrea Baraldi
    et al.
    Univ Fed Sao Carlos, Neuropediat Sect, Dept Phys Therapy, BR-13565905 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Soares, Daniele de Almeida
    Univ Fed Mato Grosso do Sul, Ctr Biol & Hlth Sci, Phys Therapy, BR-79070900 Campo Grande, MS, Brazil..
    Carvalho, Raquel de Paula
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Dept Hlth Sci, BR-11015020 Santos, SP, Brazil..
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tudella, Eloisa
    Univ Fed Sao Carlos, Neuropediat Sect, Dept Phys Therapy, BR-13565905 Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Maturational and situational determinants of reaching at its onset2015Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 41, s. 64-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At 3 months of age, reaching behavior was measured in a group of 10 girls and 10 boys born at term. The assessments were carried out on the average 2 days after reaching onset. Reaching kinematics was measured in both supine and reclined positions. Girls reached more than boys, had straighter reaching trajectories and movements of shorter durations as well as fewer movement units. The reclined position gave rise to straighter trajectories in both girls and boys. Several anthropometric parameters were measured. Girls had less length and volume of the forearm than boys but similar upper arm volumes. There was a weak relation between kinematic and anthropometric variables.

  • 5. Dorn, Katharina
    et al.
    Weinert, Sabine
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Watch and listen – A cross-cultural study of audio-visual-matching behavior in 4.5-month-old infants in German and Swedish talking faces2018Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 52, s. 121-129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigating infants’ ability to match visual and auditory speech segments presented sequentially allows us to understand more about the type of information they encode in each domain, as well as their ability to relate the information. One previous study found that 4.5- month-old infants’ preference for visual French or German speech depended on whether they had previously heard the respective language, suggesting a remarkable ability to encode and relate audio-visual speech cues and to use these to guide their looking behavior. However, French and German differ in their prosody, meaning that perhaps, the infants did not base their matching on phonological or phonetic cues, but on prosody patterns. The present study aimed to address this issue by tracking the eye gaze of 4.5-month-old German and Swedish infants cross-culturally in an intersensory matching procedure, comparing German and Swedish, two same-rhythm-class languages differing in phonetic and phonological attributes but not in prosody. Looking times indicated that even when distinctive prosodic cues were eliminated, 4.5- month-olds were able to extract subtle language properties and sequentially match visual and heard fluent speech. This outcome was the same for different individual speakers for the two modalities, ruling out the possibility that the infants matched speech patterns specific to one individual. This study confirms a remarkably early emerging ability of infants to match auditory and visual information. The fact that the types of information were matched despite sequential presentation demonstrates that the information is retained in short term memory, and thus goes beyond purely perceptual – here-and-now processing.

  • 6. Fagard, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Spelke, Elisabeth
    Harvard University.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Reaching and grasping a moving object in 6-, 8-, and 10-month-old infants: Laterality and performance2009Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 137-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to investigate some of the visuo-motor factors underlying an infant's developing ability to grasp a laterally-moving object. In particular, hand preference, midline crossing, and visual-field asymmetry were investigated by comparing performance as a function of the object's direction of motion. We presented 6-, 8-, and 10-month-old infants with a graspable object, moving in a circular trajectory in the horizontal plane. Six-month-old infants reached for the object with the ipsilateral hand and grasped it with the contralateral hand. Eight-month-old infants showed a strong right-hand bias for both reaching and grasping. Ten-month-old infants showed a greater diversity of strategy use including bimanual and successful ipsilateral grasping following ipsilateral reaching in both directions of motion. Thus, motor constraints due to spatial compatibility, hand preference and bimanual coordination (but not midline crossing) must be taken into account to understand age differences in grasping a moving object.

  • 7.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liszkowski, Ulf
    Mimicry and play initiation in 18-month-old infants2012Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 689-696Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Across two experiments, we examined the relationship between 18-month-old infants' mimicry and social behavior - particularly invitations to play with an adult play partner. In Experiment 1, we manipulated whether an adult mimicked the infant's play or not during an initial play phase. We found that infants who had been mimicked were subsequently more likely to invite the adult to join their play with a new toy. In addition, they reen-acted marginally more steps from a social learning demonstration she gave. In Experiment 2, infants had the chance to spontaneously mimic the adult during the play phase. Complementing Experiment 1, those infants who spent more time mimicking the adult were more likely to invite her to play with a new toy. This effect was specific to play and not apparent in other communicative acts, such as directing the adult's attention to an event or requesting toys. Together, the results suggest that infants use mimicry as a tool to establish social connections with others and that mimicry has specific influences on social behaviors related to initiating subsequent joint interactions.

  • 8.
    Forssman, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eighteen-month-olds' ability to make gaze predictions following distraction or a long delay2014Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 225-234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The abilities to flexibly allocate attention, select between conflicting stimuli, and make anticipatory gaze movements are important for young children's exploration and learning about their environment. These abilities constitute voluntary control of attention and show marked improvements in the second year of a child's life. Here we investigate the effects of visual distraction and delay on 18-month-olds' ability to predict the location of an occluded target in an experiment that requires switching of attention, and compare their performance to that of adults. Our results demonstrate that by 18 months of age children can readily overcome a previously learned response, even under a condition that involves visual distraction, but have difficulties with correctly updating their prediction when presented with a longer time delay. Further, the experiment shows that, overall, the 18-month-olds' allocation of visual attention is similar to that of adults, the primary difference being that adults demonstrate a superior ability to maintain attention on task and update their predictions over a longer time period. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Green, Dorota
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Extrapolation and direct matching mediate anticipation infancy2014Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 111-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Handl, Andrea
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Mahlberg, Therese
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Norling, Sara
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Facing still faces: What visual cues affect infants´ observation of others?2013Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 583-586Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We used eye-tracking technique to examine gaze shifts of 9-, 16-, and 24-month-old infants who were presented with still images of a conversation between two individuals facing each other or turning away from each other. The results showed that body orientation, as measured by the face-to-face effect, is sufficient to provide infants with crucial information about others’ social engagement.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sustained attention in infancy as a longitudinal predictor of self-regulatory functions2015Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 41, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature suggests that attention processes such as sustained attention would con-stitute a developmental foundation for the self-regulatory functions executive functioningand effortful control (e.g., Garon, Bryson, & Smith, 2008; Rothbart, Derryberry, & Posner,1994). Our main aim was to test this hypothesis by studying whether sustained attentionat age 1 year can predict individual differences in self-regulatory functions at age 2 years.Longitudinal data from 66 infants and their parents were included in the study. Sustainedattention was assessed during free play at age 1 year; executive functioning, measured usingan eye-tracking version of the A-not-B task, and effortful control, measured using parentalratings, were assessed at both age 1 and age 2 years. The results did support a longitudinalprediction of individual differences in 2-year-olds’ self-regulatory functions as a function ofsustained attention at age 1 year. We also found significant improvement in both executivefunctioning and effortful control over time, and the two self-regulatory constructs wererelated in toddlerhood but not in infancy. The study helps increase our understanding ofthe early development of self-regulatory functions necessary for identifying developmentalrisks and, in the future, for developing new interventions.

  • 12. Jones, E. J. H.
    et al.
    Mason, L.
    Begum Ali, J.
    van den Boomen, C.
    Braukmann, R.
    Cauvet, E.
    Demurie, E.
    Hessels, R. S.
    Ward, E. K.
    Hunnius, S.
    Bolte, S.
    Tomalski, P.
    Kemner, C.
    Warreyn, P.
    Roeyers, H.
    Buitelaar, J.
    Falck-Ytter, T.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Charman, T.
    Johnson, M. H.
    Eurosibs: Towards robust measurement of infant neurocognitive predictors of autism across Europe2019Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects social communication skills and flexible behaviour. Developing new treatment approaches for ASD requires early identification of the factors that influence later behavioural outcomes. One fruitful research paradigm has been the prospective study of infants with a first degree relative with ASD, who have around a 20% likelihood of developing ASD themselves. Early findings have identified a range of candidate neurocognitive markers for later ASD such as delayed attention shifting or neural responses to faces, but given the early stage of the field most sample sizes are small and replication attempts remain rare. The Eurosibs consortium is a European multisite neurocognitive study of infants with an older sibling with ASD conducted across nine sites in five European countries. In this manuscript, we describe the selection and standardization of our common neurocognitive testing protocol. We report data quality assessments across sites, showing that neurocognitive measures hold great promise for cross-site consistency in diverse populations. We discuss our approach to ensuring robust data analysis pipelines and boosting future reproducibility. Finally, we summarise challenges and opportunities for future multi-site research efforts.

  • 13. Kaul, Ylva Fredriksson
    et al.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    Strand Brodd, Katarina
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Reaching skills of infants born very preterm predict neurodevelopment at 2.5 years2019Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate associations between quality of reaching for moving objects at 8 months corrected age and neurodevelopment at 2.5 years in children born very preterm (gestational age (GA), 24–31 weeks). Thirtysix infants were assessed while reaching for moving objects. The movements were recorded by a 3D motion capture system. Reaching parameters included aiming, relative length of the reach, number of movement units, proportion of bimanual coupled reaches and number of hits. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 2.5 years by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. There were strong associations between infant reaching kinematics and neurodevelopment of cognition and language but the patterns differed: in children born extremely preterm (GA < 28 weeks), planning and control of reaching was strongly related to outcome, while in children born very preterm (GA 28–31 weeks) number of hits and bimanual strategies were of greater relevance. In conclusion, for extremely preterm infants, basic problems on how motion information is incorporated with action planning prevail, while in very preterm infants the coordination of bimanual reaches is more at the focus. We conclude that the results reflect GA related differences in neural vulnerability and that early motor coordination deficits have a cascading effect on neurodevelopment.

  • 14.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Mikhailova, Anna
    VI Vernadsky Crimean Fed Univ, Simferopol, Ukraine.
    Dyagileva, Julia
    VI Vernadsky Crimean Fed Univ, Simferopol, Ukraine.
    Makhin, Sergej
    VI Vernadsky Crimean Fed Univ, Simferopol, Ukraine.
    Pavlenko, Vladimir
    VI Vernadsky Crimean Fed Univ, Simferopol, Ukraine.
    Temperament differences between institution- and family-reared toddlers2016Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 45, s. 91-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to compare the temperamental properties (i.e. Surgency/extraversion, Negative affectivity, Effortful control) of institution-reared (IR) and family-reared (FR) toddlers, aged between 17-37 months, living in Simferopol, Crimea. The results demonstrated significantly lower Surgency and higher Negative affectivity scores in the institution-reared toddlers. At the same time, in IR children Surgency scores depended on children’s age, the older the children were, the higher scores they were assigned. No such relation was found for FR toddlers. Further, level of Negative affectivity in IR group depended significantly on amount of time that children spent at the institution; more time resulted in higher Negative affectivity scores. We could not find any differences between IR and FR children in Effortful control.

    The study results suggest different developmental patterns for Surgency and Negative affectivity in IR and FR children and are discussed in terms of potential impact it may have on further personality development.

  • 15. Melinder, A.
    et al.
    Forbes, D.
    Tronick, E.
    Fikke, L.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The development of the still-face effect: mothers do matter2010Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, nr 33, s. 472-481Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Schmitow, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kochukhova, Olga
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    How infants look at others' manual interactions: The role of experience2013Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 223-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human actions are often embedded in contexts of social interactions. However, just a few studies that have explored the development of infants' understanding of other people's manual actions do take this variable into account. In this study, 10- and 18-month-old infants were shown three interactive manual actions which the infants could or could not perform themselves. The infants' gaze shifts to the action target were recorded with an eye tracker. The results indicated that 18-month-old infants look faster to the target than their younger counterparts when they observe actions that they can perform themselves. The results suggest that the infants' own capacity to perform an action facilitates understanding of the goal of the action in a social interaction.

  • 17.
    Schmitow, Clara
    et al.
    Sodertorn Univ, Dept Social Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kochukhova, Olga
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Social perception: How do 6-month-old infants look at pointing gestures?2016Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 42, s. 152-156Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study explored 6-month-old infants' ability to follow a pointing gesture in a dynamic social context. The infants were presented with a video of a model pointing to one of two toys. The pointing gesture was performed either normally (with arm and hand pointing at the same direction), with a stick, or the model's arm and hand pointing in different directions (at different toys). The results indicate that infants at this age reliably followed pointing performed normally.

  • 18. Schmitow, Clara
    et al.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    What aspects of others' behaviors do infants attend to in live situations?2015Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 40, s. 173-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A head-mounted camera was used for studying infant focus of attention. In two situations, 10- and 14-month-old infants observed two adults interacting. In one situation, the adults had a conversation and in the other situation, they were playing with blocks. The results indicate a preference for observing manual actions and a different pattern in looking at conversations than has been shown in eye-tracking studies. The head-mounted camera is a promising method for examining the infant's focus of attention.

  • 19. Soares, D. A.
    et al.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Tudella, E.
    Development of exploratory behavior in late preterm infants2012Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 912-915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploratory behaviors of 9 late preterm infants and 10 full-term infants were evaluated longitudinally at 5, 6 and 7. months of age. Eight exploratory behaviors were coded. The preterm infants mouthed the object less and had delayed gains in Waving compared to the full-term infants.

  • 20.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Does contingency in adults’ responding influence 12-month-old infants’ social referencing?2017Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 46, s. 67-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract In two experiments we examined the influence of contingent versus non-contingent responding on infant social referencing behavior. EXPERIMENT 1: Forty 12-month-old infants were exposed to an ambiguous toy in a social referencing situation. In one condition an unfamiliar adult who in a previous play situation had responded contingently to the infant’s looks gave the infant positive information about the toy. In the other condition an unfamiliar adult who previously had not responded contingently delivered the positive information. EXPERIMENT 2: Forty-eight 12-month-old infants participated in Experiment 2. In this experiment it was examined whether the familiarity of the adult influences infants’ reactions to contingency in responding. In one condition a parent who previously had responded contingently to the infant’s looks provided positive information about the ambiguous toy, and in the other condition a parent who previously had not responded contingently provided the positive information. The infants looked more at the contingent experimenter in Experimenter 1, and also played more with the toy after receiving positive information from the contingent experimenter. No differences in looking at the parent and in playing with the toy were found in Experiment 2. The results indicate that contingency in responding, as well as the familiarity of the adult, influence infants’ social referencing behavior.

  • 21.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Effects of Adults' Contingent Responding on Infants' Behavior in Ambiguous Situations2017Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 49, s. 50-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the effect of adults’ contingency in responding to infants’ behavior in an ambiguous situation in two experiments. In Experiment 1, forty-four 12-month-old infants were exposed to an ambiguous toy. An unfamiliar adult responded either contingently or non-contingently to the infant’s bids and then presented the toy and provided positive information. During toy presentation, infants in the non-contingent condition looked less at the experimenter than infants in the contingent condition. In a concluding free-play situation infants in the non-contingent condition played less and tended to touch the toy less. In Experiment 2 (forty-four 12-month-old infants), the parent either responded promptly or with a delay each time the infant made contact initiatives and then presented an ambiguous toy and delivered the positive information. The infants in the non-contingent condition tended to look less at the parent during toy presentation and also tended to play less with the toy during the concluding free-play situation. The findings show that adults’ contingency in responding influences infants’ behavior in ambiguous situations.

  • 22. Thorgrimsson, Gudmundur B.
    et al.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liszkowski, Ulf
    1-and 2-year-olds' expectations about third-party communicative actions2015Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 39, s. 53-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants expect people to direct actions toward objects, and they respond to actions directed to themselves, but do they have expectations about actions directed to third parties? In two experiments, we used eye tracking to investigate 1- and 2-year-olds' expectations about communicative actions addressed to a third party. Experiment 1 presented infants with videos where an adult (the Emitter) either uttered a sentence or produced non-speech sounds. The Emitter was either face-to-face with another adult (the Recipient) or the two were back-to-back. The Recipient did not respond to any of the sounds. We found that 2-, but not 1-year-olds looked quicker and longer at the Recipient following speech than non-speech, suggesting that they expected her to respond to speech. These effects were specific to the face-to-face context. Experiment 2 presented 1-year-olds with similar face-to-face exchanges but modified to engage infants and minimize task demands. The infants looked quicker to the Recipient following speech than non-speech, suggesting that they expected a response to speech. The study suggests that by 1 year of age infants expect communicative actions to be directed at a third-party listener.

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