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  • 1.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Brocki, Karin Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors2012In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 449-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. General externalizing problem behaviors were also measured at age 5 to allow for a developmental analysis. Outcome variables were rated by parents and teachers. The sample consisted of 65 children with an oversampling of children with high levels of externalizing behaviors. Attachment was evaluated using a story stem attachment doll play procedure. Inhibition was measured using four different tasks. The results showed that both disorganized attachment and poor inhibition were longitudinally related to all outcome variables. Controlling for initial level of externalizing problem behavior, poor inhibition predicted ADHD symptoms and externalizing problem behaviors, independent of disorganized attachment, whereas for ASD symptoms no predictive relations remained. Disorganized attachment independently predicted CU traits.

  • 2.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interrelations Between Executive Function and Symptoms of Hyperactivity/Impulsivity and Inattention in Preschoolers: A Two Year Longitudinal Study2010In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study, including children at risk for developing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), examined the idea that complex executive functions (EFs) build upon more simple ones. This notion was applied in the study of longitudinal interrelations between core EF components - simple and complex inhibition, selective attention, and working memory (WM) - at age 5 and 6 as well as their predictive relations to ADHD symptoms at age 7. The results showed that simple inhibition and selective attention at age 5 independently predicted complex inhibition and WM at age 6. In addition, EFs primarily predicted symptoms of inattention rather than hyperactivity/impulsivity even at this young age. Finally, age 6 complex inhibition was shown to act as a mediator in the relations between simple inhibition and selective attention at age 5 and symptoms of inattention at age 7. These findings provide novel longitudinal support for the theory that fundamental EF components show a progression with age toward more complex executive control (see Garon et al. Psychological Bulletin 134(1):31-60 2008). Further, complex inhibition, implicating both inhibition and WM, seems to be a particularly strong correlate of ADHD symptoms in young children and should as such be the focus of future studies examining the relation between cognitive function and ADHD symptoms from a developmental perspective.

  • 3.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Yale University.
    Henrich, Christopher C
    Jones, Stephanie M
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Violence exposure and psychopathology in urban youth: the mediating role of posttraumatic stress.2007In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 578-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of violence exposure sequelae is essential to providing effective treatments for traumatized youth. This longitudinal study examined the mediating role of posttraumatic stress in the relationship between violence exposure and psychopathology, and compared the mediated models by gender. Urban adolescents (n=1,358) were surveyed using the Social and Health Assessment. The proposed relationships were examined using Structural Equation Modeling. Posttraumatic stress fully mediated the relationships between victimization and depression and anxiety in girls, and partially so in boys. In addition, posttraumatic stress partially mediated the relationships between violence exposure and commission of violence in boys. Current findings support the longitudinal effects of violence exposure on adolescent mental health. Posttraumatic stress represents a unique mechanism for the development of psychopathology in girls and is also related to negative outcomes in boys. These findings have direct implications for prevention and rehabilitation efforts among violence exposed youth.

  • 4.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive and Emotional Profiles of CU Traits and Disruptive Behavior in Adolescence: a Prospective Study2019In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 1039-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we followed 82–90 adolescents, 50% boys, from 15 to 16 years, investigating CU traits and disruptive behaviors as predictors of cognitive skills and arousal to emotional pictures. At age 15, CU traits were rated by adolescents and disruptive (aggregated ADHD-ODD-delinquent) behaviors were rated by parents and adolescents. At age 16, executive function, reaction time variability (RTV), IQ and arousal to negative pictures were assessed. The results showed that, with control for disruptive behaviors, CU traits predicted lower RTV, higher IQ and lower arousal to negative pictures. With control for CU traits, disruptive behaviors predicted lower spatial working memory, lower interference control and higher RTV. Our findings are of theoretical and clinical relevance as they point to highly diverging cognitive and emotional profiles of CU traits and disruptive behaviors.

  • 5.
    Scholtens, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    ADHD Symptoms and Attachment Representations: Considering the Role of Conduct Problems, Cognitive Deficits and Narrative Responses in Non-Attachment-Related Story Stems2014In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1033-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the present study was to investigate ADHD symptoms in relation to attachment representations. We used both attachment- and non-attachment-related story stems, which allowed us to investigate whether problems with narrative production can explain the relation between ADHD symptoms and attachment representations. We also investigated the role of cognitive deficits and conduct problems in these relations. The sample consisted of 89 children (27 % girls) between 6 and 10 years old, with an oversampling of children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms and conduct problems were rated by parents and teachers. Cognitive functioning was investigated using laboratory tests of inhibition, working memory and sustained attention. Attachment representations were coded as secure, organized insecure and disorganized categories. Narrative responses to non-attachment-related story stems were coded for incoherence and negative content. Results showed that children in the disorganized attachment category had significantly higher levels of ADHD symptoms compared to those in the secure category. Both ADHD symptoms and disorganized attachment were related to incoherence and negative content. Attachment representations were not associated with ADHD symptoms when controlling for negative content in response to non-attachment-related story stems. These results suggest that the associations between attachment security and ADHD are yet to be fully understood. Importantly, a propensity to envisage negative events seems to characterize children with high levels of ADHD symptoms.

  • 6. Sukhodolsky, Denis G
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Association of normative beliefs and anger with aggression and antisocial behavior in Russian male juvenile offenders and high school students.2004In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 225-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examined the association of anger experience and two types of normative beliefs with physical aggression and nonaggressive antisocial behavior in 361 juvenile offenders and 206 high school students in Russia. All participants were male and ranged in age from 14 to 18 years. Higher frequency of aggressive acts was significantly associated with higher levels of anger and stronger beliefs that physical aggression is an appropriate course of action in conflicts. After statistically controlling for nonaggressive antisocial behavior, the relationship between physical aggression and antisocial beliefs was not significant. Similarly, with physical aggression controlled, nonaggressive antisocial behavior was uniquely associated with approval of deviancy, but not with anger or beliefs legitimizing aggression. Juvenile offenders reported higher levels of anger experience and higher frequency of aggression and antisocial behavior compared to high school students. There were no differences in normative beliefs between these two groups. This specificity of association of social-cognitive and emotion-regulation processes to aggressive and nonaggressive forms of antisocial behavior may be relevant to understanding the mechanisms of cognitive-behavioral therapy for conduct disorder and antisocial behavior.

  • 7.
    Thorup, Emilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bölte, Sven
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Pediat Neuropsychiat Unit, Ctr Neurodev Disorders KIND, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Psychiat Res, BUP Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    EASE Team, The
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska institutet.
    Reduced alternating gaze during social interaction in infancy is associated with elevated symptoms of autism in toddlerhood2018In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 1547-1561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In typical development, infants often alternate their gaze between their interaction partners and interesting stimuli, increasing the probability of joint attention toward surrounding objects and creating opportunities for communication and learning. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been found to engage less in behaviors that can initiate joint attention compared to typically developing children, but the role of such atypicalities in the development of ASD during infancy is not fully understood. Here, using eye tracking technology in a live setting, we show that 10-month-olds at high familial risk for ASD engage less in alternating gaze during interaction with an adult compared to low risk infants. These differences could not be explained by low general social preference or slow visual disengagement, as the groups performed similarly in these respects. We also found that less alternating gaze at 10 months was associated with more ASD symptoms and less showing and pointing at 18 months. These relations were similar in both the high risk and the low risk groups, and remained when controlling for general social preference and disengagement latencies. This study shows that atypicalities in alternating gaze in infants at high risk for ASD emerge already during the first 10 months of life - a finding with theoretical as well as potential practical implications.

  • 8. Vermeiren, Robert
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Leckman, Peter E
    Deboutte, Dirk
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Exposure to violence and suicide risk in adolescents: a community study.2002In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 529-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of violence exposure is relatively unexplored in adolescents in European communities, and reports on the association between exposure to community violence and suicidal behavior are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the prevalence of community violence in a European urban adolescent sample, (2) the relationship between exposure to community violence and suicidal ideation/deliberate self-harm, and (3) the influence of depressive symptoms and aggressive behavior on this relationship. Self-report surveys were administered to a representative school-based sample of 1509 adolescents in Antwerp (Belgium). The prevalence rate of violence exposure was still high but lower than that reported in U.S. communities. Suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harm were both related to violence exposure. The gender-specific influence of depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior on the association between exposure to violence and suicidal behavior suggests the need for further research.

  • 9.
    Wåhlstedt, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Heterogeneity in ADHD: Neuropsychological Pathways, Comorbidity and Symptom Domains2009In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 551-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate different neuropsychological impairments and comorbid behavioral problems in relation to symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), studying the independent effects of different functions as well as specific relations to symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. A community-based sample of school children (n∈=∈182; the higher end of the ADHD symptom range was oversampled) completed neuropsychological tasks designed to measure executive function (EF), state regulation and delay aversion. Behavioral symptoms were measured through parental and teacher ratings of the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Both categorical and dimensional analyses were used to acquire a deeper understanding of ADHD. The results supported the notion that EF and state regulation constitute independent pathways to ADHD, primarily to symptoms of inattention. In addition, the present study points to the importance of viewing ADHD as a heterogeneous condition also with regard to the differential impact of neuropsychological functioning and comorbidity on different ADHD symptom groups and the two ADHD symptom domains.

1 - 9 of 9
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