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  • 1.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Karolinska Inst, Ctr Hlth Equ Studies, Sveav 160, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Sven -Erik
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Family & Community Med, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Levander, Maria
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Alm, Per Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Oreland, L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Smoking habits - Associations with personality/behavior, platelet monoamine oxidase activity and plasma thyroid hormone levels2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 118, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to outline results from our scientific studies on the associations among childhood behavior, adult personality, and biochemical factors in smoking habits. The studies consisted of: (1) follow-up of young criminals and controls, subdivided into risk for antisocial behavior groups, based on childhood rating levels of a projective test; and adult smoking habit groups; and (2) a large group of young adults examined on the same inventories. Personality in terms of KSP and EPQ-I scale scores, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups displayed significantly higher self-rated impulsiveness, anxiety, and nonconformity, as compared to the low risk group. Further, the very high risk group subjects, found to be overrepresented among subjects with heavy smoking habits, displayed lower mean platelet MAO-B activity and higher thyroid hormone levels than the low risk group. Thus, the higher the childhood risk for antisocial behavior, the clearer the adult personality pattern making subjects more disposed for smoking appeared; and the higher smoking habits, the stronger the relationships with biochemical measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms influencing personality and smoking habits. 

  • 2.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hedlund, Lars-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Personality scale response latencies as self-schema indicators: The inverted-U effect revisited2007In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 611-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two studies, we examined the relationship between participants’ responses to the items in the NEO-PI Big Five personality inventory and their response latencies to the same items. Extending previous research, we used polynomial regression analysis to examine if the relation between participants’ position on each of the Big Five factors and their average response latencies (regarded as self-schema indicators) across items on the same factors is characterised by a curvilinear (inverted-U) trend or not. The analyses in both studies yielded consistent support for a quadratic (curvilinear) relation between personality scores and response latencies for all Big Five factors. Those scoring high or low on a factor responded faster than those scoring around the mean, which lends support to the notion that the relation between personality scores and response latencies is characterised by an inverted-U effect. The results are discussed in the light of previousattempts to examining the inverted-U effect as self-schema evidence. Further, we discuss the potential of using response latency data to improve precision in personality assessment and prediction.

  • 3.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, William James Hall,33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Are non-agreeable individuals prejudiced?: Comparing different conceptualizations of agreeableness2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 101, p. 153-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has documented associations between prejudice and agreeableness, as well as openness to experience, from the five-factor model (FFM). Still, empathy/altruism and narcissism/honesty-humility are related traits and also potent predictors of prejudice. Thus, we examined whether there is an association between prejudice and agreeableness, as a global trait, or if the correlations depend on facets that are part of the broader FM factor, but belong to other dimensions in the HEXACO model. We further analyzed how well the documented relations of agreeableness on prejudice hold up when entered alongside empathy/altruism and honesty-humility within the HEXACO framework. Results from Sweden and the United States showed that only FFM agreeableness, and not the HEXACO counterpart, correlates with an index of prejudice (racism and sexism). Furthermore, the negative relations of FFM agreeableness were absent or reversed in regression analyses with the other HEXACO predictors. Instead, we found negative effects of honesty-humility and empathy/altruism on prejudice. Thus, the effect of agreeableness on prejudice is directly contingent on its definition in relation to honesty-humility and empathy/altruism. In conclusion, we found little evidence of an association between a global agreeableness trait and prejudice.

  • 4.
    Bergh, Robin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social identity and prejudiced personality2010In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 317-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the relation between personality and prejudice varies as a function of identity salience but previous empirical results are not conclusive. Extending previous research, we conducted an experimental study (N = 122) with pre- and post-manipulation measures of personality, and a post-manipulation measurement of prejudice, under conditions of control (no identity manipulation), personal or national identity. The results revealed no differences in the magnitude of the personality-prejudice correlations across conditions, neither for the pre- nor post-manipulation scores. Correlations based on pre- and post-manipulation variables, within each condition, did not differ significantly either. This indicates that neither prejudice nor personality variables were affected by identity salience. Thus, the study provides no support for the contention that the personality-prejudice relation varies as a function of social identity.

  • 5.
    Grina, Jana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergh, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sidanius, Jim
    Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Political orientation and dominance: Are people on the political right more dominant?2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 94, p. 113-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social dominance orientation and political orientations are strongly correlated, leading to the notion that right-wing individuals possess a dominant personality disposition. Expressing some caveats toward such an assumption, in four studies we tested the link between political orientation and dominant personality. We assessed dominant personality partly by the use of a newly developed measure of domineering, without reference to intergroup relations or political ideals, and partly by the use of an existing clinical measure of domineering (CAT-PD). The results revealed that all measures of dominance including social dominance were significantly intercorrelated and, in line with previous research, related to both personality (agreeableness) and prejudice. Also, the correlation of political orientation with domineering was significantly lower than that with social dominance. More importantly, in all studies, social dominance fully mediated (or confounded) the relations between domineering and political orientation. Together these findings suggest that a dominant personality is reflected in political orientation only if social dominance (support for group based hierarchies) is also adopted by the individual.

  • 6.
    Hellmer, Kahl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenson, T Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jylhä, Kirsti M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    What's (not) underpinning ambivalent sexism?: Revisiting the roles of ideology, religiosity, personality, demographics, and men's facial hair in explaining hostile and benevolent sexism2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 122, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambivalent sexism is a two-dimensional framework that assesses sexist and misogynous attitudes. The current corpus of research on such attitudes suggest that they are predicted by numerous variables, including religious beliefs, ideological variables, and men's facial hair. Most studies, however, have treated such predictors as if they are independent – inferring that zero-order correlations between sexism and its predictors are not confounded by omitted third variables. In the current work, we address ambivalent sexism using a large array of known correlates of sexist attitudes in two large and demographically diverse samples. We show that low empathic concern is the primary driver of hostile-, but not benevolent sexism (Study 1); that social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, religiosity, and low Openness and Agreeableness differentially predict ambivalent sexism (Study 2); along with male gender and low education level (Study 1 and 2). Contradicting an earlier finding, men's facial hair was not correlated with hostile sexism in either studies and a short full beard predicted lower scores on benevolent sexism in Study 2. Thus, we replicated the main findings from most previous research except for men's facial hair, and we also show the paths through which predictors of sexist attitudes exert their effects.

  • 7.
    Häkkinen, Kirsti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ideology and climate change denial2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 70, p. 62-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examining the relation between ideological variables and climate change denial, we found social dominance orientation (SDO) to outperform right-wing authoritarianism and left-right political orientation in predicting denial (Study 1 and 2). In Study 2, where we experimentally altered the level of denial by a newscast communicating supporting evidence for climate change, we demonstrated that the relation between the ideology variables and denial remains stable across conditions (newscast vs. control). Thus, the results showed that denial can be altered by communicating climate change evidence regardless of peoples' position on ideology variables, in particular social dominance. We discuss the outcome in terms of core elements of SDO - dominance and system-justification motives - and encourage researchers on climate change denial to focus on these elements. 

  • 8.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Auditory inspection time: On the importance of selecting the appropriate sensory continuum1998In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 25, p. 627-634Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Jylhä, Kirsti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social dominance orientation and climate change denial: The role of dominance and system justification2015In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 86, p. 108-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending previous research, we examined whether the relation between social dominance orientation (SDO) and climate change denial reflects group-based dominance (SDO and nature dominance) or general system justification. Moreover, we examined whether the relation between personality (domineering and empathy) and denial is mediated by group-based dominance variables. The results showed that the group-based dominance variables reduce the effect of system justification on denial to nonsignificant. Also, social dominance and nature dominance explain unique parts of the variance in denial. Moreover, path analyses showed that the relations between empathy and system justification with denial are mediated by both of the group-based dominance variables, while the relation between domineering and denial is mediated only by SDO. Together, these results suggest that denial is driven partly by dominant personality and low empathy, and partly by motivation to justify and promote existing social and human-nature hierarchies. We conclude by suggesting that climate change mitigation efforts could be more successful if framed as being clearly beneficial for everybody and nonthreateningto existing social order.

  • 10.
    Jylhä, Kirsti M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cantal, Clara
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Ctr Appl Cross Cultural Res, Wellington, New Zealand;Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Psychol, POB 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand .
    Akrami, Nazar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Milfont, Taciano L.
    Victoria Univ Wellington, Ctr Appl Cross Cultural Res, Wellington, New Zealand;Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Psychol, POB 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand .
    Denial of anthropogenic climate change: Social dominance orientation helps explain the conservative male effect in Brazil and Sweden2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 98, p. 184-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political conservatives and males are more likely to deny human influence on climate change. In this paper we examine the role of social dominance orientation (SDO) in explaining this “conservative male” effect by testing whether SDO mediates the influence of both political conservatism and gender on anthropogenic climate change denial. We use cross-sectional online-based data from Brazil (N = 367) and Sweden (N = 221) to test our mediation hypothesis. Results from path analysis showed that SDO partially or fully mediated the influence of political orientation and gender on anthropogenic climate change denial. The results provide insights about the role of SDO in the “conservative male” effect, and suggest that SDO could be considered more comprehensively in studies focusing on climate change denial and environmental attitudes/behaviors.

  • 11.
    Marengo, Davide
    et al.
    Univ Turin, Dept Psychol, Via Verdi 10, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Settanni, Michele
    Univ Turin, Dept Psychol, Via Verdi 10, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Assessing personality using emoji: An exploratory study2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 112, p. 74-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing popularity of text-based computer mediated communication, such as instant messaging and mobile texting, have resulted in the emergence of a new pictographic form of language, i.e. emoji, offering an intuitive and informal way to convey emotions and attitudes, replacing words or phrases in text messages. Based on these characteristics, could identification with emoji be associated with personality? Could they be used instead of text-based items in personality assessment? The present study aimed at exploring these questions. The sample is composed of 234 young adults recruited online (age: M = 24.79, SD = 6.47; 62% female). Participants responded to a brief Big-Five personality questionnaire and a 91-item survey assessing participants' degree of self-identification with emoji selected from the Apple Color Emoji fontset. Results indicated that 36 out of 91 examined emoji are significantly related with three of the Big-Five personality traits - emotional stability, extraversion, and agreeableness - that are consistently linked with emotion and affective processing. Emoji-based measures of these personality traits show moderate-to-large concurrent validity with scores from a validated personality questionnaire (r = 0.6-0.8). Overall, our study advances the idea that emoji might be employed to develop a language-free assessment tool for personality.

  • 12.
    Ramklint, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Jeansson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Holmgren, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Assessing personality disorders in eating disordered patients using the SCID-II: Influence of measures and timing on prevalence rate2010In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 218-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SCID-II Personality Questionnaire is available as a screening tool to shorten the time it takes to perform the SCID-II interview. However, very little is known about combining the questionnaire with the interview in eating disordered individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of personality disorder (PD) among patients with eating disorders (ED) by combining initial screening self-assessment with a later interview. not performed until axis I symptoms decreased. This was performed on 154 patients with ED. According to the initial self-assessment, the rate of any PD was 90%; however, according to the later SCID-II interview, the rate decreased to 37%. In a sub-sample of 15 patients, the questionnaire was filled out twice: at intake and at the time of the interview. In the subgroup performing the questionnaire twice, there was no decline in PD symptoms over time. However, the PD rate decreased significantly when the patient was assessed by the interview. These findings indicate that the influence of measures might be greater than the influence of timing. The findings support that prevalence rates of PD in eating disordered patients are high, but not as high as it has commonly been reported.

  • 13.
    Sveen, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry. Ersta Skondal Univ Coll, Dept Hlth Care Sci, Palliat Res Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Arnberg, Filip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry. Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Arinell, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Johannesson, Kerstin Bergh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    The role of personality traits in trajectories of long-term posttraumatic stress and general distress six years after the tsunami in Southeast Asia2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 97, p. 134-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims were to examine whether trajectories of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and general distress are related to personality traits and to investigate personality's contributing factor to PTS and general distress. The sample was 2549 Swedish tourists who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and responded to postal surveys at 1, 3 and 6 years after the tsunami, including assessment of personality traits, PTS and general distress. The sample was categorized into a direct exposure group and an indirect exposure comparison group. For both PTS and general distress, individuals with a resilient trajectory were lower in the trait neuroticism than those in the symptomatic trajectories whereas there were no differences in personality traits between the resilient trajectory and the low exposure comparison group. Neuroticism was strongly related to trajectories of both PTS and general distress even when adjusting for important risk factors such as traumatic bereavement and exposure severity. Other personality traits demonstrated weak associations with the trajectories. The present findings correspond with the notion of neuroticism as a vulnerability factor for symptomatic long-term trajectories of posttraumatic and general distress whereas resiliency was not predicated by particularly low levels of neuroticism.

1 - 13 of 13
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