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  • 1.
    Akrami, Nazar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Araya, Tadesse
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Category and stereotype activation revisited2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 513-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Study 1 (N = 230), we found that the participants' explicit prejudice was not related to their knowledge of cultural stereotypes of immigrants in Sweden, and that they associated the social category immigrants with the same national/ethnic categories. In Study 2 (N= 88), employing the category and stereotype words obtained in Study 1 as primes, we examined whether participants with varying degrees of explicit prejudice differed in their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice when primed with category or stereotypical words. In accord with our hypothesis, and contrary to previous findings, the results showed that people's explicit prejudice did not affect their automatic stereotyping and implicit prejudice, neither in the category nor stereotype priming condition. Study 3 (N = 62), employing category priming using facial photographs of Swedes and immigrants as primes, showed that participants' implicit prejudice was not moderated by their explicit prejudice. The outcome is discussed in relation to the distinction between category and stereotype priming and in terms of the associative strength between a social category and its related stereotypes.

  • 2. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Edsjö, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Westin, Vendela
    Tinnitus and short-term serial recall in stable versus intermittent masking conditions2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 517-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between tinnitus and short-term memory performance in varying background sounds is not well understood. In the present study a sample of 18 persons with tinnitus completed a serial recall test in three conditions, silence, masking and intermittent masking. The performance of a matched control group without tinnitus was also investigated. Based on the literature on the "irrelevant sound effect" we expected that the tinnitus group would perform worse during intermittent masking and that they would score lower overall compared to the control group. Results revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups, nor any group interaction within sound conditions for the serial recall test. Groups did however differ regarding subjective measures of concentration problems, anxiety and depression. Results are discussed in relation to thought suppression and distraction from tinnitus.

  • 3. Andersson, Helle W.
    et al.
    Sonnander, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University hospital.
    Sommerfelt, K
    Gender and its contribution to the prediction of cognitive abilities at 5 years.1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 267-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender-related differences in the prediction of five year-olds' cognitive abilities from measures of distal environment, proximal environment and infant test scores were examined in a random sample of 93 boys and 90 girls. Distal environmental data included maternal IQ, maternal and paternal education. Proximal environmental data included two variables derived from the Home Screening Questionnaire: the Home Questions and the Toy Checklist. The Bayley MDI was administered at age 13 months, whereas WPPSI-R was used as cognitive outcome measure at age 5 years. The relationship between paternal education and child IQ, and between proximal environmental variables and child IQ was significantly stronger for boys than for girls. The associations between proximal environment and IQ in boys, were accounted for by the distal environmental variables. Bayley MDI correlated significantly higher with girls' IQ compared to boys' IQ. Findings are discussed in terms of parental gender-differentiated socialization processes.

  • 4.
    Araya, Tadesse
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekehammar, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    When tolerance leads to intolerance: accessibility effects on social judgment2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 325-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effects of unobtrusively primed constructs that were evocative of tolerance (e.g., tolerant, nonprejudiced) on subsequent task performances and found, contrary to our expectation, contrast effects in the judgment of an ambiguous behavioral description (Study 1 and 2). Suspecting that these results might be the outcome of social-comparison processes, in Study 3, we attempted to corroborate our findings by providing the participants with either an explicit or implicit comparison standard. The results showed that the participants who were provided with the implicit comparison standard evaluated the target behavior as more intolerant as compared to those with the explicit or no comparison standard. The results are discussed in relation to the moderating role of automatic social-comparison processes in the incidence of assimilation and contrast effects and the reduction of prejudice.

  • 5.
    Berglund, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Nursing Research and Development, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Högskolan i Gävle.
    Westerlund, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Communicative skills in relation to gender, birth order, childcare and socioeconomic status in 18-month-old children2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 485-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in communicative skills, defined as gestures, vocabulary comprehension and vocabulary production, was examined as a function of gender, birth order, childcare and socioeconomic status (SES) in 1,019 18-month-old children. The children were recruited at their regular check-up at a number of randomly selected Child Health Care centers in a Swedish county. The participation rate was 88%. The children were assessed by their mothers using a short version of the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventories. The results demonstrate significant effects of gender and birth order on vocabulary comprehension and vocabulary production. Girls scored higher than boys and first-born children scored higher than later-born children. Type of childcare (family care, care at home and day-care centers) interacted with gender and birth order on vocabulary production and indicated that family care is not as advantageous as care at home or at day-care centers. SES had no effect on children's communicative skills at this age.

  • 6.
    Berglund, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Balldin, Jan
    Berggren, Ulf
    Eriksson, Matts
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Fahlke, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Do men with excessive alcohol consumption and social stability have an addictive personality?2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 257-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of an "addictive" personality has been extensively debated. The current study investigated personality in male individuals with excessive alcohol consumption (n = 100) in comparison to a population-based control group (n = 131). The individuals with excessive alcohol consumption were recruited by advertisements in a regional daily newspaper and controls from a population based Swedish Twin Registry. Personality was assessed by the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). Comparisons were made with normative data. Furthermore, by using a multivariate projection-based approach (Principal Component Analysis; PCA), hidden structures of traits and possible relationships among the individuals with excessive consumption and the controls was investigated. The individuals with excessive alcohol consumption as well as the controls had mean values within the normative range in all scales of the KSP. Moreover, the PCA analysis revealed no systematic between-group separation. Taken together, this result demonstrates that male individuals with excessive alcohol consumption do not have a personality different from that of a general population, which supports the notion of no "addictive personality".

  • 7.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hjern, Anders
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kohler, Lennart
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wallby, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Mental health in Swedish children living in joint physical custody and their parents' life satisfaction: A cross-sectional study2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 433-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compared the psychological symptoms of 129 children in joint physical custody with children in single care and nuclear families, using a nationally representative 2011 survey of 1,297 Swedish children aged between four and 18 years. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and its association with three dimensions of parental life satisfaction was investigated. Linear regression analyses showed higher SDQ-scores for children in joint physical custody (B=1.4, p<0.001) and single care (B=2.2, p<0.001) than in nuclear families, after adjustment for socio-demographic variables. The estimates decreased to 1.1 and 1.3, respectively, after being adjusted for parental life satisfaction (p<0.01). Our findings confirm previous research that showed lower symptom scores for children in nuclear families than children in single care and joint physical custody. Parental life satisfaction should be investigated further as a possible explanation of differences in symptom load between children in different living arrangements.

  • 8. Birgegard, Andreas
    et al.
    Sohlberg, Staffan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Persistent effects of subliminal stimulation: sex differences and the effectiveness of debriefing2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent and non-trivial effects of unconscious stimuli have been reported (Sohlberg & Birgegard, 2003). This raises the ethical question of whether informing participants about such stimuli effectively returns them to a normal state. Two experiments (sex-mixed, N = 70 and 118) tested two kinds of debriefing to participants following subliminal (tachistoscopic) attachment-related or control stimulation. Measures were the Beck Depression Inventory, Structural Analysis of Social Behavior, and Retrospective Attachment. Results showed persistent effects. Simple debriefing about the stimulus was effective in preventing these, while more elaborate debriefing also describing the effects and mechanisms for them was less effective. Persistent effects were also strongly related to participant sex, but debriefing effects were similar in men and women with regard to the purpose of debriefing. The findings have implications for ethical recommendations for subliminal research, and suggest that this unexplored area requires more attention.

  • 9.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Socio-emotional development: From infancy to young adulthood2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 592-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study (ULS), which started in 1985, are reported in two sections. The first section gives a summary of longitudinal data from infancy to middle childhood (age 9 years; n = 96) concerning predictions of social functioning aspects from the theoretical perspectives of temperament, attachment, and health psychology (social factors). The second section presents the first results emanating from a follow-up when participants were 21 years old (n = 85). The developmental roots of social anxiety symptoms were studied from the same perspectives as above, although with a special focus on the predictive power of the temperament trait of shyness/inhibition. Results for middle childhood outcomes showed that temperament characteristics were relevant for most outcomes, whereas the contribution of attachment was most convincingly shown in relation to social competence and personality. Social factors were found to have moderating functions, but direct effects were also shown, the most interesting perhaps being positive effects of non-parental day care. Results from the 21-year data confirmed the expected predictive relation from shyness/inhibition to symptoms of social anxiety and further showed this relation to be specific; the relation to symptoms of depression did not survive control for social anxiety, although the opposite was true. The broad analysis of predictor associations with social anxiety, showing the relevance of other temperament factors as well as interactive effects, again attested to the need for multi-faceted models to analyze developmental trajectories.

  • 10.
    Condén, Emelie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Rosenblad, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Prevalence of Type D Personality and Factorial and Temporal Stability of the DS14 after Myocardial Infarction in a Swedish Population2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 601-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the prevalence of Type D personality and the temporal stability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the DS14 at three time points after myocardial infarction. The prevalence of Type D personality was 14.0% during hospitalization, 25.1% at 1 month, and 19.2% at 12 months. A total of 6.1% of patients were classified as Type D personality at all three assessments, whereas 68.4% were stable non-Type D and 25.6% changed between personality classifications. The DS14 had stable structural validity, but low temporal stability over time, especially from hospitalization to the 1-month and 12-month follow-ups (k = 0.365 and 0.397, respectively).

  • 11.
    Dahlberg, Anton
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fält, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap, Department of clinical neuroscience.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Salari, Raziye
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swedish norms for the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for children 3-5 years rated by parents and preschool teachersIn: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Dimberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Göran
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thunberg, Monika
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fear of snakes and facial reactions: A case of rapid emotional responding1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 75-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Dimberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thunberg, Monika
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rapid facial reactions to emotional facial expressions1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Dimberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thunberg, Monika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Speech anxiety and rapid emotional reactions to angry and happy facial expressions2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 321-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to explore whether people high as opposed to low in speech anxiety react with a more pronounced differential facial response when exposed to angry and happy facial stimuli. High and low fear participants were selected based on their scores on a fear of public speaking questionnaire. All participants were exposed to pictures of angry and happy faces while facial electromyographic (EMG) activity from the Corrugator supercilii and the Zygomaticus major muscle regions was recorded. Skin conductance responses (SCR), heart rate (HR) and ratings were also collected. Participants high as opposed to low in speech anxiety displayed a larger differential corrugator responding, indicating a larger negative emotional reaction, between angry and happy faces. They also reacted with a larger differential zygomatic responding, indicating a larger positive emotional reaction, between happy and angry faces. Consistent with the facial reaction patterns, the high fear group rated angry faces as more unpleasant and as expressing more disgust, and further rated happy faces as more pleasant. There were no differences in SCR or HR responding between high and low speech anxiety groups. The present results support the hypothesis that people high in speech anxiety are disposed to show an exaggerated sensitivity and facial responsiveness to social stimuli.

  • 15.
    Dimdins, Girts
    et al.
    Sodertorn Univ, Huddinge, Sweden.;Univ Latvia, Riga, Latvia..
    Sandgren, Maria
    Sodertorn Univ, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Montgomery, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Sodertorn Univ, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Psychological variables underlying political orientations in an old and anew democracy: A comparative study between Sweden and Latvia2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 437-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines in detail the psychological variables underlying ideological political orientation, and structure and contents of this orientation, in Sweden and Latvia. Individual political orientation is conceptualized on two dimensions: acceptance vs. rejection of social change and acceptance vs. rejection of inequality. Swedish (N=320) and Latvian (N=264) participants completed measures of political orientation, Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), self vs. other orientation, tolerance for ambiguity, humanism and normativism, core political values, system justification, as well as moral foundations questionnaire and portrait values questionnaire. The results showed that the relation among the measured variables was similar in both samples. Swedish participants showed stronger endorsement of egalitarian attitudes and social values, whereas we found more self-enhancing and socially conservative values and attitudes among the Latvian participants.

  • 16. Fernaeus, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    Östberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    The AMQ: a four-factor inventory of absentmindedness and memory2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 193-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Absentmindedness and Memory Questionnaire (AMQ) is a new self-rating scale designed to evaluate everyday memory problems related to absentmindedness. It includes 24 items and is based on studies of different samples (N= 623). Its test-retest reliability is high and it has consistently shown similar factor structure. The AMQ thus measures four weakly correlated factors: Absentmindedness, Persons, Locations and Codes/Addresses. Factor analysis further indicates that Absentmindedness may include two subfactors: momentary attention deficit and prospective forgetfulness or impaired agenda memory. Gender differences were found in Persons (Female+) and Locations (Male+) but not in Absentmindedness or Codes/Addresses. The current version of AMQ has seven interindividually comparable response alternatives for each item in the questionnaire. This makes it useful as a measure of subjective absentmindedness or forgetfulness as well as a complementary measure of subjective memory for persons, locations, and codes/addresses/stories, especially at follow-up examinations.

  • 17.
    Fransson, Mari
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is middle childhood attachment related to social functioning in young adulthood?2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study (N = 69) was to examine whether middle childhood attachment, measured using the Separation Anxiety Test (Slough, Goyette & Greenberg, 1988), predicts aspects of social functioning (social initiative, prosocial orientation, social anxiety, loneliness) in young adulthood. Insecurity-avoidance at age 8.5 years was, as expected, negatively related to social initiative and prosocial orientation, and was also positively related to social anxiety and loneliness at age 21 years. In addition, insecurity-avoidance contributed to developmental change in social anxiety from middle childhood to young adulthood. Contrary to our expectations, the two security scales were generally unrelated to future social functioning. Taken together, these results extend previous research by showing that insecurity-avoidance is related to social functioning also beyond childhood and adolescence, and that it contributes to developmental change in social functioning over time. The scarcity of prospective links for the attachment security scales points to the need for future studies addressing when and why attachment does not contribute to future social functioning.

  • 18.
    Frick, Matilda A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forslund, Tommie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does child verbal ability mediate the relationship between maternal sensitivity and later self-regulation?: A longitudinal study from infancy to 4 years2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 97-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to further examine the mechanisms by which maternal sensitivity influences the development of child self-regulation. This study investigated the role of maternal sensitivity when infants were 10 months old and child verbal ability at 18 months, in relation to various aspects of self-regulation at 48 months, in a sample of 95 typically developing children (46.3% girls). In particular, the study examined, from a Vygotskian perspective, whether child verbal ability, as measured by receptive and expressive language, mediated the relationship between maternal sensitivity and hot and cool aspects of self-regulation in the child. As hypothesized, maternal sensitivity predicted child verbal ability, as well as working memory, set shifting, and delay of gratification. Child receptive language predicted set shifting, inhibition, and delay of gratification. In addition, receptive language mediated the relationship between maternal sensitivity and inhibition only. Additive effects of maternal sensitivity and child receptive language in relation to set shifting were found, and a main effect of maternal sensitivity on child delay of gratification. The results add to the body of research suggesting that responsive parenting and child verbal ability are important for the development of self-regulation, and suggest that different mechanisms may be at work for different aspects of self-regulation.

  • 19.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Scott, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The reliability and validity of the Swedish version of Body Shape Questionnaire2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 319-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were examined using data from three samples: 1) a sample from the general population (n=1157), 2) a student sample (n=124) and 3) a clinical sample (n=90). Analyses showed that a single factor solution might be a reasonable solution as 32 of the 34 items loaded heavily on the first factor. The derived short 14-item version of the BSQ also showed a coherent structure with all the items loading on one single factor. The BSQ showed high test-retest reliability, very high internal consistency, ranging from .94 to .97, and high split-half reliability (above .93). Furthermore, it showed high validity by correlating highly with the body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory (r=.72 and higher), and high discriminant validity. Thus, the Swedish version of the BSQ showed good concurrent and discriminant validity as well as high reliability.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Bo S.
    Uppsala University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Curriculum Studies.
    Number-word sequence skill and arithmetic performance.2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 157-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Johansson, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlbring, Per
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Emotional Stroop via Internet among individuals with eating disorders2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 69-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated whether Stroop interference in eating disordered individuals for food - and body-related words, as repeatedly found previously using standard emotional Stroop tasks, would also be demonstrated when using an Internet based emotional Stroop task. Participants were anorexic women (n = 13), bulimic women (n = 20), non-clinically eating disordered women nevertheless over-concerned about eating and body appearance (n = 27) and normal control women (n = 31). Bulimic individuals showed Stroop interference for body-related words whereas anorexic individuals showed Stroop interference for food-related words. The present results thus suggest that administration of the emotional Stroop task is possible via the Internet. Furthermore, it is possible that the time consuming response delivery, relative to previous studies, could lead to Stroop interference only for the most emotionally significant information, in turn, differentiating between the core concerns of anorexic and bulimic individuals.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forssman, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individual differences in 10-month-olds' performance on the A-not-B task2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 130-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study used the classical A-not-B task (Piaget, ) to explore individual differences in cognitive flexibility in 10-month-old infants by: (1) examining how differences in search performance during A trials relate to search performance during B trials; (2) studying the relation between temperamental dimensions and A-not-B performance; and (3) investigating differences in search performance between looking and reaching responses within the same task. Forty infants were tested on a fixed-design-version of the A-not-B task, not allowing for training or individual adjustment, but instead eliciting additional search behaviors than the common correct responses in A trials and perseverative errors in B trials. Infants were also rated by their parents on the temperamental scales Activity level and Attention span. The main findings were: (1) performance on A trials affected B trial performance, with infants being more correct on A trials having more incorrect and less 'no search' responses on B trials; (2) activity level, but not attention span, was related to performance on the A-not-B task, with infants performing better on A trials having a lower activity level; and (3) there were a few differences in performance with regard to modality, indicating that responding correctly by looking may be less cognitively demanding than doing so by reaching. This study demonstrated that 10-month-olds show a wide variation of search behaviors on this A-not-B task, resulting in individual differences in performance. These differences are suggested to reflect variation in temperamental activity level as well as maturity of short term/working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility.

  • 23.
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Harmat, L
    Laukka, P
    The wisdom of the body: Listeners’ autonomic arousal distinguishes between spontaneous and posed vocal emotions2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Harmat, László
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Laukka, Petri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The wisdom of the body: Listeners' autonomic arousal distinguishes between spontaneous and posed vocal emotions2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been the matter of much debate whether perceivers are able to distinguish spontaneous vocal expressions of emotion from posed vocal expressions (e.g., emotion portrayals). In this experiment, we show that such discrimination can be manifested in the autonomic arousal of listeners during implicit processing of vocal emotions. Participants (N = 21, age: 20-55 years) listened to two consecutive blocks of brief voice clips and judged the gender of the speaker in each clip, while we recorded three measures of sympathetic arousal of the autonomic nervous system (skin conductance level, mean arterial blood pressure, pulse rate). Unbeknownst to the listeners, the blocks consisted of two types of emotional speech: spontaneous and posed clips. As predicted, spontaneous clips yielded higher arousal levels than posed clips, suggesting that listeners implicitly distinguished between the two kinds of expression, even in the absence of any requirement to retrieve emotional information from the voice. We discuss the results with regard to theories of emotional contagion and the use of posed stimuli in studies of emotions.

  • 25.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exemplars in the mist: The cognitive substrate of the representativeness heuristic.2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, no 49, p. 201-212Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Note on the rationality of rule-based versus exemplar-based processing in human judgment2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindström, Björn R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using a multidimensional scaling approach to investigate the underlying basis of ease of learning judgments2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Before studying a material it is of strategic importance to first assess its difficulty, so called Ease of Learning (EOL) judgments. A multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedure was used to investigate the underlying basis of EOL judgments for 24 nouns, which to the authors' knowledge has not been done before. In addition, Judgments of Learning (JOL) followed by a free recall test was performed. The MDS analysis indicated that EOL judgments for the nouns are based on multiple cues (dimensions), namely word length, frequency, and concreteness. Moreover, the concreteness values of the nouns, as judged by an independent group, were correlated with both the JOLs and the concreteness dimension from the MDS analysis. This indicates that EOLs and JOLs for single words are based, to some extent, on the same cues.

  • 28. Larsson, Magnus R.
    et al.
    Bäckstrom, Martin
    Michel, Per-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar
    The stability of alexithymia during work in a high-stress environment: A prospective study of Swedish peacekeepers serving in Kosovo2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 350-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We applied a prospective design to reinvestigate the issue whether the sub-domains of alexithymia could be considered stable traits or distress-related states. Assessments of alexithymia and subjective distress were conducted before deployment to Kosovo in a sample of male peacekeepers. A second assessment was conducted approximately six months later during the final phase of service. The results showed evidence of moderate to high relative stability in all alexithymic sub-domains. It was also found that a relative change in subjective distress predicted a relative change in difficulty identifying feelings and difficulty describing feelings but not in externally oriented thinking. We suggest therefore that the alexithymic sub-domains could be considered relatively stable traits but that the level of difficulty identifying and describing feeling varies with the level of subjective distress.

  • 29.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kerimi, Neda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A Swedish validation of the Berlin Numeracy test2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 132-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has highlighted the importance of considering an individual’s level of numeracy, that is their numerical abilities, in a vast variety of judgment and decision making tasks. To accurately evaluate the influence of numeracy requires good and valid measures of the construct. In the present study we validate a Swedish version of the Berlin Numeracy Test (Cokely, Galesic, Schulz, Ghazal & Garcia-Retamero, 2012). The validation was car- ried out on both a student sample and a sample representative of the Swedish population. The Swedish BNT showed sound psychometrical properties in both samples. Further, in both samples the BNT had satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity when correlating with other measures of numeracy, while not being significantly related to measures of personality. With respect to predictive validity the results indicated divergent patterns in the two samples. In the student sample, participants scoring highest on the BNT outperformed those in the other three levels, which did not differ in performance. In contrast, in the population sample participants scoring lowest on the BNT performed worse than those in the other three levels, which did not differ in performance. Taken together, however, the results suggest that the Swedish version of the BNT should be considered a valid measure of numeracy in both Swedish student and population representative samples.

  • 30.
    Lövenhag, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Larm, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 489-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Vastmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.

  • 31.
    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV).
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Humanities laboratory, Cognition, Communication & Learning, Lund University.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings universitet, Handikappvetenskap.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Humanities laboratory, Cognition, Communication & Learning, Lund University.
    Ors, Marianne
    Humanities laboratory, Cognition, Communication & Learning, Lund University.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Rosenlunds sjukhus, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for children using cochlear implants or hearing aids2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 448-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children in Sweden using cochlear implants or hearing aids, or a combination of both. The study included forty-eight children, 5, 6 and 7 years of age. Sixteen children with normal hearing (NH) served as a reference group. The first purpose of the study was to compare NH and DHH children’s reading ability at pre and post intervention. The second purpose was to investigate effects of the intervention. Cognitive and demographic factors were analyzed in relation to reading improvement. Results showed no statistically significant difference for reading ability at the group level, although NH children showed overall higher reading scores at both test points. Age comparisons revealed a statistically significant higher reading ability in the NH 7-year olds compared to the DHH 7-year olds. The intervention proved successful for word decoding accuracy, passage comprehension and as a reduction of nonword decoding errors in both NH and DHH children. Reading improvement was associated with complex working memory and phonological processing skills in NH children. Correspondent associations were observed with visual working memory and letter knowledge in the DHH children. Age was the only demographic factor that was significantly correlated with reading improvement. The results suggest that DHH children’s beginning reading may be influenced by visual strategies that might explain the reading delay in the older children.

  • 32.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Henrik
    Exemplars in the Mist: The cognitive substrate of the representativeness heuristic2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 201-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea that people often make probability judgments by a heuristic short-cut, the representativeness heuristic, has been widely influential, but also criticized for being vague. The empirical trademark of the heuristic is characteristic deviations between normative probabilities and judgments (e.g., the conjunction fallacy, base-rate neglect). In this article the authors contrast two hypotheses concerning the cognitive substrate of the representativeness heuristic, the prototype hypothesis (Kahneman & Frederick, 2002) and the exemplar hypothesis (Juslin & Persson, 2002), in a task especially designed to elicit representativeness effects. Computational modelling and an experiment reveal that representativeness effects are evident early in training and persist longer in a more complex task environment and that the data are best accounted for by a model implementing the exemplar hypothesis.

  • 33.
    Olsson, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Department of Psychology, Uppsala University.
    Spouses' attributions for helping: the effects of styles of help-seeking, self-serving bias, and sex2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 279-289Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Olsson, Ingrid I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Stockholms universitet.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ahlander, Camilla
    Sörmland Cty Council, Nykoping, Sweden..
    Adolescents and social support situations2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study concerned adolescents' needs for social support with a focus on specific situations. The Adolescent Need for Social Support Questionnaire (ANSSQ) was developed based on qualitative interviews with typically developing adolescents about situations in which they need parent support. The questionnaire was tested on a sample of 380 Swedish 15-year-olds. A 3-component structure reflecting the dimensions "Home and school", "Low mood", and "Sex and alcohol" was tested in SEM analyses. Scales based on these dimensions, measuring support from parents and peers, yielded satisfactory psychometric results. Parent support was preferred over peer support for "Home and school" situations; in the other two areas peers were more likely to be the support providers. Females turned more often to parents and friends for support than males. Seeking parental support was positively related to adolescent disclosure and negatively related to adolescent secrecy, indicating convergent and discriminant validity. Further validation of the ANSSQ is discussed. The current study points to possibilities for adapting measures of social support to contexts.

  • 35.
    Ramnero, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Folke, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Kanter, Jonathan W.
    Univ Washington, Dept Psychol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    A learning theory account of depression2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning theory provides a foundation for understanding and deriving treatment principles for impacting a spectrum of functional processes relevant to the construct of depression. While behavioral interventions have been commonplace in the cognitive behavioral tradition, most often conceptualized within a cognitive theoretical framework, recent years have seen renewed interest in more purely behavioral models. These modern learning theory accounts of depression focus on the interchange between behavior and the environment, mainly in terms of lack of reinforcement, extinction of instrumental behavior, and excesses of aversive control, and include a conceptualization of relevant cognitive and emotional variables. These positions, drawn from extensive basic and applied research, cohere with biological theories on reduced reward learning and reward responsiveness and views of depression as a heterogeneous, complex set of disorders. Treatment techniques based on learning theory, often labeled Behavioral Activation ( BA) focus on activating the individual in directions that increase contact with potential reinforcers, as defined ideographically with the client. BA is considered an empirically well-established treatment that generalizes well across diverse contexts and populations. The learning theory account is discussed in terms of being a parsimonious model and ground for treatments highly suitable for large scale dissemination.

  • 36.
    Rondung, Elisabet
    et al.
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Psychol, S-83145 Ostersund, Sweden.
    Ekdahl, Johanna
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Psychol, S-83145 Ostersund, Sweden.
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research. Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Nursing, Ostersund, Sweden.
    Rubertsson, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research. Lund Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Fac Med, Lund, Sweden.
    Sundin, Orjan
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Psychol, S-83145 Ostersund, Sweden.
    Heterogeneity in childbirth related fear or anxiety2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 634-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many pregnant women experience fear, worry or anxiety relating to the upcoming childbirth. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate possible subgroups in a sample of 206 pregnant women (mean age 29.4 years), reporting fear of birth in mid-pregnancy. Comparisons were made between nulliparous and parous women. In a series of cluster analyses, validated psychological instruments were used to cluster women based on their psychological profiles. A five-cluster solution was suggested, with the clusters characterized by: overall low symptom load, general high symptom load, medium symptom load with high performance-based self-esteem, blood- and injection phobic anxiety, and specific anxiety symptoms. Nulliparous women were more likely to report clinically relevant levels of blood- and injection phobia (OR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.09-6.01), while parous women more often reported previous negative experiences in health care (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.09-3.39) or previous trauma (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.58-5.32). The results indicate that women reporting fear of birth are a heterogeneous group. In order to individualize treatment, psychological characteristics may be of greater importance than parity in identifying relevant subgroups.

  • 37.
    Scholtens, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Yang-Wallentin, Fan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: A longitudinal study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement.

  • 38.
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    The psychological neuroscience of depression: Implications for understanding effects of deep brain stimulation2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 411-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article it is suggested that current psychological theories of depression presuppose that this condition will develop as a result of a vicious circle involving negatively biased communication between systems of emotional stress-/alarm-signaling, executive functions and mood regulation. These systems may from a neuroanatomical point of view be located in the limbic system, the orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal cortex and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis respectively. The theoretical and practical implications of this model for the understanding of pharmacological treatments of depression are briefly discussed and this theory is related to the catecholamine hypothesis of depression. The model is furthermore discussed in relation to deep brain stimulation (DBS) of treatment resistant major depression. Similarities and differences between this perspective and the one advocated by the "homeostatic theory" of depression are discussed. It is concluded that a topographical psychological theory may offer a useful heuristic in thinking about depression and that it offers several testable predictions about treatments of the disorder.

  • 39. Strömsten, Lotta M. J.
    et al.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Holm, Ulla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Assessment of self-conscious emotions: A Swedish psychometric and structure evaluation of the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA)2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA) is a well-established scenario-based questionnaire assessing self-conscious emotions, such as shame and guilt, which have been shown to be differentially associated with a variety of functional, motivational, behavioral and health outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and internal structure of a Swedish version of TOSCA in a sample of 361 healthy adults. The psychometric properties and internal consistency of the Swedish version were at level with the original US TOSCA version for shame, guilt and detachment. The internal structure of the Swedish version was acceptable for shame, guilt and detachment but contained shortcomings in assessment of externalization.

  • 40.
    Stålberg, Gabriella
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Sandin, Sven
    Hultman, Christina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Video-based assessment of interpersonal problem solving skills in patients with schizophrenia, their siblings and non-psychiatric controls2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze social functioning in patients with schizophrenia and their biological relatives with a Swedish version of the video-based vignette test Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS). In a new video production with simulated "real life" situations we tested the ability to receive, process and send social information in 25 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia, 20 siblings to patients with schizophrenia and 25 randomly selected non-psychiatric controls. The test proved to have good validity and interrater reliability. After controlling for positive or negative symptoms, patients had poor performance especially in acting out solutions leading to effective problem solving. Siblings generally did not differ from controls, but showed some deficiencies in non-verbal language. To conclude, AIPSS is appropriate for use in a Swedish-speaking context and might be useful in research on vulnerability indicators and in assessment of treatment interventions.

  • 41. Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    et al.
    Ivachova, Ekaterina
    Jones Tinghag, Karin
    Östberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Logopedi.
    Swedish norms for word fluency tests: FAS, animals and verbs2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 479-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Verbal fluency tests are useful measures of acquired language impairment and cognitive decline of various etiologies. The aim of this study was to provide normative data for the Swedish population on the three verbal fluency tests, FAS, Animals and Verbs. A group of 165 healthy participants ranging from 16 to 89 years of age were assessed with the verbal fluency tests and tests of level of intellectual functioning. The sample was stratified by education, age and gender. Level of education had a substantial influence on the performance on verbal fluency, most clearly so in FAS and Verbs. Intellectual level had a positive and significant correlation with all measures of word fluency. Moreover, there was an interaction between age and gender such that women aged between 30 and 64 years outperformed elderly men on FAS and Verbs. Guidelines for instructions and scoring in Swedish are given in the article.

  • 42. Taloyan, Marina
    et al.
    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Löfvander, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Short-term cognitive-behavioral treatment in multicultural primary care of patients with longstanding backache2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 371-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in multi-cultural primary care patients with longstanding backache is not evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcome of a four weekly-treatment given by primary care physicians regarding pain-related worry, depression and severe pain and to determine which social, clinical or gender factors were associated with outcome.The study group consisted of 245 patients in consecutive order from 19 countries, 18 to 45years, entering rehabilitation program because of longstanding backache. Prevalences of pain-related worry and depression and severe pain was counted and compared before and after. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds (OR; 95% CI) for persistent pain-related worry and/or persistent depression and severe pain (VAS 50). The prevalences of pain-related worry and depression were both significantly lower after treatment (pain-related worry 83% before vs. 38% after; depression 43% before vs. 31% after). Also the number of patients scoring 50 VAS was a little, but significantly, fewer (68% vs. 61%). Use of interpreter doubled the risk of having persistent pain-related worry (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-4.1) but the risk was not significant regarding persistent depression (OR 1.8; 0.6-5.4). The rating of VAS rating 50 after treatment was twice as high, OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.1-4.6) in the 38-45year old age group. To conclude, a focus on pain ideas reduced pain-related worry and depression in these patients with various sociocultural backgrounds and longstanding backache.

  • 43.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet (CLINTEC), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engström, Elisabeth
    Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet (CLINTEC), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Using a multi-feature paradigm to measure mismatch responsesto minimal sound contrasts in children with cochlear implantsand hearing aids2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 409-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to explore whether a multi-feature paradigm (Optimum-1) for eliciting mismatch negativity (MMN) would objectively capture difficulties in perceiving small sound contrasts in children with hearing impairment (HI) listening through their hearing aids (HAs) and/or cochlear implants (CIs). Children aged 5-7 years with HAs, CIs and children with normal hearing (NH) were tested in a free-field setting using a multi-feature paradigm with deviations in pitch, intensity, gap, duration, and location. There were significant mismatch responses across all subjects that were positive (p-MMR) for the gap and pitch deviants (F(1,43) = 5.17, p = 0.028 and F(1,43) = 6.56, p = 0.014, respectively) and negative (MMN) for the duration deviant (F(1,43) = 4.74, p = 0.035). Only the intensity deviant showed a significant group interaction with MMN in the HA group and p-MMR in the CI group (F(2,43) = 3.40, p = 0.043). The p-MMR correlated negatively with age, with the strongest correlation in the NH subjects. In the CI group, the late discriminative negativity (LDN) was replaced by a late positivity with a significant group interaction for the location deviant. Children with severe HI can be assessed through their hearing device with a fast multi-feature paradigm. For further studies a multi-feature paradigm including more complex speech sounds may better capture variation in auditory processing in these children.

  • 44.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Action, the foundation for cognitive development2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 617-623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is argued that action constitutes the foundation for cognitive development. Action is a principal component of all aspects of cognitive development including social understanding. It reflects the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, the goals to be attained, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensory-motor system. Actions are directed into the future and their control is based on knowledge of what is going to happen next. The child's sensory-motor system is especially designed to facilitate the extraction of this knowledge. In addition, the infant is endowed with motives that ensure that these innate predispositions are transformed into a system of knowledge for guiding actions. By acting on the world, infants develop their cognition.

  • 45.
    Wright, A. Michelle
    et al.
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Psychol, Detroit, MI USA.;Wayne State Univ, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA.;Western Michigan Univ, Office Vice President Res, Kalamazoo, MI USA..
    Dhalimi, Abir
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA.;Univ Detroit Mercy, Dept Psychiat, Detroit, MI 48221 USA.;Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, New Haven, CT USA..
    Lumley, Mark A.
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Psychol, Detroit, MI USA..
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA.;Michigan State Univ, Coll Human Med, Dept Family Med, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Pole, Nnamdi
    Smith Coll, Dept Psychol, Northampton, MT, England..
    Arnetz, Judith E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Michigan State Univ, Coll Human Med, Dept Family Med, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Michigan State Univ, Coll Human Med, Dept Family Med, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Unemployment in Iraqi refugees: The interaction of pre and post-displacement trauma2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 564-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous refugee research has been unable to link pre-displacement trauma with unemployment in the host country. The current study assessed the role of pre-displacement trauma, post-displacement trauma, and the interaction of both trauma types to prospectively examine unemployment in a random sample of newly-arrived Iraqi refugees. Participants (N=286) were interviewed three times over the first two years post-arrival. Refugees were assessed for pre-displacement trauma exposure, post-displacement trauma exposure, a history of unemployment in the country of origin and host country, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Analyses found that neither pre-displacement nor post-displacement trauma independently predicted unemployment 2years post-arrival; however, the interaction of pre and post-displacement trauma predicted 2-year unemployment. Refugees with high levels of both pre and post-displacement trauma had a 91% predicted probability of unemployment, whereas those with low levels of both traumas had a 20% predicted probability. This interaction remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic variables and mental health upon arrival to the US. Resettlement agencies and community organizations should consider the interactive effect of encountering additional trauma after escaping the hardships of the refugee's country of origin.

  • 46. Zakrisson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Anderzen, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lenell, Fredrik
    Sandelin, Hakan
    Ambivalent sexism: A tool for understanding and improving gender relations in organizations2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Östberg, Monica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parenting stress and external stressors as predictors of maternal ratings of child adjustment2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sought to disentangle the effects of different kinds of stress on maternal ratings of child externalizing and internalizing problems, social inhibition, and social competence, with a primary focus on parenting stress. The relations were explored in a sample consisting of mothers of 436 children (Mage=7years) in Sweden. Half the sample had had early clinical contacts during infancy due to child regulation problems, and the rest were mothers without known such early contacts. Demographic factors, family stressors, and parenting stress were examined in stress adjustment models. Family stressors were clinical contact during infancy, current child and parent health problems, recent negative life events, and insufficient social support. Parenting stress as a mediator of the effect of other stressors on rated child adjustment was tested as was social support as a moderator of the effect of parenting stress on adjustment. The results showed that a higher parenting stress level was associated with maternal ratings of more externalizing and internalizing behaviors, more social inhibition, and lower social competence. Other family stressors and background variables were also found to be of importance, mainly for externalizing and internalizing problems and to some extent for social competence. Social inhibition had a unique relation to parenting stress only. Parenting stress mediated effects of other stressors in twelve models, whereas social support had no moderating effect on the link between parenting stress and child adjustment. Thus, parenting stress seems to be an important overarching construct. Clinical implications are proposed.

1 - 47 of 47
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