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  • 1.
    Elsner, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    D'Ausilio, A.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fadiga, L.
    The motor cortex is causally related to predictive eye movements during action observation2013In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 488-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the hypothesis that predictive gaze during observation of other people's actions depends on the activation of corresponding action plans in the observer. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation and eye-tracking technology we found that stimulation of the motor hand area, but not of the leg area, slowed gaze predictive behavior (compared to no TMS). This result shows that predictive eye movements to others' action goals depend on a somatotopical recruitment of the observer's motor system. The study provides direct support for the view that a direct matching process implemented in the mirror-neuron system plays a functional role for real-time goal prediction.

  • 2.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bakker, Marta
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Human infants orient to biological motion rather than audiovisual synchrony2011In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 2131-2135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both orienting to audiovisual synchrony and to biological motion are adaptive responses. The ability to integrate correlated information from multiple senses reduces processing load and underlies the perception of a multimodal and unified world. Perceiving biological motion facilitates filial attachment and detection of predators/prey. In the literature, these mechanisms are discussed in isolation. In this eye-tracking study, we tested their relative strengths in young human infants. We showed five-month-old infants point-light animation pairs of human motion, accompanied by a soundtrack. We found that audiovisual synchrony was a strong determinant of attention when it was embedded in biological motion (two upright animations). However, when biological motion was shown together with distorted biological motion (upright animation and inverted animation, respectively), infants looked at the upright animation and disregarded audiovisual synchrony. Thus, infants oriented to biological motion rather than multimodally unified physical events. These findings have important implications for understanding the developmental trajectory of brain specialization in early human infancy.

  • 3. Franklin, Anna
    et al.
    Catherwood, Di
    Alvarez, James
    Axelsson, Emma
    Hemispheric asymmetries in categorical perception of orientation in infants and adults2010In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 48, p. 2648-2657Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Linnavalli, Tanja
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Cognit Brain Res Unit, Inst Psychol & Logoped, POB 9, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Putkinen, Vesa
    Univ Helsinki, Cognit Brain Res Unit, Inst Psychol & Logoped, POB 9, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Jyvaskyla, Dept Mus, Jyvaskyla, Finland..
    Huotilainen, Minna
    Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Univ Helsinki, Cognit Brain Res Unit, Inst Psychol & Logoped, POB 9, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Cicero Learning, Helsinki, Finland..
    Tervaniemi, Mari
    Univ Helsinki, Cognit Brain Res Unit, Inst Psychol & Logoped, POB 9, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Cicero Learning, Helsinki, Finland..
    Phoneme processing skills are reflected in children's MMN responses2017In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 101, p. 76-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phonological awareness (PA), the core contributor in phoneme processing abilities, has a link to later reading skills in children. However, the associations between PA and neural auditory discrimination are not clear. We used event-related potential (ERP) methodology and neuropsychological testing to monitor the neurocognitive basis of phonological awareness in typically developing children. We measured 5-6-year-old children's (N = 70) phoneme processing, word completion and perceptual reasoning skills and compared their test results to their brain responses to phonemic changes, separately for each test. We found that children performing better in Phoneme processing test showed larger mismatch negativity (MMN) responses than children scoring lower in the same test. In contrast, no correspondence between test scores and brain responses was found for Auditory closure. Thus, the results suggest that automatic auditory change detection is linked to phoneme awareness in preschool children.

  • 5. McNab, Fiona
    et al.
    Leroux, Gaelle
    Strand, Fredrik
    Thorell, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Sissela
    Klingberg, Torkel
    Common and unique components of inhibition and working memory: An fMRI, within-subjects investigation2008In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 2668-2682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioural findings indicate that the core executive functions of inhibition and working memory are closely linked, and neuroimaging studies indicate overlap between their neural correlates. There has not, however, been a comprehensive study, including several inhibition tasks and several working memory tasks, performed by the same subjects. In the present study, 11 healthy adult subjects completed separate blocks of 3 inhibition tasks (a stop task, a go/no-go task and a flanker task), and 2 working memory tasks (one spatial and one verbal). Activation common to all 5 tasks was identified in the right inferior frontal gyrus, and, at a lower threshold, also the right middle frontal gyrus and right parietal regions (BA 40 and BA 7). Left inferior frontal regions of interest (ROIs) showed a significant conjunction between all tasks except the flanker task. The present study could not pinpoint the specific function of each common region, but the parietal region identified here has previously been consistently related to working memory storage and the right inferior frontal gyrus has been associated with inhibition in both lesion and imaging studies. These results support the notion that inhibitory and working memory tasks involve common neural components, which may provide a neural basis for the interrelationship between the two systems.

  • 6. Palombo, D
    et al.
    Alain, C
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Khuu, W
    Levine, B
    Severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM) in healthy adults: a new mnemonic syndrome2015In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 72, p. 105-118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predictive gaze shifts elicited during observed and performed actions in 10-month-old infants and adults2011In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 2911-2917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We asked whether people's actions are understood by projecting them onto one's own action programs, according to the direct matching hypothesis, and whether this mode of control functions in infants. Adults' and infants' gaze and hand movements were measured in two live situations. The task was either to move an object between two places in the visual field, or to observe the corresponding action performed by another person. When performing the action, infants and adults behaved strikingly similar. Hand and gaze movements were simultaneously initiated and gaze arrived at the goal ahead of the hand. When observing the actions, the initiation of the gaze shift was delayed relative to the observed hand movement in both infants and adults, but it still arrived at the goal ahead of the hand. For both the performance and observation of actions the proactiveness of gaze shifts was associated with saccades ahead of the velocity peak of the hand. The close similarity between adults' and infants' actions when performing the movements and the great advantage of the adults when observing them support the conclusion that one's own motor actions develop ahead of the ability to predict other people's actions.

  • 8.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dunsmoor, Joseph E.
    Zielinski, David
    LaBar, Kevin S.
    Spatial proximity amplifies valence in emotional memory and defensive approach-avoidance2015In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 70, p. 476-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In urban areas, people often have to stand or move in close proximity to others. The egocentric distance to stimuli is a powerful determinant of defensive behavior in animals. Yet, little is known about how spatial proximity to others alters defensive responses in humans. We hypothesized that the valence of social cues scales with egocentric distance, such that proximal social stimuli have more positive or negative valence than distal stimuli. This would predict enhanced defensive responses to proximal threat and reduced defensive responses to proximal reward. We tested this hypothesis across four experiments using 3-D virtual reality simulations. Results from Experiment 1 confirmed that proximal social stimuli facilitate defensive responses, as indexed by fear-potentiated startle, relative to distal stimuli. Experiment 2 revealed that interpersonal defensive boundaries flexibly increase with aversive learning. Experiment 3 examined whether spatial proximity enhances memory for aversive experiences. Fear memories for social threats encroaching on the body were more persistent than those acquired at greater interpersonal distances, as indexed by startle. Lastly, Experiment 4 examined how egocentric distance influenced startle responses to social threats during defensive approach and avoidance. Whereas fear-potentiated startle increased with proximity when participants actively avoided receiving shocks, startle decreased with proximity when participants tolerated shocks to receive monetary rewards, implicating opposing gradients of distance on threat versus reward. Thus, proximity in egocentric space amplifies the valence of social stimuli that, in turn, facilitates emotional memory and approach-avoidance responses. These findings have implications for understanding the consequences of increased urbanization on affective interpersonal behavior.

  • 9.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Engman, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Persson, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Wikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Kumlien, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Medial temporal lobe resection attenuates superior temporal sulcus response to faces2014In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 61, p. 291-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Face perception depends on activation of a core face processing network including the fusiform face area, the occipital face area and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is also involved in decoding facial expression and damage to the anterior MTL, including the amygdala, generally interferes with emotion recognition. The impairment in emotion recognition following anterior MTL injury can be a direct result from injured MTL circuitry, as well as an indirect result from decreased MTL modulation of areas in the core face network. To test whether the MTL modulates activity in the core face network, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activation in the core face processing network in patients with right or left anterior temporal lobe resections (ATR) due to intractable epilepsy. We found reductions of face-related activation in the right STS after both right and left ATR together with impaired recognition of facial expressions. Reduced activity in the fusiform and the occipital face areas was also observed in patients after right ATR suggesting widespread effects on activity in the core face network in this group. The reduction in face-related STS activity after both right and left ATR suggests that MTL modulation of the STS may facilitate recognition of facial expression.

1 - 9 of 9
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