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  • 1. Augustine, Robin
    Near-field dosimetry for the millimeter-wave exposure of human cells in vitro2012In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the expected mass deployment of millimeter-wave wireless technologies, thresholds of potential millimeter-wave-induced biological and health effects should be carefully assessed. The main purpose of this study is to propose, optimize, and characterize a near-field exposure configuration allowing illumination of cells in vitro at 60 GHz with power densities up to several tens of mW/cm(2) . Positioning of a tissue culture plate containing cells has been optimized in the near-field of a standard horn antenna operating at 60 GHz. The optimal position corresponds to the maximal mean-to-peak specific absorption rate (SAR) ratio over the cell monolayer, allowing the achievement of power densities up to 50 mW/cm(2) at least. Three complementary parameters have been determined and analyzed for the exposed cells, namely the power density, SAR, and temperature dynamics. The incident power density and SAR have been computed using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The temperature dynamics at different locations inside the culture medium are measured and analyzed for various power densities. Local SAR, determined based on the initial rate of temperature rise, is in a good agreement with the computed SAR (maximal difference of 5%). For the optimized exposure setup configuration, 73% of cells are located within the ±3 dB region with respect to the average SAR. It is shown that under the considered exposure conditions, the maximal power density, local SAR, and temperature increments equal 57 mW/cm(2) , 1.4 kW/kg, and 6 °C, respectively, for the radiated power of 425 mW.

  • 2. Hillert, Lena
    et al.
    Akerstedt, Torbjörn
    Lowden, Arne
    Wiholm, Clairy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kuster, Niels
    Ebert, Sven
    Boutry, Clementine
    Moffat, Scott Douglas
    Berg, Mats
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    The effects of 884 MHz GSM wireless communication signals on headache and other symptoms: An experimental provocation study2008In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 185-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Findings front prior studies of possible health and physiological effects from mobile phone use have been inconsistent. Exposure periods in Provocation studies have been rather short and personal characteristics of the participants poorly defined. We studied the effect of radiofrequency field (RF) on self-reported symptoms and detection of fields after a prolonged exposure time and with a well defined study group including Subjects reporting symptoms attributed to mobile phone use. The design was a double blind, cross-over provocation study testing a 3-h long GSM handset exposure versus sham. The study group was 7 1 subjects age 18-45, including 38 subjects reporting headache or vertigo in relation to mobile phone use (symptom group) and 33 non-symptomatic Subjects. Symptoms were scored on a 7-point Likert scale before, after 11/2 and 23/4 It of exposure. Subjects reported their belief of actual exposure status. The results showed that headache was more commonly reported after RE exposure than sham, mainly due to an increase in the non-symptom group. Neither group could detect RF exposure better than by chance. A belief that the RF exposure had been active was associated with skin symptoms. The higher prevalence of headache in the non-symptom group towards the end of RE exposure justifies further investigation of possible physiological correlates. The current study indicates a need to better characterize study participants in mobile phone exposure Studies and differences between symptom and non-symptom groups.

  • 3. Lowden, Arne
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Ingre, Michael
    Wiholm, Clairy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hillert, Lena
    Kuster, Niels
    Nilsson, Jens P.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sleep After Mobile Phone Exposure in Subjects With Mobile Phone-Related Symptoms2011In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 4-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies show increases in activity for certain frequency bands (10-14 Hz) and visually scored parameters during sleep after exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. A shortened REM latency has also been reported. We investigated the effects of a double-blind radiofrequency exposure (884 MHz, GSM signaling standard including non-DTX and DTX mode, time-averaged 10 g psSAR of 1.4 W/kg) on self-evaluated sleepiness and objective EEG measures during sleep. Forty-eight subjects (mean age 28 years) underwent 3 h of controlled exposure (7:30-10:30 PM; active or sham) prior to sleep, followed by a full-night polysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory. The results demonstrated that following exposure, time in Stages 3 and 4 sleep (SWS, slow-wave sleep) decreased by 9.5 min (12%) out of a total of 78.6 min, and time in Stage 2 sleep increased by 8.3 min (4%) out of a total of 196.3 min compared to sham. The latency to Stage 3 sleep was also prolonged by 4.8 min after exposure. Power density analysis indicated an enhanced activation in the frequency ranges 0.5-1.5 and 5.75-10.5 Hz during the first 30 min of Stage 2 sleep, with 7.5-11.75 Hz being elevated within the first hour of Stage 2 sleep, and bands 4.75-8.25 Hz elevated during the second hour of Stage 2 sleep. No pronounced power changes were observed in SWS or for the third hour of scored Stage 2 sleep. No differences were found between controls and subjects with prior complaints of mobile phone-related symptoms. The results confirm previous findings that RF exposure increased the EEG alpha range in the sleep EEG, and indicated moderate impairment of SWS. Furthermore, reported differences in sensitivity to mobile phone use were not reflected in sleep parameters.

  • 4.
    Wiholm, Clairy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lowden, Arne
    Kuster, Niels
    Hillert, Lena
    Arnetz, Bengt B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Moffat, Scott D
    Mobile phone exposure and spatial memory2009In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiofrequency (RF) emission during mobile phone use has been suggested to impair cognitive functions, that is, working memory. This study investigated the effects of a 2 1/2 h RF exposure (884 MHz) on spatial memory and learning, using a double-blind repeated measures design. The exposure was designed to mimic that experienced during a real-life mobile phone conversation. The design maximized the exposure to the left hemisphere. The average exposure was peak spatial specific absorption rate (psSAR10g) of 1.4 W/kg. The primary outcome measure was a "virtual" spatial navigation task modeled after the commonly used and validated Morris Water Maze. The distance traveled on each trial and the amount of improvement across trials (i.e., learning) were used as dependent variables. The participants were daily mobile phone users, with and without symptoms attributed to regular mobile phone use. Results revealed a main effect of RF exposure and a significant RF exposure by group effect on distance traveled during the trials. The symptomatic group improved their performance during RF exposure while there was no such effect in the non-symptomatic group. Until this new finding is further investigated, we can only speculate about the cause.

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