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  • 1.
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Natural History Museum of London.
    Life on Earth1999In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 21, p. 533-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Almén, Markus Sällman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Lamichhaney, Sangeet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Berglund, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Grant, B. Rosemary
    Princeton Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Grant, Peter R.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Webster, Matthew T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden.;Texas A&M Univ, Dept Vet Integrat Biosci, College Stn, TX USA..
    Adaptive radiation of Darwin's finches revisited using whole genome sequencing2016In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 14-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We recently used genome sequencing to study the evolutionary history of the Darwin's finches. A prominent feature of our data was that different polymorphic sites in the genome tended to indicate different genetic relationships among these closely related species. Such patterns are expected in recently diverged genomes as a result of incomplete lineage sorting. However, we uncovered conclusive evidence that these patterns have also been influenced by interspecies hybridisation, a process that has likely played an important role in the radiation of Darwin's finches. A major discovery was that segregation of two haplotypes at the ALX1 locus underlies variation in beak shape among the Darwin's finches, and that differences between the two haplotypes in a 240 kb region in blunt and pointed beaked birds involve both coding and regulatory changes. As we review herein, the evolution of such adaptive haplotypes comprising multiple causal changes appears to be an important mechanism contributing to the evolution of biodiversity.

  • 3.
    Barron, Andrew B.
    et al.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Australia.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Herberstein, Marie E.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Australia.
    Plenty of sex, but no sexuality in biologyundergraduate curricula2011In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 899-902Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Hosking, Brett
    et al.
    Makinen, Taija
    Lymphatic vasculature: a molecular perspective.2007In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 29, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lymphatic vasculature comprises an intricate network of vessels critical for fluid homeostasis, immune surveillance and fat absorption. Recent studies have provided insights into the developmental processes and molecular mechanisms controlling the formation and remodelling of the lymphatic vessels. These studies have further demonstrated the essential and active role of the lymphatic vessels in various pathological conditions and advanced our understanding of the progression of human diseases, such as inflammation and tumorigenesis. In the context of the latest exciting findings, we review here the current understanding of the mechanisms of lymphatic development and contribution of lymphatic vessels to pathological conditions.

  • 5.
    Klasson, Lisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Molecular Evolution.
    Andersson, Siv G. E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Molecular Evolution.
    Research on small genomes: Implications for synthetic biology2010In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 288-295Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic genomics is a new field of research in which small DNA pieces are assembled in a series of steps into whole genomes. The highly reduced genomes of host-associated bacteria are now being used as models for de novo synthesis of small genomes in the laboratory. Bacteria with the smallest genomes identified in nature provide nutrients to their hosts, such as amino acids, co-factors and vitamins. Comparative genomics of these bacteria enables predictions to be made about the gene sets required for core cellular functions and the associated metabolic network for the biosynthesis of host-selected compounds. Synthetic biology may ultimately enable researchers to make customized cell-specific organelles for the production and delivery of drugs to humans and domestic animals. Synthetic genomics may also become the method of choice for functional analyses of genes and genomes from bacteria that cannot be cultivated in the laboratory.

  • 6.
    Leger, Michelle M.
    et al.
    UPF, CSIC, Inst Evolutionary Biol, Barcelona, Spain.
    Eme, Laura
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Stairs, Courtney W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Roger, Andrew J.
    Dalhousie Univ, Ctr Comparat Genom & Evolutionary Bioinformat, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, Halifax, NS, Canada.
    Demystifying Eukaryote Lateral Gene Transfer2018In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 40, no 5, article id 1700242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent BioEssays paper [W. F. Martin, BioEssays 2017, 39, 1700115], William Martin sharply criticizes evolutionary interpretations that involve lateral gene transfer (LGT) into eukaryotic genomes. Most published examples of LGTs in eukaryotes, he suggests, are in fact contaminants, ancestral genes that have been lost from other extant lineages, or the result of artefactual phylogenetic inferences. Martin argues that, except for transfers that occurred from endosymbiotic organelles, eukaryote LGT is insignificant. Here, in reviewing this field, we seek to correct some of the misconceptions presented therein with regard to the evidence for LGT in eukaryotes.

  • 7.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lummaa, Virpi
    Evolution of sex differences in lifespan and aging: Causes and constraints2013In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 717-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do the two sexes have different lifespans and rates of aging? Two hypotheses based on asymmetric inheritance of sex chromosomes (unguarded X) or mitochondrial genomes (mother's curse) explain sex differences in lifespan as sex-specific maladaptation leading to increased mortality in the shorter-lived sex. While asymmetric inheritance hypotheses equate long life with high fitness, considerable empirical evidence suggests that sexes resolve the fundamental tradeoff between reproduction and survival differently resulting in sex-specific optima for lifespan. However, selection for sex-specific values in life-history traits is constrained by intersexual genetic correlations resulting in intra-locus sexual conflict over optimal lifespan. The available data suggest that the evolution of sexual dimorphism only partially resolves these conflicts. Sexual conflict over optimal trait values, which has been demonstrated in model organisms and in humans, is likely to play a key role in shaping the evolution of lifespan, as well as in maintaining genetic variation for sex-specific diseases.

  • 8.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rowe, Locke
    Friberg, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Why organisms age: Evolution of senescence under positive pleiotropy?2015In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 802-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two classic theories maintain that aging evolves either because of alleles whose deleterious effects are confined to late life or because of alleles with broad pleiotropic effects that increase early-life fitness at the expense of late-life fitness. However, empirical studies often reveal positive pleiotropy for fitness across age classes, and recent evidence suggests that selection on early-life fitness can decelerate aging and increase lifespan, thereby casting doubt on the current consensus. Here, we briefly review these data and promote the simple argument that aging can evolve under positive pleiotropy between early-and late-life fitness when the deleterious effect of mutations increases with age. We argue that this hypothesis makes testable predictions and is supported by existing evidence.

  • 9.
    Mugal, Carina F
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Weber, Claudia C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    GC-biased gene conversion links the recombination landscape and demography to genomic base composition: GC-biased gene conversion drives genomic base composition across a wide range of species2015In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 1317-1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin and evolutionary dynamics of the spatial heterogeneity in genomic base composition have been debated since its discovery in the 1970s. With the recent availability of numerous genome sequences from a wide range of species it has been possible to address this question from a comparative perspective, and similarities and differences in base composition between groups of organisms are becoming evident. Ample evidence suggests that the contrasting dynamics of base composition are driven by GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a process that is associated with meiotic recombination. In line with this hypothesis, base composition is associated with the rate of recombination and the evolutionary dynamics of the recombination landscape, therefore, governs base composition. In addition, and at first sight perhaps surprisingly, the relationship between demography and genomic base composition is in agreement with the gBGC hypothesis: organisms with larger populations have higher GC content than those with smaller populations.

  • 10.
    Nieuwenhuis, Bart P. S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Immler, Simone
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    The evolution of mating-type switching for reproductive assurance2016In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1141-1149Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative ways to ensure mate compatibility, such as hermaphroditism and the breakdown of self-incompatibility, evolved repeatedly when finding a mating partner is difficult. In a variety of microorganisms where compatibility is determined by mating-types, a highly regulated form of universal compatibility system called mating-type switching has evolved several times. This sophisticated system allows for the genetic adjustment of the mating type during asexual growth, and it most likely evolved for reproductive assurance of immotile species under low densities. In this review, we compare the switching strategy to other universal compatibility systems such as unisexual mating and homothallism. We identify the costs of switching, including genome instability, and mechanistic costs, as well as the benefits, mainly the maintenance of important mating-type functions. Given the potential benefits of mating-type switching, we speculate that switching is likely to have evolved many times independently, and may be more common in groups where genetic mating types regulate mate compatibility than assumed so far.

  • 11. Rice, William R.
    et al.
    Friberg, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Gavrilets, Sergey
    Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: A testing protocol for a new epigenetic model2013In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 764-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring - the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model.

  • 12.
    Whittle, Carrie A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Neurospora as a model to empirically test central hypotheses in eukaryotic genome evolution2012In: Bioessays, ISSN 0265-9247, E-ISSN 1521-1878, Vol. 34, no 11, p. 934-937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungus Neurospora comprises a novel model for testing hypotheses involving the role of sex and reproduction in eukaryotic genome evolution. Its variation in reproductive mode, lack of sex-specific genotypes, availability of phylogenetic species, and young sex-regulating chromosomes make research in this genus complementary to animal and plant models.

1 - 12 of 12
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