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  • 1. Forabosco, F.
    et al.
    Lohmus, M.
    Rydhmer, L.
    Sundström, L. F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Genetically modified farm animals and fish in agriculture: A review2013In: Livestock Science, ISSN 1871-1413, E-ISSN 1878-0490, Vol. 153, no 1-3, 1-9 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developments in biotechnology over the past 25 years have allowed scientists to engineer genetically modified (GM) animals for use in various areas of agriculture and medicine. The great majority of GM animals and fish are currently only at the research stage. However, some animals with an anticipated use in food production are close to reaching the grocery shelf at least, they will be soon available for marketing. GM livestock include many different kinds of animals and species modified with the intention of improving economically important traits such as growth-rate, quality of meat, milk composition, disease resistance and survival. Pigs have been engineered to grow faster and to produce more meat with less feed; the composition of pork has also been improved for healthier human consumption. Scientists have paid particular attention to pig health, raising piglet survival rates, reducing the risks of infectious disease, and fortifying the porcine immune system. Sheep have been modified to improve wool production and immunity, and to reduce the risk of mortality following infections by bacteria and lethal viruses. Growth-rate in chickens has been increased with only limited success, because conventional selection has already improved this trait close to its biological limit. However, disease resistance (e.g. to H5N1) and the survival of newly hatched chicks have been improved. Udder health and survival are the most important traits improved by transgenic technology in cattle. GM cows with resistance to BSE have been bred. Similar traits are targeted in fish, dominated by salmon, carp and tilapia species, where the focus is on meat production, meat quality, and disease resistance. The number of GM farm animals and fish developed in laboratories is increasing, but for the present the number of species close to entering the market remains small.

  • 2.
    Jäderkvist, Kim
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Holm, Niina
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Imsland, Freyja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Arnason, Thorvaldur
    IHBC AB, SE-74494 Morgongava, Sweden.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Andersson, Lisa S.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Gabriella
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    The importance of the DMRT3 'Gait keeper' mutation on riding traits and gaits in Standardbred and Icelandic horses2015In: Livestock Science, ISSN 1871-1413, E-ISSN 1878-0490, Vol. 176, 33-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that a single base-pair mutation, a change from cytosine (C) to adenine (A), in the DMRT3 gene affects both the ability to show ambling and lateral gaits in a wide range of horse breeds, as well as racing performance and trotting technique in Standardbred and Nordic trotters. The variant allele is present in gaited breeds but is absent, or found at a very low frequency, in breeds used for Western-European style riding and flat racing, like the Swedish Warmblood and Thoroughbreds as well as in draught horses. This indicates that the variant allele might have a negative effect on certain riding performance traits in horses. Therefore, one aim of this study was to investigate whether the DMRT3 variant affects canter in Standardbred trotters, and to test if heterozygous horses (CA) were better suited for Western-European style riding than homozygous horses (M). Riding traits were studied in 115 Standardbred horses, and a similar study was also performed with data from 55 Nordic trotters. The results showed that CA Standardbreds had significantly better balance in canter, both collected and extended canter, than M horses. The CA horses also got significantly higher scores for transitions in collected canter. For the rhythm we found no significant differences between the genotypes. In the Nordic trotters we were unable to establish any significant difference for canter ability. Another aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the variant allele on riding abilities and gaits in the Icelandic horse (n=446). Practically all horse breeds considered to be three-gaited have a CC genotype, in contrast Icelandic CC horses can show tolt We therefore tested whether the variant influenced how difficult it was to initiate tolt training for these horses. It was also investigated whether the variant affects which gaits Icelandic horses choose, both at liberty and during initial training. Icelandic CC horses were significantly more difficult to train to tolt compared to CA and AA horses. The M Icelandic horses showed the lateral gaits tolt and pace significantly more frequent, both at liberty and during initial training, than CA or CC horses. The majority of the Icelandic CC and CA horses chose trot at liberty and during initial training.

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