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  • 1. Alatalo, R V
    et al.
    Burke, T
    Dann, J
    Hanotte, O
    Hoglund, J
    Lundberg, A
    Moss, R
    Rintamaki, P T
    Paternity, copulation disturbance and female choice in lekking black grouse1996In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 52, p. 861-873Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Alatalo, Rauno V
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Lundberg, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Can Female Preference Explain Sexual Dichromatism In The Pied Flycatcher, Ficedula-Hypoleuca1990In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 39, p. 244-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How important female choice is for the evolution of male secondary sexual characteristics is controversial. Two field and one laboratory experiment, using the pied flycatcher, were performed to test the female choice aspect of sexual selection. In addition, non-manipulative data from 5 years are presented. The observational data suggest a slight preference for dark males by females but in field experiments in which males had territories at random sites (i.e. they did not choose a territory) or the colour of concurrently arriving males was altered, there was no preference for darker ones. Similarly, oestradiol-treated females did not prefer black or brown males in the laboratory. Thus, there is little support for the idea that female choice has been an important mechanism in the evolution of sexual dichromatism in the pied flycatcher.

  • 3.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lindqvist, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sensory exploitation and plasticity in female mate choice in the swordtail characin2013In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 85, no 5, p. 891-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite extensive research in the field of sexual selection, the evolutionary origin and maintenance of preferences for sexual ornaments are still debated. Recent studies have pointed out that plasticity in mate choice might be more common than previously thought, but little is still known about the factors that affect such plasticity. The swordtail characin, Corynopoma riisei, is a tropical fish species in which males use a food-mimicking ornament to attract females. We tested whether ecological factors, more specifically prior foraging experience, can affect female preference for male ornaments. For this, we habituated females on a diet consisting of either red-coloured food or standard-coloured green food items and then we tested whether female preferences for artificially red-coloured male ornaments matched their previous foraging experience. We found a strong effect of food treatment: females trained on red food showed a stronger response to males with red-coloured ornaments than females trained on green food. Our results show that ecological variation can generate divergence of female preferences for male ornaments and that the response in preference to environmental change can be rapid if the bias is partly learnt.

  • 4.
    Aplin, L. M.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anthropol, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Firth, J. A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Farine, D. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Univ Calif Davis, Dept Anthropol, Davis, CA 95616 USA.;Smithsonian Trop Res Inst, Ancon, Italy..
    Voelkl, B.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Crates, R. A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Culina, A.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Garroway, C. J.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Hinde, C. A.
    Wageningen Univ, Dept Anim Sci, Behav Ecol Grp, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Kidd, L. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Psorakis, I.
    Univ Oxford, Math Inst, Oxford, England..
    Milligan, N. D.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Radersma, R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England.;Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Evolutionary Ecol Unit, Lund, Sweden..
    Verhelst, B. L.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Sheldon, B. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst Field Ornithol, Oxford OX1 3PS, England..
    Consistent individual differences in the social phenotypes of wild great tits, Parus major2015In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 108, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest in animal social networks, surprisingly little is known about whether individuals are consistent in their social network characteristics. Networks are rarely repeatedly sampled; yet an assumption of individual consistency in social behaviour is often made when drawing conclusions about the consequences of social processes and structure. A characterization of such social phenotypes is therefore vital to understanding the significance of social network structure for individual fitness outcomes, and for understanding the evolution and ecology of individual variation in social behaviour more broadly. Here, we measured foraging associations over three winters in a large PIT-tagged population of great tits, and used a range of social network metrics to quantify individual variation in social behaviour. We then examined repeatability in social behaviour over both short (week to week) and long (year to year) timescales, and investigated variation in repeatability across age and sex classes. Social behaviours were significantly repeatable across all timescales, with the highest repeatability observed in group size choice and unweighted degree, a measure of gregariousness. By conducting randomizations to control for the spatial and temporal distribution of individuals, we further show that differences in social phenotypes were not solely explained by within-population variation in local densities, but also reflected fine-scale variation in social decision making. Our results provide rare evidence of stable social phenotypes in a wild population of animals. Such stable social phenotypes can be targets of selection and may have important fitness consequences, both for individuals and for their social-foraging associates.

  • 5.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    MULTIPLE MATING IN A WATER STRIDER - MUTUAL BENEFITS OR INTERSEXUAL CONFLICT1989In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 38, p. 749-756Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Nilsson, T
    The evolution of polyandry: multiple mating and female fitness in insects2000In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 60, p. 145-164Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Risky sex: male pipefishes mate at random in the presence of a predator1993In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 169-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether the presence of a predator alters courtship behaviour and mating in male pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, was studied experimentally by first allowing a male to choose between a large and a small female in an enclosure. The females were subsequently released to establish with which the male mated. In the presence of an enclosed predator, males were not more active in front of or danced more with larger than smaller females, but in the absence of a predator the larger females received more activity and dancing. Moreover, control males (without a predator) copulated more often with large than with small females, whereas predator-exposed males copulated infrequently and indiscriminately. These differences are most likely to be due to a decrease in male choosiness when a predator is present, as treatment, size and time of the day did not influence the activity of enclosed females. Predator-exposed males courted and copulated less, but each copulation transferred more eggs, compared with the control males. There was no significant difference in total number of eggs transferred to the males' brood pouches between treatments. Thus, the presence of a predator made mating random and minimized conspicuous mating behaviour, thereby decreasing the potential for sexual selection to act under high predation regimes in this pipefish.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sequential hermaphroditism and the size-advantage hypothesis: an experimental test1990In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 426-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When members of one sex have a low reproductive success when small and a high reproductive success when large, while members of the opposite sex do relatively better when small and relatively worse when large, sequential hermaphroditism is commonly believed to be favoured by natural selection. This so-called size-advantage hypothesis has not been rigorously tested experimentally. For the hermaphrodite Ophryotrocha puerilis puerilis, a polychaete, in which small individuals are males and large ones females, the hypothesis predicts that reproductive success will increase less with body size for males than for females, eventually promoting sex change in males. Dry body weight of males was not correlated with reproductive rate, whereas there was a positive correlation for females in reproducing pairs. Furthermore, an increment in the size of females affected clutch size and reproductive rate more than did an equal increment in the size of males. Reproductive success of males decreased with size, because females preferred smaller males. At the same time, large males won contests for access to females, although female choice overrode this combat superiority. Therefore, after reaching a certain size a male would not benefit from staying male. Taking into account the relatively low cost of sex change in this species (about 5 days being lost, equivalent to one interbrood interval) sex reversal occurred as predicted by the size-advantage hypothesis.

  • 9.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Male pipefish prefer ornamented females2001In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 345-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle females compete for access to males and males are choosy. Females display a temporary ornament, a striped pattern. We show here for the first time in a sex role-reversed species that ornament display predicts how much time a female will devote to competitive behaviours, that males prefer ornamented females over nonornamented ones, and that the ornament is attractive even when female behaviour is held constant. This was demonstrated in an experiment with a male choosing between two females, first with the females separated and then with interactions allowed between the females as well as with the male. Females displaying the ornament for a longer time enjoyed a higher mating success then those displaying the ornament more briefly. Ornament display in the absence of intrasexual competition also predicted the amount of time that females subsequently spent competing. Thus, females initially displaying an attractive trait were also subsequently competing for longer. Furthermore, we manipulated the ornament by painting females and controlled their behaviour by sedating them and moving them in a dance-like fashion by a motor. This experiment showed that males preferred ornamented females, even when female behaviour was standardized. Thus, ornament display accurately predicted the duration of female–female competition and mating success, and was used as a signal by males in their choice of mates.

  • 10.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Is the absence of first-year males on breeding ground in the scarlet rosefich related to a male-baised sex ratio?1989In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 38, p. 1081-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Möller, Anders Pape
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Mate Guarding In The Great Tit - A Reply1994In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 1230-1231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Möller, Anders Pape
    Sundberg, Jan
    Mate guarding in the great tit - a reply1994In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 47, p. 1230-1231Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Möller, Anders Pape
    Sundberg, Jan
    Westman, Björn
    Female great tits, Parus major, avoid extra-pair copulation attempts1992In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 43, p. 691-693Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Möller, Anders Pape
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Westman, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Female Great Tits, Parus-Major, Avoid Extra-Pair Copulation Attempts1992In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 691-693Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Westman, Björn
    Adaptive advantages of monogamy in the great tit (Parus major) - an experimental test of the polygyny treshold model1986In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 34, p. 1436-1440Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Booksmythe, Isobel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Backwell, Patricia R. Y.
    Jennions, Michael D.
    Competitor size, male mating success and mate choice in eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki2013In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 371-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males usually compete for mates but, by choosing a favourable social environment (e.g. avoiding stronger competitors), males might increase their reproductive success. We first tested whether the mate choice of male eastern mosquitofish depended on the size of potential competitors. In two-choice trials, focal males preferred to associate with a group of large males over a group of small males. However, when both stimulus groups also contained females, focal males associated equally often with the group with large males and the group with small males. We then quantified the effect of competitor size on the relative mating success (proportion of all mating attempts) of males competing for access to a female. In mating trials, the relative mating success of focal males increased with focal male size. In addition, focal males had higher mating success when competing in a group of small males than a group of large males. We suggest that the benefits of associating with small male competitors in a mating context (greater mating success) are balanced by other benefits that have led to a general preference for associating with larger males. 

  • 17.
    Burgevin, Lorraine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Friberg, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Intersexual correlation for same-sex sexual behaviour in an insect2013In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 759-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Same-sex sexual behaviour is widespread across taxa and is particularly common in insects, in which up to 50% of copulation attempts by males are directed towards other males in some species. Research effort has focused on male-male same-sex behaviour and the prevailing theory is that benefits of high mating rate combined with poor sex discrimination explain the high incidence of male-male mounting. However, the evolution of female-female mounting is more enigmatic, since females typically do not mount males in order to mate. Using a full-sib design, we found an intersexual correlation for same-sex mounting in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Variation in male-male mounting across families explained over 20% of variation in female-female mounting. Moreover, we found no evidence that same-sex behaviour was related to general activity level in either sex or carried a fitness cost to females. Taken together, our results suggest that female-female mounting is a relatively low-cost behaviour that may be maintained in the population via selection on males.

  • 18. Canestrari, Daniela
    et al.
    Chiarati, Elisa
    Marcos, Jose M.
    Ekman, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population Biology.
    Baglione, Vittorio
    Helpers but not breeders adjust provisioning effort to year-round territory resource availability in carrion crows2008In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 76, p. 943-949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most cooperatively breeding bird species, individuals live year round in all-purpose territories that may vary greatly in quality. Territory resource availability is likely to influence the investment in provisioning the brood, and different group members may respond in different ways, according to individual strategies of investment in self-maintenance or current reproduction. Although this may be important for understanding division of labour within the group, few studies have investigated how individuals respond to changing conditions 'at home'. In cooperatively breeding carrion crows, Corvus corone, chick provisioning is costly and both breeders and helpers allocate additional resources to self-maintenance, rather than the current brood, when food availability is temporarily augmented during the breeding season. However, here we show that helpers, but not breeders, increased their chick-feeding rate when territory resources were experimentally enhanced throughout the year. These results indicate a role of year-round territory quality in shaping cooperation at the nest in this species. We suggest that the probabilities of reproducing in the following breeding season, which are higher for breeders than for helpers, modulate the effect of long-term resource abundance on individual provisioning decisions, leading to a higher investment in the current brood by helpers only.

  • 19. Cauchard, Laure
    et al.
    Boogert, Neeltje J.
    Lefebvre, Louis
    Dubois, Frederique
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Problem-solving performance is correlated with reproductive success in a wild bird population2013In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although interindividual variation in problem-solving ability is well documented, its relation to variation in fitness in the wild remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between performance on a problem-solving task and measures of reproductive success in a wild population of great tits, Parus major. We presented breeding pairs during the nestling provisioning period with a novel string-pulling task requiring the parents to remove an obstacle with their leg that temporarily blocked access to their nestbox. We found that nests where at least one parent solved the task had higher nestling survival until fledging than nests where both parents were nonsolvers. Furthermore, clutch size, hatching success and fledgling number were positively correlated with speed in solving the task. Our study suggests that natural selection may directly act on interindividual variation in problem-solving performance. In light of these results, the mechanisms maintaining between-individual variation in problem-solving performance in natural populations need further investigation.

  • 20. Eccard, Jana A.
    et al.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Effects of brood size on multiple-paternity rates: a case for ‘paternity share’ as an offspring-based estimate2009In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 563-571Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Edvardsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Female Callosobruchus maculatus mate when they are thirsty: resource-rich ejaculates as mating effort in a beetle2007In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 183-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because male uncertainty over parentage limits the value of paternal investment in offspring, mate attraction and facilitation of ejaculate transfer are thought to be important functions of nuptial gifts. However, these are unlikely functions for valuable resources in ejaculates delivered inside the female. Instead, ejaculates containing costly nuptial gifts may be maintained because females alter their mating behaviour in response to the trade-off between the costs and benefits of mating. The value of receiving an additional gift should decrease with improved female physiological condition. Providing a female with a substantial gift will therefore make it less profitable for her to remate and reduce the risk of future sperm competition. Females of the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus are harmed by the spiny male genitalia during copulation but also appear to derive material benefits from the large ejaculates. I kept female C. maculatus with access to water and other females without access to water. All females were given the opportunity to mate with a new male every day. Females without access to water mated more frequently than females with access to water. I suggest that female C. maculatus mate more frequently to obtain water when dehydrated and that this may select for ejaculates containing large amounts of water in males. By providing their mates with a large amount of water, males can delay female remating and reduce the risk of future sperm competition.

  • 22.
    Edvardsson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Tregenza, Tom
    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rolando
    No evidence that female bruchid beetles Callosobruchus maculatus use remating to reduce costs of inbreeding2008In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 75, no Part 4, p. 1519-1524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the often dramatic negative effects of inbreeding on offspring fitness, matings between closely related individuals sometimes occur. This may be because females cannot reliably recognize related males before mating with them. As an alternative to precopulatory choice, polyandrous females may avoid inbreeding through postcopulatory mechanisms if they can assess mate relatedness during or after copulation. These mechanisms include increasing remating propensity and decreasing rate of offspring production in response to incestuous matings. Stored product pests, such as the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, have an ecology that is likely to expose them to frequent risks of inbreeding when a small number of females found a new population on a previously uninfested store of beans. Using this species, we show that inbreeding has negative effects on offspring viability but that females do not appear to discriminate between brothers and unrelated males prior to mating. Furthermore, females that first mated with brothers did not increase their remating propensity or decrease their rate of offspring production relative to females that first mated with unrelated males. Our findings suggest that the costs of inbreeding have not been sufficient to drive the evolution of mating behaviour as a mechanism of inbreeding avoidance in C. maculatus.

  • 23.
    Eklöv, Peter
    Umeå University, Department of Animal Ecology.
    Group Foraging Versus Solitary Foraging Efficiency In Piscivorous Predators - The Perch, Perca-Fluviatilis, And Pike, Esox-Lucius, Patterns1992In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 313-326Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Eklöv, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Department of Animal Ecology.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Department of Animal Ecology.
    The response of prey to the risk of predation: Proximate cues for refuging juvenile fish1996In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 51, p. 105-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When prey encounter predators, they use different cues to indicate how to respond to minimize the predation risk. How such proximate cues in the environment correspond to the ultimate behaviour of the prey are important for understanding the outcome of predator-prey interactions. The precision of the anti-predator response of juvenile perch, Perca fluviatilis, and roach, Rutilus rutilus, when subjected to predation by piscivorous perch and pike, Esox lucius, and to different types of structure was tested in a wading pool experiment. The predation risk was varied between two habitats (one open water and one structured) by confining the predators to one of the two habitats. The prey were free to choose between habitats. Both perch and pike attacked both prey species but they were only successful in capturing roach. Roach swam faster than juvenile perch in the presence of perch, whereas juvenile perch swam faster than roach in the presence of pike. Juvenile perch inspected the predators more and showed a more flexible inspection behaviour than did roach. Juvenile perch decreased the number of switches between habitats and stayed in the predator-free part of the pool in the presence of perch. In contrast, roach increased their habitat switch frequency in the presence of perch and stayed in the vegetation structure even when there were perch there. Both prey species preferred to stay in the vegetation structure when pike were there. Juvenile perch used both the vegetation and pipe structure as refuges whereas roach used only the vegetation structure as a refuge. The results suggest that juvenile perch use a different cue when assessing predation risk and display a more flexible behaviour compared with roach which simply move into vegetation under the threat of predation irrespective of predator location. (C) 1996 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  • 25. Farine, Damien R.
    et al.
    Aplin, Lucy M.
    Garroway, Colin J.
    Mann, Richard P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Collective decision making and social interaction rules in mixed-species flocks of songbirds2014In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 95, p. 173-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations in mixed-species foraging groups are common in animals, yet have rarely been explored in the context of collective behaviour. Despite many investigations into the social and ecological conditions under which individuals should form groups, we still know little about the specific behavioural rules that individuals adopt in these contexts, or whether these can be generalized to heterospecifics. Here, we studied collective behaviour in flocks in a community of five species of woodland passerine birds. We adopted an automated data collection protocol, involving visits by RFID-tagged birds to feeding stations equipped with antennae, over two winters, recording 91576 feeding events by 1904 individuals. We demonstrated highly synchronized feeding behaviour within patches, with birds moving towards areas of the patch with the largest proportion of the flock. Using a model of collective decision making, we then explored the underlying decision rule birds may be using when foraging in mixed-species flocks. The model tested whether birds used a different decision rule for conspecifics and heterospecifics, and whether the rules used by individuals of different species varied. We found that species differed in their response to the distribution of conspecifics and heterospecifics across foraging patches. However, simulating decisions using the different rules, which reproduced our data well, suggested that the outcome of using different decision rules by each species resulted in qualitatively similar overall patterns of movement. It is possible that the decision rules each species uses may be adjusted to variation in mean species abundance in order for individuals to maintain the same overall flock-level response. This is likely to be important for maintaining coordinated behaviour across species, and to result in quick and adaptive flock responses to food resources that are patchily distributed in space and time.  

  • 26.
    Friberg, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Male perception of female mating status: its effect on copulation duration, sperm defence and female fitness2006In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 1259-1268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When females mate with multiple partners, the risk of sperm competition depends on female mating history. To maximize fitness, males should adjust their copulatory investments according to this risk. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, the female cuticular hydrocarbon (CH) profile changes when females mate, and males use this to assess female mating status. I tested whether this cue influenced the time males spent copulating with females and if this affected male fertilization success and female fitness. I manipulated female mating status by transferring CHs from either virgin or mated females to virgin females. Males copulated significantly longer with virgin females that had been coated with CHs from mated females (experimental group) than with virgin females coated with CHs from other virgin females (control group). Copulation duration did not differ between females from the experimental group and females that had already mated. To test whether differential investment in copulation affected male sperm defence and female fitness, experimental and control females were mated once to wild-type males and then either housed with males carrying a genetic marker (experiment 1) or alone (experiment 2). In experiment 1 male sperm defence was elevated when males perceived their partner as mated, and this was mainly due to females remating less. Increased male investment in copulation duration also affected female fitness, although this was reversed between experiments 1 and 2. Finally, these results also indicate that copulations are costly to males, since manipulated males copulated for longer with virgin females than they normally would, resulting in higher fertilization success.

  • 27. Fricke, C
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Conspecific sperm precedence in flour beetles2004In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 67, p. 729-732Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Fricke, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Male age does not affect female fitness in a polyandrous beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus2007In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 541-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males in different taxa are likely to suffer from a reduction in the quantity and/or quality of their sperm with age. This predicts age-related direct and indirect effects on female fitness. Hence, females may be selected to avoid matings with old males, or to employ alternative mating tactics, such as polyandry, to avoid fertilization by sperm of older males. In contrast, ‘viability indicator’ models of mate choice predict female preference for old males that have proven their survival ability and signal more reliably. We used a polygamous seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, to test for the effects of male age on male mating success and examine the relationship between male age and female fitness, measured as female life span, lifetime fecundity, hatching success of eggs, larval development rate and egg-to-adult survival of offspring. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that polyandry may protect females against low numbers of functional sperm produced by old males. We report, contrary to previous findings, that male mating success indeed decreases with male age in this species. However, mating with older males did not in any way compromise female fitness and, consequently, we found no support for the idea that polyandry helps females reduce any costs of mating with older males.

  • 29.
    Fritzsche, Karoline
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The effects of male phenotypic condition on reproductive output in a sex role-reversed beetle2015In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 102, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In insects with sex role reversal in mating, in which females actively court males, large and nutritious ejaculates are a common direct benefit to females. Such ejaculates are costly for males to produce and their size and composition can depend on male condition. However, the fitness effects to males and females of such condition-dependent provisioning are less clear. Here, we studied the effects of phenotypic condition on mating behaviour, ejaculate size and reproductive output in honeylocust beetles, Megabruchidius dorsalis. Our experimental design allowed us to disentangle the independent effects of juvenile resource acquisition in both sexes (as reflected by body size) and resource acquisition by adult males (feeding). We show that phenotypic condition of both sexes had sizeable independent and interactive effects on mating and reproductive output. In males, resources accrued during the juvenile phase had significant but relatively marginal effects on male mating and reproduction. Male adult feeding, in contrast, had sizeable effects on almost all aspects of male and female reproduction, through the nutritional effects of ejaculates in females. We discuss our findings in light of the reversal of both sex roles and sexual size dimorphism exhibited by this species, relative to related species. Our results highlight the importance of testing the interaction of male and female condition on components of fitness to understand the evolution and maintenance of mating systems.

  • 30.
    Germain, Marion
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon 1, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, CNRS UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France..
    Part, Tomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Univ Lyon 1, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, CNRS UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France..
    Lower settlement following a forced displacement experiment: nonbreeding as a dispersal cost in a wild bird?2017In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 133, p. 109-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal is a key life history trait impacting ecological and evolutionary processes. Yet, the fitness consequences of dispersal remain poorly investigated. Using a displacement experiment of 616 individuals in a patchy population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, we investigated behavioural responses to forced movement in terms of settlement, subsequent breeding performance and return rate. Newly arrived birds were caught and displaced between patches or released back in the patch of capture. We analysed (1) the probability of successful settlement within the study area, (2) for displaced birds, the probability of accepting the forced movement rather than returning to the patch of capture, (3) components of reproductive performance and (4) return rate in subsequent years according to experimental treatment. The probability of settling within the study area tended to be lower for displaced than control birds and was lower for immigrants than local birds. This suggests that displacement induced long-distance dispersal movements or nonbreeding, which could reflect costs of unfamiliarity with the environment. Nondispersers (individuals caught early in the breeding season in the same patch as their previous one) were more likely to return to their patch of capture, probably because of higher benefits of familiarity. Once individuals had settled, their breeding performance did not vary markedly between treatments, although displaced individuals that did not return to their patch of capture raised lighter young than other individuals. This could indicate a lower phenotypic quality of these individuals or, again, a cost of breeding in an unfamiliar environment. Finally, individuals that settled (and non-dispersers) were more likely to return to the study area in subsequent years than individuals that disappeared (and immigrants/dispersers, respectively). Together, these results suggest that, in addition to the costs of transience, dispersal (here forced) may entail costs linked to settlement in an unfamiliar habitat.

  • 31.
    Griesser, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Ekman, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Nepotistic alarm calling in the Siberian jay, Perisoreus infaustus2004In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 67, no 5, p. 933-939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a life history perspective, parents have an incentive to protect their reproductive investment, and so may provide care even after their offspring are independent. Such prolonged parental care could lead to postponed dispersal of the offspring and thereby facilitate the formation of kin groups. We tested whether alpha birds in Siberian jays protected their independent, retained offspring by giving alarm calls during simulated predator attacks. We compared the responses to predator attacks simulated by flying a hawk model over a dyad of birds on a feeder for dyads composed of an alpha bird and either a relative or a nonrelative. Alpha females were nepotistic in their alarm-calling behaviour, in that they called more frequently when accompanied by their retained offspring than by unrelated immigrants, but alpha males called indiscriminately. This difference in alarm calling could reflect dominance relationships in Siberian jay groups, because the presence of immigrants may be less costly to alpha males, but alpha females are more vulnerable to competition from immigrants. Alarm calls were usually given during escape, when both individuals in the dyad had left the feeding site. However, results of a playback experiment suggest that alarm calls conveyed information about danger and incited an immediate escape reaction. Our results indicate that alarm calling can be nepotistic, and that factors other than kinship influence alarm-calling behaviour. Nepotistic antipredator behaviours are benefits that offspring can gain only in their natal territory. Hence, in the absence of preferential treatment by their parents, offspring may be more likely to disperse and kin groups are prevented from forming.

  • 32. HOGLUND, J
    PAIRING AND SPAWNING PATTERNS IN THE COMMON TOAD, BUFO-BUFO - THE EFFECTS OF SEX-RATIOS AND THE TIME AVAILABLE FOR MALE MALE COMPETITION1989In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 38, p. 423-429Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. HOGLUND, J
    et al.
    ALATALO, RV
    GIBSON, RM
    LUNDBERG, A
    MATE-CHOICE COPYING IN BLACK GROUSE1995In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 1627-1633Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. HOGLUND, J
    et al.
    ERIKSSON, M
    LINDELL, LE
    FEMALES OF THE LEK-BREEDING GREAT SNIPE, GALLINAGO-MEDIA, PREFER MALES WITH WHITE TAILS1990In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 40, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Hoglund, J
    et al.
    Johansson, T
    Pelabon, C
    Behaviourally mediated sexual selection: Characteristics of successful male black grouse1997In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 54, p. 255-264Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. HOGLUND, J
    et al.
    ROBERTSON, JGM
    FEMALE PREFERENCES, MALE DECISION RULES AND THE EVOLUTION OF LEKS IN THE GREAT SNIPE GALLINAGO-MEDIA1990In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 40, p. 15-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Johansson, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Jones, Therésa
    Widemo, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Cost of pheromone production in a lekking Drosophila2005In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 851-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Sex pheromones’ are most commonly seen as mate attraction signals. However, there is growing evidence that chemical signals may also advertise mate quality. Theory predicts that for mate quality signals to be reliable they should be costly, a mechanism that is likely to drive condition-dependent expression of the signal in question. We investigated the relation between pheromone production and life span in Drosophila grimshawi, a lekking fruit fly where males deposit pheromones on the lekking arena. We manipulated pheromone production by subjecting males to another male, a female or no companion twice a week for the duration of their adult lives. We found that long-lived males deposited pheromones for a greater proportion of their lives across treatments. Males that met other males, rather than females or no flies, also deposited pheromones for a greater proportion of their lives. However, this greater investment seemed to be costly since these males also had shorter life spans, presumably as a result of increased pheromone production. Thus, our results support the notion that pheromone production may act as an honest signal of quality. Furthermore, we show that the pheromone has multiple functions and that male D. grimshawi appear to adjust their investment in pheromone production in relation to their social environment.

  • 38. Jones, Theresa M.
    et al.
    Elgar, Mark A.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Extreme cost of male riding behaviour for juvenile females of the Zeus bug2010In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 11-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precopulatory male mate guarding is predicted to occur close to the female's fertile period. However, in many species mate guarding commences when females are juveniles and may be several moults from sexual maturity. Such behaviour is inconsistent with the above prediction. In the Zeus bug, Phoreticovelia disparata, sexual size dimorphism is very pronounced and adult males commence riding on the backs of juvenile fourth-instar females. Males derive direct benefits from this association but the fitness consequences of precopulatory male riding behaviour for females are unknown. We investigated the effect of male presence during juvenile development for female Zeus bugs. We found a dramatic cost of male riding for females allocated a mate from the fourth instar: they were less likely to survive to adulthood and had substantially reduced adult longevity. These costs were significantly reduced for females allocated a mate during their fifth instar or as adults. We found no evidence that male presence affected female development time, adult size, body shape or the number of melanized dorsal scars present on their abdomen. Our study indicates that adult females and older juvenile females (fifth instar) are adapted to bear the costs imposed by riding males but that sexual conflict is likely to be intense between males and fourth-instar females. We suggest that the Zeus bug mating system originates from both sexes striving to make the best of a bad job: males ride immature females in the absence of unguarded adult females and females permit riding males as a form of convenience polyandry.

  • 39.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    Male size determines reproductive output in a paternal mouthbrooding fish2002In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 727-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Size can have strong effects on reproductive success in both males and females, and in many species large individuals are preferred as mates. To estimate the potential benefits from mate choice for size in both sexes, I studied the effects of the size of each sex on the reproductive output of pairs of Banggai cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni, a sexually monomorphic obligate paternal mouthbrooder. When pairs were allowed to form freely, a size-assortative mating pattern was observed and larger pairs had a higher reproductive output as determined by total clutch weight and egg size. To separate the potential benefits from mate choice for size for each sex, I subsequently used these pairs to form reversed size-assortative pairs, that is, the largest male paired to the smallest female and vice versa. I found a positive correlation between male size and clutch size: relatively heavier clutches were found in pairs where females were given a larger male. This suggests that the size of the male influences clutch weight. For egg size, however, the size of both sexes seemed important. The study reveals the benefits of mutual mate choice on size in this species: larger females provide larger eggs and larger males can brood heavier clutches. Furthermore, these results suggest that females differentially allocate resources into the eggs according to the size of the mate.

  • 40.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rogell, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Bundsen, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Svensson, Beatrice
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Zajitschek, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Brännström, Ioana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Immler, Simone
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The benefit of evolving a larger brain: big-brained guppies perform better in a cognitive task2013In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 86, no 4, p. E4-E6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    Anderholm, Sofia
    Marshall, Rupert C
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    Waldeck, Peter
    Andersson, Malte
    Nest parasitism in the barnacle goose: evidence from protein fingerprinting and microsatellites2009In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 167-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geese are often seen as one of nature's best examples of monogamous relationships, and many social pairs stay together for life. However, when parents and young are screened genetically, some chicks do not match their social parents. Although this has often been explained as adoption of foreign young after hatching, conspecific nest parasitism is another possibility. We used nondestructive egg albumen sampling and protein fingerprinting to estimate the frequency and success of nest parasitism in a Baltic Sea population of barnacle geese, Branta leucopsis. Among the 86 nests for which we had the most complete information, 36% were parasitized, and 12% of the eggs were parasitic. Almost 80% of the parasitic eggs were laid after the host began incubation. Hatching of these eggs was limited to the few cases where the host female incubated longer than normally because her own eggs failed to hatch. Conspecific nest parasitism in this population therefore seems mainly to be an alternative reproductive tactic of lower fitness than normal nesting. Comparison with DNA profiling of chicks (with 10–14 microsatellites) and other evidence confirmed the suitability of protein fingerprinting for analysis of nest parasitism. It can often provide more data than microsatellites, if eggs are albumen-sampled soon after being laid, before most losses occur.

  • 42. Lönnstedt, Oona M.
    et al.
    McCormick, Mark I.
    Chemical alarm cues inform prey of predation threat: the importance of ontogeny and concentration in a coral reef fish2011In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 82, p. 213-218Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Nystrand, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Associating with kin affects the trade-off between energy intake and exposure to predators in a social bird species2007In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 497-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals have to trade-off energy intake against the risk of predation when foraging. However, in group-living species, social interference will limit the range of choices for subordinate individuals. The trade-off between foraging and predation risk may be even more complex in species that associate in family groups because relatives can provide benefits to each other that are withheld from nonrelatives. As a consequence, nonrelatives may be forced to take greater risks to gain similar amounts of energy as relatives. Here, I investigate how the energy–risk trade-off varies among individuals in a social, group-living species, the Siberian jay, Perisoreus infaustus. Groups in this species consist of a breeding pair, together with retained offspring and/or nonrelated immigrants. I manipulated food quality at feeding sites that differed in their visibility to predators and observed the differences in foraging patterns between different group members. Adults and their offspring fed more often at the protected feeding site when it contained high-quality food, but switched to the more exposed site when this site offered higher quality food than the protected site. In contrast, immigrants spent a similar amount of time at each feeding site, independent of food quality. Birds generally spent more time waiting for access to the high-quality food source and protected feeding site, and family members generally harassed immigrants that tried to access these sites. None the less, all birds had a similar overall food intake, suggesting that immigrants pay substantially higher costs than other members to attain the equivalent level of energy intake.

  • 44. Olofsson, Martin
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Marina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Wiklund, Christer
    The white 'comma' as a distractive mark on the wings of comma butterflies2013In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 86, no 6, p. 1325-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distractive marks have been suggested to prevent predator detection or recognition of a prey, by drawing the attention away from recognizable traits of the bearer. The white 'comma' on the wings of comma butterflies, Polygonia c-album, has been suggested to represent such a distractive mark. In a laboratory experiment using blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, as predators, we show that the comma increased survival, since the blue tits attacked butterflies with overpainted commas more often than sham-painted butterflies with intact commas. In a field experiment we placed hibernating, similarly manipulated, comma butterflies on tree trunks of two different species and noted their survival. Although survival was higher on birch trees than on oak trees, there was no effect of treatment, probably because the butterflies were preyed on by both diurnal and nocturnal predators and the latter are unlikely to attend to small conspicuous markings.

  • 45.
    Outomuro, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Saul
    Karlsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Male wing shape differs between condition-dependent alternative reproductive tactics in territorial damselflies2014In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 91, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Territorial contests between males without weaponry are based on costly displays and can result in condition-dependent alternative reproductive tactics that maximize male fitness. Physiological and morphological traits such as fat content, body size or the expression of secondary sexual traits have been shown to contribute to male territory-holding potential. When territorial contests are based on flight displays, wing morphology is expected to contribute to the territory-holding potential of a male through its effects on flight performance. We explored whether wing shape contributed to the territory-holding potential of males of three species of Calopteryx damselflies. Males of these species show two distinct, condition-dependent behavioural tactics: territorial and nonterritorial. Previous studies have shown that territorial males have higher fitness than nonterritorial males. We used mark-recapture to determine male tactics within the populations and compared wing shape, size and wing coloured spot size (a secondary sexual trait) between tactics. Territorial males of all three species had shorter and slightly broader hindwings than nonterritorial males. In two species, forewings of territorial males were longer and broader than forewings of nonterritorial males. Wing size and wing spot size did not differ between tactics. We suggest that the wing shape of territorial males might confer better flight manoeuvrability, which would be advantageous for territorial contests. Therefore, wing shape is likely to be an important trait contributing to territory-holding potential in condition-dependent alternative reproductive tactics based on flight displays. (C) 2014 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 46. Rintamaki, P T
    et al.
    Alatalo, R V
    Hoglund, J
    Lundberg, A
    Fluctuating asymmetry and copulation success in lekking black grouse1997In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 54, p. 265-269Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Rintamaki, P T
    et al.
    Lundberg, A
    Alatalo, R V
    Hoglund, J
    Assortative mating and female clutch investment in black grouse1998In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 56, p. 1399-1403Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. RINTAMAKI, PT
    et al.
    ALATALO, RV
    HOGLUND, J
    LUNDBERG, A
    MALE TERRITORIALITY AND FEMALE CHOICE ON BLACK GROUSE LEKS1995In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 759-767Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Ronn, Johanna L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hotzy, Cosima
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Do longer genital spines in male seed beetles function as better anchors during mating?2012In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 75-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a wide variety of taxa, males are equipped with harmful structures on their genitalia such as hooks, barbs or spines. The proximate function of these structures and the evolutionary forces behind their evolution have been discussed and investigated during the last few decades. One model system in which these structures have attracted particular attention is the Callosobruchus seed beetle group. The main suggestion for the occurrence of genital spines in this group of species has been that their primary function is to act as an anchor during mating, to aid the male in staying attached to the female. This would prevent females terminating copulation prematurely, or would hinder take-overs by rival males. We used five populations of Callosobruchus seed beetles, with differing lengths of the male genital spines, to test whether longer spines provide males with an enhanced attachment during mating. This was tested both with and without male competition in the form of rival males present or not during focal copulations. We found that males from populations with longer spines did not stay in copula for longer than males from populations with shorter spines. In addition, females mating with males with longer genital spines suffered a fitness cost in terms of lower lifetime offspring production. In conclusion, we did not find any support for the hypothesis that the primary function of genital spines in seed beetles is to serve as an anchor. (C) 2011 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 50.
    Rova, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    The influence of migration on the maintenance of assortative mating2012In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 11-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid speciation has been shown to be plausible without the need for extreme founder events, complete geographical isolation, the existence of distinct adaptive peaks or selection for local adaptation. However, standard theory predicts that extremely low migration rates are enough to hinder divergence between populations, and thus speciation. In this study we asked how low migration rates need to be for divergence to occur and hence for speciation to be possible. We experimentally transferred individual seed beetles, Callosobruchus maculatus, between populations in the laboratory, thus mimicking different rates of migration, and used deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium as an indicator of assortative mating. We found that assortative mating was upheld for several generations in populations experiencing immigration rates of up to 8% or 13-15 immigrants per generation, despite the lack of adaptive divergence and trade-offs between the exchanging populations. However, after some generations of extensive gene flow and in the absence of selection against hybrids, the system of assortative mating faltered. Based on our results, we conclude that selection is likely to be an important factor in speciation in the face of gene flow and that without it divergence will simply come to a halt.

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