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  • 1.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Female sexual selection in light of the Darwin–Bateman paradigm2011In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Vincent, Amanda
    Alatalo, Rauno
    Halliday, Tim
    Sutherland, William J
    The role of females in influencing mating patterns1993In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 187-189Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. ALATALO, RV
    et al.
    HOGLUND, J
    LUNDBERG, A
    SUTHERLAND, WJ
    EVOLUTION OF BLACK GROUSE LEKS - FEMALE PREFERENCES BENEFIT MALES IN LARGER LEKS1992In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 53-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Danielsson, I
    Postmating sexual selection: the effects of male body size and recovery period on paternity and egg production rate in a water strider1999In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 358-365Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Nilsson, T
    Katvala, M
    Mating rate and fitness in female bean weevils2005In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rowe, Locke
    The shape of preference functions and what shapes them: a comment on Edward2015In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 325-325Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7. Aronsen, T.
    et al.
    Mobley, K. B.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sundin, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Billing, A. M.
    Rosenqvist, G.
    The operational sex ratio and density influence spatial relationships between breeding pipefish2013In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 888-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational sex ratio (ratio of sexually receptive males to females) has been extensively studied in behavioral ecology, whereas other demographic factors such as the effect of density on mating behavior have received less empirical attention. We manipulated mating competition by establishing breeding populations of the sex-role reversed broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) at 2 sex ratios (male biased or female biased) and 2 densities. We used mean crowding (m*) and the index of association (X) to measure spatial distributions within and between the sexes, respectively, and investigated how these measures reflect the predicted strength of mating competition. In general, female m* increased as fewer males were available for mating, which suggests increased intrasexual competition in the most competitive sex. However, male m* also increased as the operational sex ratio became more female biased, suggesting that m* did not reflect mating competition for males. Association between the sexes (X) was higher under male bias than female bias, probably because males were still available for mating under male bias. In addition, X decreased in the female-biased treatment as the operational sex ratio became even more female biased. Higher density increased m* in both sex ratios and sexes, although for both sexes in the female-biased high-density treatment the operational sex ratio did not influence m*, probably because femalefemale competition inhibits further crowding in this treatment. In this study, we show that the use of m* and X can be a useful tool in behavioral studies but their interpretation requires detailed information about the mating system. Therefore, we recommend caution with their broadscale application.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    The operational sex-ratio influences choosiness in a pipefish1994In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 254-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If more females than males are available for mating in the breeding population (i.e., the operational sex ratio, OSR, is female biased), males can afford to be choosy. In the pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) females compete for males, who are choosy. In nature OSRs are typically female biased, but may occasionally be male biased. In a series of experiments, males were allowed to choose between a large and a small female under a perceived excess of either males or females. Under female bias, males preferred the large female: they spent more time close to her than to the small female; they courted the large female sooner than the small; and they tended to copulate sooner and more often with the large female. Under male bias all these differences vanished and males mated at random with respect to female size. Males reproduced at a faster rate under male than under female bias because they received more eggs in their brood pouches. Thus, males switched from maximizing mate quality (i.e., being choosy) to minimizing the risk of not reproducing (i.e., being quick) as the OSR became male biased.

  • 9.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    Bisazza, Angelo
    König, Barbara
    Huntingford, Felicity
    Female-female competition over reproduction1993In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 184-187Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    An intimidating ornament in a female pipefish2009In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 54-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sexually selected signal may serve a dual function being both attractive to mates and deterring rivals. Presently, there are few unambiguous demonstrations of an ornament functioning in both a mate choice and mate competition context and none regarding female ornaments. We have shown earlier that a temporary ornament, a striped pattern, in a sex-role reversed female pipefish, Syngnathus typhle, attracts males. Here we show that this ornament also intimidates rival females: in one experiment a male could interact with either 1 or 2 females. Latency until copulation was longer when 2, rather than 1, females were present. Moreover, when 2 females were present, competition lasted longer and time until mating took place increased when females displayed their ornaments more equally. In another experiment, a focal female could see 1 stimulus female and 1 stimulus male, the latter 2 being unaware of each other. The ornament of the stimulus female was manipulated, either strengthened by being painted black or left unaltered by being sham-painted. As a result, focal females experiencing black-painted stimulus females decreased courtship as well as competitive activities compared with focal females seeing sham-painted females. Moreover, focal females seeing black-painted females displayed less of their own ornament compared with controls. This decrease was due to a decrease in display toward males rather than to stimulus females. Thus, this female ornament indeed has a dual function, attracting mates and deterring rivals. In addition, the social costs invoked by this intimidating effect on rivals may help to maintain signal honesty.

  • 11.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Male pipefish prefer dominant over attractive females.2001In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 402-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animals may obtain information guiding their choice between potential partners from observing competitive interactions and displays between them, or from displays directed at the choosing individual. In the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle females display a temporary ornament (a color pattern) to other females as well as to males. We have previously shown that display of female ornaments per se is attractive to males. Here we show that information from competitive displays can override such direct attraction displays as signals in the partner choice process. In a mate choice experiment, an enclosed male could choose between two females. On the first experimental day, females could interact freely, while on the second day they were isolated from each other. When female-female competition was allowed, the ornament display was directed more to the other female than to the male: Time competing, rather than time courting the male, correlated with ornament display duration. However, ornament display under competition and ornament display in the absence of competition did not correlate significantly. In fact, females competing more intensively on day one displayed the ornament less on day two. Furthermore, the ornament display during the first, but not the second, day predicted male mate choice on the second day. Thus, males remembered previous information from competitive displays and used it rather than immediate information from displays in the absence of female-female competition. We suggest that competitive displays more reliably signal female quality as compared to noncompetitive ones, and that males benefit from mating with dominant females.

  • 12.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sundin, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Baltic pipefish females need twice as many males as they get2017In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 827-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex role reversal in 2 pipefish species, Syngnathus typhle and Nerophis ophidion, is potentially explained by females reproducing twice as fast as males. Moreover, in oceanic populations from the Swedish west coast, females compete for males with males pre- ferring to mate with larger females. However, in a brackish Baltic population of S. typhle, males do not prefer larger mates, whereas choosiness remains in the local N. ophidion population. We explore whether this absence of male choice in brackish S. typhle can be explained by males and females having more similar potential reproductive rates here, whereas the sex difference may remain in the local N. ophidion population. Contrary to our expectations, in both species, females out-reproduced males by a factor of more than 2, just as in the oceanic populations. We measured this experimentally as the number of males a female potentially could fill with eggs within the time span of 1 male pregnancy, in relation to males available in nature. Thus, we conclude that sexual selection on females is as strong in brackish as in oceanic populations of both species but that targets of selection via male choice are shifted to traits other than body size in S. typhle. Hence, costs and benefits of choice are probably more important than potential reproductive rates to understand mate choice. We suggest that it may be misleading to use targets of sexual selection, such as choice for large body size, as an indicator of the strength of sexual selection. 

  • 13.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Widemo, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Sex-role reversal revisited: choosy females and ornamented, competitive males in a pipefish2005In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 649-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the pipefish Syngnathus typhle sex roles are reversed, that is, females compete more intensely than males over mates. However, competition over mates among individuals of one sex does not necessarily prevent members of that same sex from being choosy, and choosiness in the other sex does not prevent competition within it. In an experiment we allowed a female pipefish to choose freely between two males, after which we released the males and let the three interact. Comparisons with earlier results show that both sexes courted partners and competed with consexuals. However, females courted more often than did males, and courtship was more frequent in treatments involving large individuals than in treatments with small individuals. Males competed among themselves for access to mates but for a shorter duration than females in the same situation. Males displayed an ornament towards females but not to males during mating competition. Females, however, used their ornament in both contexts. Females did not always mate with the male of their previously made choice, which we interpret as females being constrained by male-male competition, male motivation to mate, or both. Thus, in this sex-role reversed species, mate choice in the more competitive sex may be circumvented and even overruled by mate competition and mating willingness in the least competitive sex. Hence, sex roles should not be considered as sexes being either choosy or competitive but rather that males and females may exhibit different combinations of choice and competition.

  • 14. Billing, Anna M.
    et al.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    No terminal investment in pipefish males: Only young males exhibit risk-prone courtship behavior2007In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 535-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animals are expected to trade-off current and future reproduction in order to maximize lifetime reproductive success. Old individuals may accept higher risks during courtship and mate choice as their residual reproductive value (RRV) diminishes (the terminal investment hypothesis). Alternatively, young individuals may be forced to take higher risks during courtship to compensate for their lower competitiveness and/or attractiveness (the compensation hypothesis). In this study, we used the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle to test how mate choice and courtship behavior of males with different RRV were affected by an increase in predation risk. Males of different ages were given the opportunity to court and choose between 2 partners. In half of the trials, a predator was present in a separate aquarium. We found no support for the terminal investment hypothesis: no difference in response to the increased predation risk by males of different ages was evident. In agreement with the compensation hypothesis, young males invested more in courtship behavior compared with older males. In addition, in the absence of a predator, we found that a high female activity was important for male mate choice decisions. During increased predation risk, this relationship was, however, reversed and males preferred less active, and thus less conspicuous, partners. This suggests that both female activity and size are important factors for male mating decisions in this species and that these decisions mainly are affected by predation risk and advantages in mate acquisition.

  • 15.
    Dimitrova, Marina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Merilaita, Sami
    Hide and seek: properties of prey and background patterns affect prey detection by blue tits2014In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 402-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In prey camouflage, is it more important to match some aspects of background patterning than others? We studied detection of artificial prey by blue tits. Shape mismatch between prey and background pattern elements facilitated prey detection. Increased density of pattern elements in the background generally impeded prey detection, and mismatch in density between background and prey pattern elements also facilitated detection. This suggests that there are no shortcuts to effective background matching.We studied the effects of visual appearance of background and similarity between background and prey patterning on prey detection and camouflage. Although increased similarity with background (background matching) is known to impede prey detection, the relative importance of different aspects of visual similarity has received little interest. We used blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) as predators and trained them to search for artificial prey items presented on printed background plates. We particularly investigated the effect of the density and the shape of the elements constituting the background and the prey patterning. Our experiment shows that increase in the density of elements in the background caused an increase in search times of all prey types. We also found that compared with fully background-matching prey, prey patterning that sported a mismatching element shape and, interestingly, also prey patterning that mismatched the element density of the background decrease prey search time and, hence, deteriorated camouflage. There was no difference in search time between the shape- and the density-mismatching prey categories. We conclude that element-dense backgrounds are more protective both for background-matching prey and background-mismatching prey than backgrounds with low element density. Further, our results suggest that even if prey patterning consists of elements that closely match the visual elements in the background, high-level crypsis through background matching only arises if the density of the elements is also similar between the prey patterning and the background. These findings are important when considering prey habitat choice and the evolution and limitations of background matching and signaling coloration.

  • 16.
    Edvardsson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Tregenza, Tom
    Why do male Callosobruchus maculatus harm their mates?2005In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 788-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males of the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus have spines on their intromittent organs that puncture the female reproductive tract during mating. Females kick their mates during copulation. If females are prevented from kicking the males, copulations last longer and the injuries females sustain are more severe. We tested whether or not these injuries represent real fitness costs that can be mitigated by kicking and also what males gain by inflicting them. Our results show that females do indeed suffer lowered lifetime fecundity if they are prevented from kicking. However, we could find no evidence that males gain benefits through harming their mates. It has been suggested that the way females respond to the harm may benefit the male causing it. Injured females may be less willing to remate to avoid sustaining further injuries, or they may respond by increasing their rate of oviposition if they perceive the injuries as a threat to their survival. In our study, however, females that were prevented from kicking did not respond by delaying remating or increasing their rate of oviposition. Furthermore, preventing females from kicking during their second copulation did not make their second mates more successful in sperm competition. This suggests that the spines have evolved for other reasons than harming the females, such as serving as an anchor during copulation, and that the harm they cause is a side effect of a male adaptation and is not itself adaptive for either sex.

  • 17.
    Eggers, Sonke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Griesser, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Ekman, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Predator-induced reductions in nest visitation rates are modified by forest cover and food availability2008In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1056-1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bird parents can alert predators to the location of their nest. One mitigating option is that parents reduce their nest visitation rate in exchange for a lower predation risk. Here, using field data and experiments, we show that Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus parents adjust feeding visit rates depending on an interaction of 3 factors: predator activity, nest concealment, and food availability. The rate of nest visits increased with the degree of nest concealment; yet, this relationship was modified by the presence of corvid predators. As the vegetation became more dense, parents at sites with high corvid activity disproportionately increased their feeding visit rates when compared with birds at sites with low corvid activity. We experimentally assessed how nesting cover affects this response of parents to the presence of corvids by using an Eurasian jay Garrulus glandarius model. Parents nesting at open sites ceased nest visits, whereas those nesting in dense forest continued feeding, albeit at a lower rate. Cover may thus not fully compensate for the effect of predator activity on feeding visit rates. However, offspring exposed to high predator activity might still receive the same amount of food because parents may adjust load sizes to compensate. This idea was confirmed by an experiment showing that in areas of high predator activity, food-supplemented birds significantly decreased nest visits when compared with nonsupplemented birds. These results indicate that some bird species can employ multiple nest-defense strategies to reduce predator-attracting nest visits; yet, these strategies may carry fitness consequences through reduced offspring quality.

  • 18.
    Ekblom, Robert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population Biology.
    Sæther, Stein Are
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Evolutionary Biology.
    Hasselquist, Dennis
    Hannersjö, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Fiske, Peder
    Kålås, John Atle
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Population Biology.
    Female choice and male humoral immune response in the lekking great snipe (Gallinago media)2005In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 346-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parasites and diseases constitute major evolutionary forces in many natural populations, and thus having an efficient immune defense to resist infections is crucial for many organisms. Properties of the immune response may also influence mate choice decisions in many animals. Theory predicts several advantages for females when choosing males with superior immune systems. These benefits can be both direct (e.g. increased paternal care and reduced disease transmission) and indirect (good genes). We have investigated female choice with respect to antibody response to two novel antigens in males of a lekking bird, the great snipe (Gallinago media). Because of the lek mating system, female choice probably mainly incurs indirect (genetic) rather than direct benefits. Males responded to vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids by producing specific antibodies to both antigens. Triggering the immune system had no negative impact on display activities or survival. Males that were chosen by females as mates had on average higher antibody response to the tetanus antigen than their neighbors. We did not, however, find any covariance between the strength of the antibody response and male mating success.

  • 19. Engström-Öst, Jonna
    et al.
    Candolin, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Human induced water turbidity alters selection on sexual displays in sticklebacks2007In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 393-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the environment due to human activities are becoming increasingly common. A serious problem in aquatic environments is increased water turbidity due to phytoplankton algal growth. This may affect the breeding system of fishes, especially those with a visually based mating system. Here we show that increased turbidity affects sexual selection in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) through impaired possibility for visually based mate choice. In a laboratory mate preference and mate choice experiment on sticklebacks from the Baltic Sea, which is an area suffering from increased turbidity due to human activities, we found that females spent more time with and visited more often males in clear water than males in turbid water. For males in turbid water to receive the same amount of interest from females as males in clear water, they needed to court significantly more. Thus, turbid water induced selection for higher courtship activity. However, the final spawning decision of the females did not depend on water turbidity, which suggests that nonvisual cues determined the final spawning decision. Because visual cues are important in mate attraction, increased turbidity affects an important evolutionary force, sexual selection, which may have further consequences for the evolution of the sexual displays and preferences. Differences in visual conditions could hence be one factor that has lead to differences among stickleback population in the use of sexual signals.

  • 20.
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Hjernquist, Marten B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Taipale, Jenni
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Competitor density cues for habitat quality facilitating habitat selection and investment decisions2008In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 539-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of species coexistence predicts avoidance between species that compete for similar resources. Recent studies, however, have suggested that facilitation is also possible if competitor density provides information about resources. Optimal solution to trade-off between competition and facilitation is predicted to occur at intermediate competitor densities. We tested this hypothesis by experimentally creating a density range of resident tit species (Parus spp.), and measured the response of a competitively subordinate migratory bird, the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) in terms of habitat preference (settlement order and density), offspring investment (clutch size and primary sex ratio of offspring), and reproductive success (number and condition of nestlings). We show that most habitat choice and investment decisions of flycatchers were unimodally related to tit density, whereas reproductive success decreased linearly with increasing density. Flycatchers thus made mismatched investment decisions at the artificial tit densities because manipulation disassociated the natural correlation between habitat quality and population density. Apparently low and high tit densities were perceived as indication of poor quality habitat in terms of low amount or quality of resources/high mortality risk and high costs of competition, respectively. This demonstrates that competitor density can be used in assessing overall habitat quality in habitat selection and offspring investment decisions, integrating information on resources and competition.

  • 21.
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Thompson, Robert L.
    Seppänen, Janne-Tuomas
    Mechanisms and fitness effects of interspecific information use between migrant and resident birds2007In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 888-894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions with potential competitors are an important component of habitat quality. Due to the costs of coexistence with competitors, a breeding habitat selection strategy that avoids competitors is expected to be favored. However, many migratory birds appear to gain benefits from an attraction to the presence of resident birds, even though residents are assumed to be competitively dominant. Thus far the mechanisms of this habitat selection process, heterospecific attraction, are unknown, and the consequences for resident birds of migrant attraction remain untested. Through heterospecific attraction, migrants may gain benefits if the density or territory location of residents positively reflects habitat quality, and/or they gain benefits through increased frequency of social interactions with residents in foraging or predator detection. In this experiment, we examined the reciprocal effects of spatial proximity on fitness-related traits in migrant pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) and resident great tit (Parus major) by experimentally forcing them to breed either alone or in close proximity to each other. Surprisingly, great tits bore all the costs of coexistence while flycatchers were unaffected, even gaining slight benefits. In concert with an earlier study, these results suggest that flycatchers use tits as information about good-quality nest-site locations while benefits from social interactions with tits are possible but less important. We suggest that utilizing interspecific social information may be a common phenomenon between species sharing similar resource needs. Our results imply that the effects of interspecific information use can be asymmetric and may therefore have implications for the patterns and consequences of species coexistence.

  • 22.
    Fuller, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Behavioral responses of a sex-role reversed pipefish to a gradient of perceived predation risk1996In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 69-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conspicuous behaviors such as courtship and mating often make animals susceptible to predation. When perceiving themselves at an elevated level of risk, animals frequently reduce conspicuous behaviors in trade-off for a decrease in probability of being preyed upon. In the present study, we used two experiments to examine the effect of perceived predation risk from cod (Gadus morhua) on nonreproductive and reproductive behaviors in the sex-role reversed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle). In the first experiment, no differences due to predation risk were detected in the nonreproductive behaviors of either males or females. In the second experiment, predation risk had significant effects on reproductive behaviors. Pipefish were allowed to court and copulate at four different predation levels. We created predation levels differing in perceived predation risk by controlling the number of sensory modes through which pipefish could detect the presence of a cod. As predation risk increased, pipefish copulated and courted less frequently, swam alone (displayed and searched for conspecifics) less often, and waited longer before commencing courtship. These changes in behavior minimized the amount of time spent above the eelgrass and presumably reduced conspicuousness to visual predators. Pipefish also copulated after a smaller amount of courtship as predation risk increased, indicating that they may trade information concerning mate quality for a reduction ill predation risk. No differences were found in any response variable between males and females. The role of operational sex ratios and intersexual competition in determining which sex assumes greater costs in mate acquisition is questioned.

  • 23.
    Granovskiy, Boris
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
    Latty, Tanya
    Duncan, Michael
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
    Beekman, Madeleine
    How dancing honey bees keep track of changes: the role of inspector bees2012In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 588-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do honey bees track changes in their foraging environment? Previously, 2 complementary mechanisms have been identified by which bees can effectively switch between food sources when their relative quality changes. First, an increase in profitability of a food source elicits an increase in waggle dances (the bees' recruitment mechanism) for that source. Second, bees that have retired from foraging at a food source make occasional inspection visits to that food source and resume foraging if its quality improves. Here, we investigate, using both field experiments and a mathematical model, the relative importance of these 2 mechanisms. By manipulating dance information available to the bees, we find that when food sources change quality frequently, inspector bees provide a rapid response to changes, whereas the waggle dance contributes to a response over a longer time period. The bees' ability to switch feeders without dance language information was found to be robust with respect to the spatial configuration of the feeders. Our results show that individual memory, in the form of inspector bees, and collective communication can interact to allow an insect colony to adapt to changes on both short and long timescales.

  • 24.
    Griesser, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Nystrand, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Vigilance and predation of a forest-living bird species depend on large-scale habitat structure2009In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 709-715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prey often use visual cues to detect predators, and consequently, many studies have assessed the effect of small-scale habitat structure on prey antipredator vigilance. This scale may be inappropriate to assess the link between habitat structure and vigilance, however, because visually hunting predators often detect prey from several hundred meters away. As a result, large-scale habitat structure could affect both the hunting decisions of predators and antipredator behaviors of prey. Here we investigated the effect of small- and large-scale habitat structure, as well as group composition (kinship) on vigilance allocation of breeders in the Siberian jay Perisoreus infaustus. Vigilance had an antipredator function and was increased after exposure to a predator model. Small-scale habitat structure did not affect vigilance rates, however, habitat structure of the whole territory, measured as the proportion of visual cover, affected vigilance depending on group composition. Breeders with retained offspring (kin) in their group were more vigilant in managed open territories than on pristine dense territories, whereas breeders without kin in their groups did not adjust vigilance rates in relation to large-scaled habitat structure. Earlier studies have revealed that hawks, the main predators of jays, primarily kill non-kin group members living in groups inhabiting open territories. Therefore, we suggest that breeders adjusted their vigilance depending on the habitat-specific predation risk to protect their retained offspring. This demonstrates that large-scale habitat structure affects predator-prey interactions and is crucial to understanding spatial variation in antipredator allocation and mortality.

  • 25.
    Griesser, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and conservation biology.
    Nystrand, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and conservation biology.
    Eggers, Sonke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and conservation biology.
    Ekman, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and conservation biology.
    Social constraints limit dispersal and settlement decisions in a group-living bird species2008In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 317-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal is a fundamental process affecting the genetic structure of populations, speciation, and extinction. Nevertheless, our understanding of the evolution of dispersal is limited by our paucity of knowledge on dispersal decisions at the individual level. We investigated the effect of interactions between residents and juvenile dispersers on individual dispersal and settlement decisions in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus). In this group-living bird species, some offspring remain on the parental territory for up to 3 years (retained juveniles) whereas other offspring disperse within 2 months of fledging (dispersers). We found that retained juveniles constrained settlement decisions of dispersers by aggressively chasing dispersers off their territory, resulting in dispersers continuing to disperse and settling in groups without retained juveniles. Experimental removal of male breeders during the dispersal period also demonstrated that dispersers were unable to settle in high-quality breeding openings, which were instead filled by older nonbreeding residents. Rather, dispersers immigrated into groups without retained offspring where they became subordinate group members, queuing for a breeding opening. Also, they preferably settled in groups with short queues where no same-sex juveniles were present. Dispersal did not inflict a cost to dispersers through increased mortality. However, the presence of immigrants was costly for breeders because it increased the rate of conflicts during the breeding season which negatively affected nestling condition. These results demonstrate that resident individuals constrain both dispersal and settlement decisions of dispersers. Social interactions between residents and dispersers can thus be a key factor to understand the evolution of dispersal.

  • 26. Hansen, Line Spinner
    et al.
    Gonzalez, Sofia Fernandez
    Toft, Soen
    Bilde, Trine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis2008In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 546-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males and females often experience different optima in mating rate, which may cause evolution of female resistance to matings and male counter adaptations to increase mating rate. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis display a spectacular mating behavior involving a nuptial gift and thanatosis (death feigning). Thanatosis in a sexual context is exceptional and was suggested to function as an antipredation strategy toward potentially cannibalistic females. If thanatosis serves as a protection strategy, males should death feign in response to female aggression or when they are more vulnerable to attack. We tested these predictions in a factorial design: males that were handicapped (1 leg removed) and hence vulnerable and control males were paired with females that were more or less aggressive intrinsically (measured toward prey). In mating trials, we recorded the tendency of males to death feign, copulation success, and copulation duration. In addition, we investigated the effect of female mating status (virgin or mated) on these male mating components. Intrinsically aggressive females showed increased mating aggression toward males. Neither female aggressiveness, mating status, nor male vulnerability increased the propensity of males to perform thanatosis. Instead, death-feigning males were more successful in obtaining copulations and gained longer copulations. Hence, our results suggest that thanatosis functions as an adaptive male mating strategy to overcome female resistance. All males were capable of performing thanatosis although some males use it more frequently than others, suggesting a cost of death feigning which maintains the variation in thanatosis during courtship.

  • 27. Heg, Dik
    et al.
    Bergmuller, Ralph
    Bonfils, Danielle
    Otti, Oliver
    Bachar, Zina
    Burri, Reto
    Heckel, Gerald
    Taborsky, Michael
    Cichlids do not adjust reproductive skew to the availability of independent breeding options2006In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 419-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Helpers in cooperatively breeding species forego all or part of their reproduction when remaining at home and assisting breeders to raise offspring. Different models of reproductive skew generate alternative predictions about the share of reproduction unrelated subordinates will get depending on the degree of ecological constraints. Concession models predict a larger share when independent breeding options are good, whereas restraint and tug-of-war models predict no effects on reproductive skew. We tested these predictions by determining the share of reproduction by unrelated male and female helpers in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher depending on experimentally manipulated possibilities for helper dispersal and independent breeding and depending on helper size and sex. We created 32 breeding groups in the laboratory, consisting of two breeders and two helpers each, where only the helpers had access to a nearby dispersal compartment with (treatment) or without (control) breeding substrate, using a repeated measures design. We determined the paternity and maternity of 1185 offspring from 47 broods using five to nine DNA microsatellite loci and found that: (1) helpers participated in reproduction equally across the treatments, (2) large male helpers were significantly more likely to reproduce than small helpers, and (3) male helpers engaged in significantly more reproduction than female helpers. Interestingly, in four broods, extragroup helper males had fertilized part of the brood. No helper evictions from the group after helper reproduction were observed. Our results suggest that tug-of-war models based on competition over reproduction within groups describe best the reproductive skew observed in our study system. Female breeders produced larger clutches in the treatment compared to the control situation when the large helpers were males. This suggests that male breeder-male helper reproductive conflicts may be alleviated by females producing larger clutches with helpers around.

  • 28.
    Hjernquist, Marten B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Hjernquist, Katherine A. Thuman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sex allocation in response to local resource competition over breeding territories2009In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 335-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex allocation according to local resource competition suggests that investment and offspring sex ratio should be biased toward the dispersing sex to limit the competition among the natal philopatric sex. Conversely, when competition over resources is low, parents should allocate more resources toward the philopatric sex. In this study, this reciprocal scenario of sex allocation is tested. More specifically, the effect of breeding territory availability on primary sex ratio is studied in the collared flycatcher, a migratory passerine bird, where males are the natal philopatric sex. As predicted, primary sex ratios were biased toward males in areas where available territories were abundant (estimated from population growth). No relationship between sex ratio adjustment and adult phenotypes as well as date of first egg was found. We discuss potential explanation for the male-biased broods in areas with many vacant territories and low levels of competition. We suggest that sex ratio adjustment in relation to breeding territory quality and availability could be relatively common in birds.

  • 29. HOGLUND, J
    et al.
    ALATALO, RV
    LUNDBERG, A
    RATTI, O
    CONTEXT-DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF TAIL-ORNAMENT DAMAGE ON MATING SUCCESS IN BLACK GROUSE1994In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 182-187Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Immonen, E
    et al.
    Hoikkala, A
    Kazem, A
    Ritchie, M
    When are vomiting males attractive? Sexual selection on condition-dependent nuptial feeding in a fruitfly Drosophila subobscura2009In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Immonen, Elina
    et al.
    Kazem, Anahita
    Hoikkala, Anneli
    Ritchie, Michael G.
    When are vomiting males attractive? Sexual selection on condition-dependent nuptial feeding in a fruitfly Drosophila subobscura2009In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 289-295Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Kolluru, Gita R.
    et al.
    Grether, Gregory F.
    Dunlop, Eric
    South, Sandra H.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.
    Food availability and parasite infection influence mating tactics in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)2009In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 131-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the important effects of diet and parasite infection on male reproductive behavior, few studies have simultaneously addressed their influence on intrasexual selection (male-male competition). We examined the synergistic effects of 2 naturally varying environmental factors, lifetime food intake and infection, with the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli on the mating tactics and foraging behavior of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We allowed fish to interact directly with each other during observations and found that unparasitized males won more intermale contests, courted females more frequently, and received positive responses to courtship displays more frequently than males that had been infected. Infected males devoted more time to foraging and less time to courtship and competition than uninfected males, suggesting that they were energetically limited and could not increase reproductive effort despite their reduced expected lifespan. This interpretation was supported by the observation that greater food intake ameliorated the negative effects of parasite infection on courtship effort. Our results have bearing on how natural variation in food availability and parasite prevalence influence geographic variation in reproductive behavior.

  • 33.
    Kolm, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Hoffman, Eric A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Olsson, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Group stability and homing behavior but no kin group sturcture in a coral reef fish2005In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 521-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the reasons behind stable group formations has received considerable theoretical and empirical attention. Stable groups displaying homing behavior have been suggested to form as a result of, for instance, benefits from knowledge of the social or physical environment or through kin selection and the forming of kin groups. However, no one has disentangled preference for grouping in a familiar location from preference for grouping with familiar or related individuals. To investigate this, we conducted a series of field experiments and a group genetic analysis on the group-living Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni). We found homing behavior but no evidence for recognition of familiar group members. Instead, homing was based on the original location of their group rather than the individuals in that group. Moreover, we found no evidence for kin structures within these groups. We suggest that benefits from living in a known social environment drive homing behavior in this species and that homing behavior is not enough for the formation of kin group structures. Instead, our results suggest that kin recognition may be a prerequisite for the forming of kin groups.

  • 34.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Corral-Lopez, Alberto
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    A larger brain confers a benefit in a spatial mate search learning task in male guppies2015In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 527-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain size varies dramatically among vertebrates, and selection for increased cognitive abilities is thought to be the key force underlying the evolution of a large brain. Indeed, numerous comparative studies suggest positive relationships between cognitively demanding aspects of behavior and brain size controlled for body size. However, experimental evidence for the link between relative brain size and cognitive ability is surprisingly scarce and to date stems from a single study on brain size selected guppies (Poecilia reticulata), where large-brained females were shown to outperform small-brained females in a numerical learning assay. Because the results were inconclusive for males in that study, we here use a more ecologically relevant test of male cognitive ability to investigate whether or not a relatively larger brain increases cognitive ability also in males. We compared mate search ability of these artificially selected large-and small-brained males in a maze and found that large-brained males were faster at learning to find a female in a maze. Large-brained males decreased the time spent navigating the maze faster than small-brained males and were nearly twice as fast through the maze after 2 weeks of training. Our results support that relatively larger brains are better also for males in some contexts, which further substantiates that variation in vertebrate brain size is generated through the balance between energetic costs and cognitive benefits.

  • 35.
    Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Biology.
    van der Jeugd, Henk P
    van der Veen, Ineke
    Kin clustering in barnacle geese: familiarity or phenotype matching?2002In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 786-790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the settling pattern of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis that returned to breed in their natal colony. Females nested close to their parents and sisters, but settling of males conformed to a random pattern. The apparent preference for breeding close to kin in females could be a by-product of extreme philopatry to the natal nest site. However, sisters also nested close to each other when settling on a different island than the one where their parents bred, pointing at a genuine preference for breeding close to kin. Females only nested close to sisters born in the same year (i.e., sisters that they had been in close contact with). This suggests that the clustering of female kin in barnacle geese does not result from phenotype matching. We did not detect any direct benefits of settling close to birth site or kin, but the analyses lacked power to detect small benefits of proximity to kin given the many other factors that may influence breeding success. Colonially breeding birds share characteristics that are generally believed to promote the evolution of cooperation, yet kin clustering and kin selection have been little studied in this group. Future research should be directed to studying the possible roles of kin clustering and kin selection in the evolution of coloniality.

  • 36.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Kremer, Natacha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    The effects of male age at mating on female life-history traits in a seed beetle2007In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 551-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age at first reproduction is an important component of life history across taxa and can ultimately affect fitness. Because genetic interests of males and females over reproductive decisions commonly differ, theory predicts that conflict may arise over the temporal distribution of matings. To determine the potential for such sexual conflict, we studied the direct costs and benefits associated with mating at different times for females, using seed beetles (Acanthoscelides obtectus) as a model system. Virgin females were resistant to male mating attempts at a very early age but subsequently reduced their resistance. Although we found no difference in life span or mortality rates between females mated early in life and those mated later, females that mated early in life suffered a 12% reduction in lifetime fecundity. Thus, there are direct costs associated with mating early in life for females. Yet, males mate even with newly hatched females. We suggest that these data indicate a potential for sexual conflict over the timing of first mating and that female resistance to mating, at least in part, may represent a female strategy aimed at delaying mating to a later time in life.

  • 37. Merilaita, Sami
    et al.
    Schaefer, H. Martin
    Dimitrova, Marina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    What is camouflage through distractive markings?2013In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 24, no 5, p. e1271-e1272Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38. Morrow, E H
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Pitnick, S
    Adaptation versus pleiotropy: why do males harm their mates?2003In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 802-806Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Noble, Daniel W. A.
    et al.
    McFarlane, Eryn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Keogh, J. Scott
    Whiting, Martin J.
    Maternal and additive genetic effects contribute to variation in offspring traits in a lizard2014In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 25, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary responses to selection require that traits have a heritable basis, yet maternal effects (the effect of a mother's phenotype on her offspring's phenotype) can have profound effects on evolutionary processes. It is therefore essential to understand how maternal effects contribute to phenotypic variation in offspring traits and test key assumptions of additive genetic variance in evolutionary models. We measured 5 traits linked to fitness in lizards (endurance, sprint speed, snout-vent length [SVL], mass, and growth rate) and estimated the contribution of additive genetic and maternal effects in explaining variation in these traits in the Eastern water skink (Eulamprus quoyii). We estimated parentage using 6 microsatellite DNA loci from lizards taking part in a mating experiment in large seminatural enclosures and used animal models to partition variance into additive genetic and maternal effects. We found that only endurance was significantly heritable (h(2) = 0.37, 95% credible interval = 0.18-0.50), whereas all other traits were either strongly influenced by maternal effects (mass, sprint speed, SVL, and captive growth rate) or were influenced by environmental variability (wild growth rate). Our study disentangles the relative contributions of additive genetic and maternal effects in contributing to variation in offspring phenotypes and suggests that little additive genetic variance exists for traits often assumed to be heritable. Although the heritability of phenotypic traits is essential in evolutionary models, our results also highlight the important role maternal effects have in explaining variation in phenotypes.

  • 40. Olofsson, M.
    et al.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Tibblin, J.
    Jakobsson, S.
    Wiklund, C.
    Eyespot display in the peacock butterfly triggers antipredator behaviors in naïve adult fowl2013In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 305-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large conspicuous eyespots have evolved in multiple taxa and presumably function to thwart predator attacks. Traditionally, large eyespots were thought to discourage predator attacks because they mimicked eyes of the predators' own predators. However, this idea is controversial and the intimidating properties of eyespots have recently been suggested to simply be a consequence of their conspicuousness. Some lepidopteran species include large eyespots in their antipredation repertoire. In the peacock butterfly, Inachis io, eyespots are typically hidden during rest and suddenly exposed by the butterfly when disturbed. Previous experiments have shown that small wild passerines are intimidated by this display. Here, we test whether eyespots also intimidate a considerably larger bird, domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus, by staging interactions between birds and peacock butterflies that were sham-painted or had their eyespots painted over. Our results show that birds typically fled when peacock butterflies performed their display regardless of whether eyespots were visible or painted over. However, birds confronting butterflies with visible eyespots delayed their return to the butterfly, were more vigilant, and more likely to utter alarm calls associated with detection of ground-based predators, compared with birds confronting butterflies with eyespots painted over. Because production of alarm calls and increased vigilance are antipredation behaviors in the fowl, their reaction suggests that eyespots may elicit fear rather than just an aversion to conspicuous patterns. Our results, therefore, suggest that predators perceive large lepidopteran eyespots as belonging to the eyes of a potential predator.

  • 41. Rintamaki, P T
    et al.
    Hoglund, J
    Karvonen, E
    Alatalo, R V
    Bjorklund, N
    Lundberg, A
    Ratti, O
    Vouti, J
    Combs and sexual selection in black grouse (Tetrao tetrix)2000In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 465-471Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Rowe, Locke
    et al.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Two faces of environmental effects on mate choice: a comment on Dougherty & Shuker2015In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 324-324Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Récapet, Charlotte
    et al.
    Univ Lyon, Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lab Biometr & Biol Evolut, CNRS,UMR 5558, 43 Bd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.;Univ Lausanne Sorge, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Bize, Pierre
    Univ Aberdeen, Sch Biol Sci, Tillydrone Ave, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Univ Lyon, Univ Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lab Biometr & Biol Evolut, CNRS,UMR 5558, 43 Bd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Food availability modulates differences in parental effort between dispersing and philopatric birds2017In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 688-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal entails costs and might have to be traded off against other life-history traits. Dispersing and philopatric individuals may thus exhibit alternative life-history strategies. Importantly, these differences could also partly be modulated by environmental variation. Our previous results in a patchy population of a small passerine, the collared flycatcher, suggest that, as breeding density, a proxy of habitat quality, decreases, dispersing individuals invest less in reproduction but maintain a stable oxidative balance, whereas philopatric individuals maintain a high reproductive investment at the expense of increased oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed at experimentally testing whether these observed differences between dispersing and philopatric individuals across a habitat quality gradient were due to food availability, a major component of habitat quality in this system. We provided additional food for the parents to use during the nestling rearing period and we measured subsequent parental reproductive effort (through provisioning rate, adult body mass, and plasmatic markers of oxidative balance) and reproductive output. Density-dependent differences between dispersing and philopatric parents in body mass and fledging success were observed in control nests but not in supplemented nests. However, density-dependent differences in oxidative state were not altered by the supplementation. Altogether, our results support our hypothesis that food availability is responsible for some of the density-dependent differences observed in our population between dispersing and philopatric individuals but other mechanisms are also at play. Our study further emphasizes the need to account for environmental variation when studying the association between dispersal and other traits.

  • 44. Sagebakken, Gry
    et al.
    Ahnesjö, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Goncalves, Ines Braga
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Multiply mated males show higher embryo survival in a paternally caring fish2011In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 625-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored the effects of multiple mates on male reproductive success in a species with male parental care in which an increase in the number of female mating partners does not increase the number of eggs received. The broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) has a polygynandrous mating system. In this species, the male cares for embryos in a specially developed brood pouch. During brooding, some embryos fail to develop. We experimentally mated males with either one or two females while keeping brood size similar. We found that broods of singly mated males showed significantly lower embryo survival than those of doubly mated males. Furthermore, larger broods showed relatively lower levels of embryo survivorship independent of number of mates. We conclude that embryo survival is affected by postcopulatory processes that appear to result in higher fitness of multiply mated males. We discuss our results in the light of parental care, sibling competition, genetic benefits, and kin selection. Key words: brood reduction, paternal care, polygyny, postcopulatory sexual selection, progeny diversity, Syngnathidae.

  • 45. Salehialavi, Yassaman
    et al.
    Fritzsche, Karoline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    The cost of mating and mutual mate choice in 2 role-reversed honey locust beetles2011In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 1104-1113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situations where both males and females simultaneously exercise mate choice may be much more common than previously believed. Yet, experimental studies of mutual mate choice are rare as is information on the types of female traits that are favored by male mate choice. We first assessed the cost of mating to males under different feeding regimes in 2 honey locust beetles (Bruchidae, Megabruchidius spp.) where females actively search for and court males. Further, in a series of mate choice trials, we manipulated female mating status and male food provisioning to assess how male and female characteristics affected the outcome of male-female interactions. Mating carried substantial costs to males, but these costs were independent of food availability. Males generally showed a preference for large females but also for females that delivered a more vigorous courtship display. Moreover, males preferred virgin females in one species but nonvirgin females in the other species, and we provide data suggesting that this choice is adaptive. Female choice was restricted to a lower rate of female mate rejection of larger males in one of the species. Our results reveal a striking interspecific variation in mutual mate choice, even between these closely related species, and show that sexual selection in females can act on much the same types of traits that are commonly considered sexually selected in males, such as size-related traits and courtship vigor. This suggests that a preference for condition-dependent traits may be a commonality that is shared between mate choice by both sexes.

  • 46.
    Schielzeth, Holger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Bolund, Elisabeth
    Kempenaers, Bart
    Forstmeier, Wolfgang
    Quantitative genetics and fitness consequences of neophilia in zebra finches2011In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 126-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistent between-individual differences in context-general behavioral traits (often called personality traits) are particularly interesting for behavioral ecologists because they might show unexpected cross-context correlations and explain maladaptive behavior. In order to understand their evolutionary significance, it is relevant to know the heritability of these traits and how they relate to reproductive success. This might give insights into selective processes that maintain variation as well as into potential trade-offs. We scored approach to novel objects of 530 captive zebra finches in a familiar environment. Scores were highly repeatable and showed substantial additive genetic variation. We measured reproductive success, promiscuity, and extrapair paternity rates under aviary conditions and calculated linear and nonlinear selection differentials based on fertilization success as well as effects on chick-rearing success of pairs. Approach to novel objects had little influence on these components of reproductive success. However, we found that the social environment ( manipulated operational sex ratios) influenced the correlation between approach to a novel object and the proportion of extrapair paternity. We also found that the sex ratio manipulation affected measures of the intensity of sexual selection. Both effects were stronger in males than in females. We conclude that despite the lack of differences in overall reproductive success, approach to novel objects reflects variation in reproductive strategies.

  • 47.
    Sundin, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology. Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
    Vossen, Laura E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Nilsson-Sköld, Helen
    Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Infrastructure, University of Gothenburg; Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre.
    Jutfelt, Fredrik
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg; Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    No effect of elevated carbon dioxide on reproductive behaviors in the three-spined stickleback2017In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1482-1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean acidification, the reduction in ocean pH resulting from anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), has been predicted to alter the behavior of fishes. During experimental exposure to CO2 concentrations projected for the year 2100 (~1000 μatm), fish have been reported to display disturbances in activity, learning, behavioral lateralization, and even attraction to predator cues. Reproductive behaviors have received far less attention, despite an intensive research effort on ocean acidification and its ecological importance. Here, we investigate whether elevated levels of CO2 affect reproduction in breeding pairs of the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, a model species in behavioral, evolutionary ecology, and environmental toxicology. We found that males under both present day levels (400 μatm) and future levels (1000 μatm) of CO2 developed normal sexual ornaments, pursued normal nest building activi-ties, exhibited similar levels of courtship behaviors and displacement fanning, and had the same mating probability. Moreover, fanning behavior during the paternal care period followed what is expected for the species for males from both treatments, and there was no effect of treatment on the numbers of offspring produced. This study is the first to investigate the effect of elevated CO2 on the com-plete breeding cycle in detail, studying an array of highly fitness-relevant traits. Our study showing surprising resilience of fish repro-duction is an important contribution in order to realistically predict the impacts of future ocean acidification.

  • 48.
    Wheatcroft, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gallego-Abenza, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Species replacement reduces community participation in avian antipredator groups2016In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1499-1506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals living in diverse communities often depend on understanding the alarm signals of other species to gain critical information about predators. Here, we show that songbirds more rarely respond to the alarms of a colonizing songbird than those of the closely related species it is replacing. These results suggest that even small changes in community composition may have large impacts on species interactions and community antipredator behaviors.In diverse communities, recognizing other species' alarm signals is critical for evading predators. Recognition among community members is thought to build up predictably and quickly as individuals learn to associate previously unrecognized calls with the presence of a predator. Here, we use a natural range expansion in which a songbird species, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), is being gradually displaced on a Baltic island by an ecologically similar congeneric, the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis), to test this prediction. We conducted 2 field experiments to evaluate the abilities of both species to recruit local heterospecifics to antipredator groups, called mobs. First, we stimulated mobs by exposing breeding collared and pied pairs to taxidermied predators. Second, to isolate the effect of alarm call recognition from other potential confounds, such as behavioral cues or differences in the locations of pied and collared flycatcher nests, we broadcast alarm calls of both species in breeding areas and measured the responses of heterospecifics. We found that pied flycatcher pairs were more likely to attract heterospecifics than were collared flycatcher pairs. This difference is driven by weak responses of community members to collared flycatcher alarm calls: The alarm calls of the native pied flycatcher were much more likely to attract heterospecifics than those of the colonist, collared flycatchers. Our results show that subtle changes in species composition may have large, unpredictable consequences on community-wide communication. Because many avian breeding communities are heavily affected by predation, disturbed communication networks may, in turn, have cascading effects on community composition.

  • 49.
    Wheatcroft, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Price, Trevor D.
    Rates of signal evolution are associated with the nature of interspecific communication2015In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 83-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some signals vary greatly, whereas others are remarkably similar across distantly related species. Here, we ask how the suite of receivers and information communicated correlates with signal evolution by comparing 2 different signals across the same set of species. Within the Old World leaf warblers (Phylloscopidae), each species utters 2 acoustically distinct alarm calls. The first, termed a "general" call, is used in interactions with conspecifics as a well as during confrontations with predators and nest-parasitic cuckoos. The second, termed a "rasp" call, is primarily used in the presence of nest-parasitic cuckoos. The rasp call precedes aggressive attacks on cuckoos and attracts surrounding heterospecifics that are also potential hosts. The general call attracts a wide range of species threatened by predators, including those that are not cuckoo hosts. Acoustic features of general calls evolve >5x faster than rasp calls. We argue that rasp calls show strong stasis because they have a restricted function as aggressive antiparasite signals, whereas multiple contexts and receivers have promoted divergence in general calls. These results support the idea that variation in the suite of receivers is a powerful force affecting signal evolution.

  • 50.
    Zajitschek, Susanne
    et al.
    UNSW.
    Brooks, Robert
    UNSW.
    Inbreeding depression in male traits and preference for outbred males in Poecilia reticulata.2010In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 21, p. 884-891Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 51
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