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  • 1.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hallsson, Lara R.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Male Courtship Pheromones Affect Female Behaviour in the Swordtail Characin ( Corynopoma riisei)2014In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 120, no 5, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pheromones constitute an important cue used by both males and females during courtship. Here, we investigate the effect of male pheromones on female behaviour in the swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei), a species of fish where males have a caudal pheromone gland which has been suggested to affect female behaviour during courtship. We subjected female C.riisei to male courtship pheromones and investigated the effect on both female behaviour and brain serotonergic activity levels compared to a control group. While no difference in serotonergic activity was found, the pheromone-treated females showed lower stress levels compared to the control group. Furthermore, pheromone-treated females increased locomotor activity over time, while a decrease in locomotor activity was observed in the control group. These results suggest that the male courtship pheromones may serve to reduce female stress and increase female activity, possibly to aid males in gaining access to females and facilitating sperm transfer.

  • 2.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Andres, Jose A.
    The effects of experimentally induced polyandry on female reproduction in a monandrous mating system2006In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 112, no 8, p. 748-756Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Borg, Åsa A.
    et al.
    Åsmul, Tommy
    Bolstad, Geir H.
    Viken, Åslaug
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Interactions Among Female Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) Affect Growth and Reproduction2012In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 118, no 8, p. 752-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competition among females over resources may have consequences for their resource budgets and thereby the resource allocation between growth and reproduction. In addition, the consequences of femalefemale interactions may differ for dominant and subordinate individuals, with the dominant ones being at an advantage. In this study, we investigated the consequences of femalefemale competition in guppies by manipulating the competitive environment of females. We found that large guppy females dominated smaller females and that interactions between females likely are costly because females exposed to competition grew less. These females compensated by growing at a higher rate when no longer subjected to competition. The higher growth rate might in turn be the cause of the reduced reproductive effort in the more competitive treatments. Furthermore, interactions were more costly for females when they were in the subordinate role than in the dominant role, because the reduction in growth and reproductive effort was highest in females exposed to larger competitors. Whether there was a differential allocation of resources into growth and reproduction depending on dominance status needs further investigation. However, in general, smaller females had a higher growth rate than larger females, independent of competitive level. We also found a negative relationship between reproduction and growth in all treatments, indicating a cost of reproduction.

  • 4.
    Griesser, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Barnaby, Jonathan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Schneider, A.
    Figenschau, Nina
    Wright, Jonathan
    Griffith, C.
    Kazem, Anahita
    Russell, Andrew F.
    Influence of Winter Ranging Behaviour on the Social Organization of a Cooperatively Breeding Bird Species, The Apostlebird2009In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 115, no 9, p. 888-896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most cooperative breeding bird species live in family groups that are formed through the prolonged association of offspring with their parents. Research into cooperative families has in particular investigated the balance between cooperation and conflict over reproductive decisions. As a consequence of this research focus, social interactions among group members outside the breeding season are rarely studied, despite the fact that they are likely to be crucial for social decisions. We investigated the social dynamics and ranging behaviour of the family group living cooperatively breeding apostlebird (Struthidea cinerea) outside the breeding season. Group size changed between, but not within, the seasons, being smaller during the breeding season than in the winter season. This change in group size was a consequence of breeding groups merging after breeding, then splitting again before the next breeding season. While breeding groups used small, non-overlapping home ranges (x = 113 ha) around the nesting site, during winter groups moved up to 1200 ha (x = 598 ha), and interacted frequently with up to four other winter groups. In particular large groups often joined together during winter and spent up to 50% of their time associating with other large winter groups. This apparent fission-fusion system facilitated the exchange of group members, offering the possibility to form new breeding coalitions and new groups. The results of this study suggest that behaviour outside the breeding season can be of considerable importance to the social dynamics of both families and cooperative breeding in such systems.

  • 5. HOGLUND, J
    et al.
    ROBERTSON, JGM
    CHORUSING BEHAVIOR, A DENSITY-DEPENDENT ALTERNATIVE MATING STRATEGY IN MALE COMMON TOADS (BUFO-BUFO)1988In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 79, no 4, p. 324-332Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Absence Of Mate Guarding In The Yellowhammer (Emberiza-Citrinella)1992In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 242-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mate guarding behaviour of male yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella) was studied with special reference to the effects of age, body size (tarsus length) and coloration of males. Measurements of intra-pair distance do at the most provide evidence for relatively lax mate guarding. On the other hand, patterns of male song activity and inter-male aggression were more in agreement with the predictions of the mate guarding hypothesis. The reasons for the comparatively low mate guarding intensity in the yellowhammer may be that males do not need to guard their mates intensely. Age differences were found in song and aggressive activity, older males singing and fighting the most. Size had no effect on guarding behaviour. Coloration was correlated with inter-male aggressiveness and conflict initiation propensity. Less colourful males fought the most in the pre-fertile period of their mates, whereas colourful and old males fought the most during the fertile period. This suggests that coloration may be an indicator of individual fighting and guarding ability.

  • 7.
    Sundin, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Turbidity hampers mate choice in a pipefish2010In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 116, no 8, p. 713-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European coastal waters have in recent years become more turbid as algal growth has increased, probably due to eutrophication, global warming and changes in fish communities. Turbidity reduces visibility, and such changes may in turn affect animal behaviour as well as evolutionary processes that are dependent on visual stimuli. In this study we experimentally manipulated water visibility and olfactory cues to investigate mate choice using the sex role-reversed broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle as our study organism. We show that males spent significantly longer time assessing females when they had access to full visual cues, compared to when visibility was reduced. Presence or absence of olfactory cues from females did not affect mate choice, suggesting that the possible use of smell could not make up for a reduction in visibility. This implies that mate choice is environmentally dependent and that an increased turbidity may affect processes of sexual selection through an impaired possibility for visually based mate choice.

  • 8.
    Sundin, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Biologiskt institutt, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Altered oceanic pH impairs mating propensity in a pipefish2013In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 86-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic disturbance is currently altering the environment of terrestrial as well as aquatic organisms. Those changes affect a variety of animal behaviours, which in turn may cause changes in species interactions, population dynamics and evolutionary processes. In marine ecosystems, nutrient enrichment may elevate pH, while it is reduced by carbon dioxide-induced ocean acidification. These two processes are not expected to balance one another but rather to affect the environment at different times and scales. We here show experimentally that an increase in water pH has a negative effect on mating propensity in the broad-nosed pipefish Syngnathus typhle, whereas lowered pH did not elicit the same detrimental effect. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence that mating propensity is impaired by an increase in pH, suggesting that anthropogenic nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems may change the processes of sexual selection and population dynamics solely on the basis of altered water pH.

  • 9.
    Sundin, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Myhren, Siri
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Algal Turbidity Hampers Ornament Perception, but Not Expression, in a Sex-Role-Reversed Pipefish2016In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 122, no 3, p. 215-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual ornaments are used both in intra- and intersexual contexts, and these signals have evolved to function in the particular habitat the animal is adapted to. Habitat characteristics may, however, change rapidly due to anthropogenic effects, sometimes at rates too fast for many organisms to adaptively respond. In aquatic ecosystems, eutrophication is currently changing chemical as well as visual properties of the environment. Algae blooms increase water turbidity, and the reduction of water transparency thus has the potential to alter visual ornaments and their perception. However, results are not congruent. Rather, algae turbidity may decrease, increase, or leave ornaments unaffected. The effect seems to depend on exposure time, condition, population and species. Here, we found that the perception of sexual signals, but not their expression, was hampered by turbidity in the sex-role-reversed pipefish Nerophis ophidion. In a laboratory experiment we found that female sexual ornaments (i.e., blue color markings and a skinfold) and fecundity was unaffected by turbidity. Male adaptive mate choice for larger females with large ornament was, however, hampered under turbid conditions, whereas in clear water males choose larger, more ornamented females. Thus, we show that water turbidity had no effect on signal expression but did hamper ornament perception and consequently randomized mate choice.

  • 10. Vilhunen, Sampsa
    et al.
    Tiira, Katriina
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Hirvonen, Heikki
    The bold and the variable: Fish with high heterozygosity act recklessly in the vicinity of predators2008In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 7-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in the innate behavioral response to predation threat is often assumed to reflect genetic differences among the prey individuals. To date, no published results, however, exist that would offer explanation for the origin of this behavioral variation within populations. Using microsatellites as markers, we estimated the genetic variability of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) individuals whose behavior had been individually recorded in a trade-off situation where both predator chemical cues and food were present. Mean overall heterozygosity and the internal relatedness of fish associated significantly with their activity and foraging, so that the genetically more variable individuals showed more risk-prone behavior under predation risk. No association between genetic variability and behavior was found in trials where predator odors were not present. These results were consistent over the three study populations of brown trout with different backgrounds, suggesting that the phenomenon is of general nature in this species. Of the possible mechanisms suggested to enable the existence of the positive association between neutral microsatellite variation and fitness-related trait, the local effect hypothesis gained more support from our data than the general effect hypothesis.

  • 11. Wilson, Alexander D. M.
    et al.
    Krause, Jens
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Ward, Ashley J. W.
    The Personality Behind Cheating: Behavioural Types and the Feeding Ecology of Cleaner Fish2014In: Ethology, ISSN 0179-1613, E-ISSN 1439-0310, Vol. 120, no 9, p. 904-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex mutualistic relationship between the cleaner fish (Labroides dimidiatus) and their 'clients' in many reef systems throughout the world has been the subject of debate and research interest for decades. Game-theory models have long struggled with explaining how the mixed strategies of cheating and honesty might have evolved in such a system and while significant efforts have been made theoretically, demonstrating the nature of this relationship empirically remains an important research challenge. Using the experimental framework of behavioural syndromes, we sought to quantitatively assess the relationship between personality and the feeding ecology of cleaner fish to provide novel insights into the underlying mechanistic basis of cheating in cleaner-client interactions. First, we observed and filmed cleaner fish interactions with heterospecifics, movement patterns and general feeding ecology in the wild. We then captured and measured all focal individuals and tested them for individual consistency in measures of activity, exploration and risk taking (boldness) in the laboratory. Our results suggest a syndrome incorporating aspects of personality and foraging effort are central components of the behavioural ecology of L. dimidiatus on the Great Barrier Reef. We found that individuals that exhibited greater feeding effort tended to cheat proportionately less and move over smaller distances relative to bolder more active, exploratory individuals. Our study demonstrates for the first time that individual differences in personality might be mechanistically involved in explaining how the mixed strategies of cheating and honesty persist in cleaner fish mutualisms.

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