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  • 1.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Gustavsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Job Polarization and Task-Biased Technological Change: Evidence from Sweden, 1975–20052015In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 117, no 3, p. 878-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows that between 1975 and 2005, Sweden exhibited a pattern of job polarization with expansions of the highest and lowest paid jobs compared to middle-wage jobs. The most popular explanation for such a pattern is the hypothesis of ‘task-biased technological change’, where technological progress reduces the demand for routine middle-wage jobs but increases the demand for non-routine jobs located at the tails of the job-wage distribution. Our estimates, however, do not support this explanation for the 1970s and 1980s. Stronger evidence for task biased technological change, albeit not conclusive, is found for the 1990s and 2000s. In particular, there is both a statistically and economically significant growth of non-routine jobs and a decline of routine jobs. Results for wages are, however, mixed; while task-biased technological change cannot explain changes in between-occupation wage differentials, it does have considerable explanatory power for changes in within-occupation wage differentials.

  • 2.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Blomquist, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Where Should the Eldery Live and Who Should Pay for Their Care?2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 112, no 2, p. 289-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a model with a population consisting of earners and retired persons; elderly care is publicly provided. There is one big city, where congestion effects and agglomeration forces are at work, and a number of small villages. We show how the externalities related to population mobility lead to an inefficient spatial distribution of earners and retirees, and we characterize the second-best solution. Decentralization of this solution in a fiscal federalism structure requires the use of taxes and subsidies proportional to the number of earners and retired persons living in the city and the villages.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Marginal Propensity to Earn and Consume out of Unearned Income: Evidence Using an Unusually Large Cash Grant Reform2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 1393-1413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use the rapid introduction of an unconditional cash grant (child support) in South Africa to estimate the marginal propensity to consume and earn out of unearned income. We find that the marginal propensity to earn is about -0.3 and that the marginal propensity to consume is about 0.7. Nothing of the grant appears to be saved; if anything, households dissave against future grant payments. The marginal propensities estimated here are similar to those reported in comparable papers using US data. However, they stand in contrast to some results on conditional cash transfers in other developing countries.

  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Waldesntröm, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lifetime versus Annual Tax-and-Transfer Progressivity: Sweden, 1968-20092016In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 619-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze the evolution of tax-and-transfer progressivity in Sweden over both annual and lifetime horizons. Using a rich micro panel covering the period 1968-2009, we calculate tax rates over a cohort's entire working life cycle. Our main finding is that taxes are considerably less progressive over the lifetime than in any single year. Social insurance transfers to transitory low-income earners account for most of this result. We offer a number of robustness checks of the measurement of lifetime incomes and progressivity, but none of them changes our overall findings.

  • 5. Bils, Mark
    et al.
    Gottfries, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Holden, Steinar
    Friberg, Richard
    Liski, Matti
    Torvik, Ragnar
    Preface to the Special Issue on Price and Wage Dynamics2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 112, no 4, p. 643-645Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6. Bjoerklund, Anders
    et al.
    Gottfries, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Krueger, Alan B.
    Moen, Espen R.
    Editors' Preface2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 110, no 4, p. 635-637Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Blomquist, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Christiansen, Vidar
    Univ Oslo, N-0317 Oslo, Norway..
    Micheletto, Luca
    Univ Milan, I-20122 Milan, Italy..
    Public Provision of Private Goods, Self-Selection, and Income Tax Avoidance2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 666-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Redistributive taxation should benefit those with low earnings capacity rather than those who choose a lower income to obtain tax savings. Several contributions have highlighted how public provision of work complements can discourage people from lowering labor supply to diminish taxable income. We show how tax avoidance, previously neglected, can alter the conclusions regarding public provision. Tax avoidance breaks the link between labor supply and reported income. An agent reducing his reported income to escape taxes might no longer forego a publicly provided labor complement, because he can now lower his income by avoiding more rather than working less.

  • 8.
    Blomquist,, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Micheletto, Luca
    University of Milan.
    Age-related optimal income taxation2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 45-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most countries, average income varies with age. In this paper we investigate if and how it is possible to enhance the redistributive mechanism by relating tax payments to age. Using an OLG model where some individuals are low skilled all their life while others are low skilled when young but high skilled when old, we first show how an age dependent optimal  income tax can Pareto improve upon an age independent income tax. We then characterize the optimal age dependent income tax. A tax on interest income is part of the optimal tax structure..

  • 9.
    Boschini, Anne
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Stockholm University.
    Pettersson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Roine, Jesper
    SITE, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Resource Curse or Not: A Question of Appropriability2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 109, no 3, p. 593-617Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, SOFI, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholm Univ, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Headmaster Ritual: The Importance of Management for School Outcomes2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, no 4, p. 912-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the impact of individual principals on school outcomes by using panel data that allow us to track principals over time. We find that individual principals have a substantive impact on school policies, working conditions, and student outcomes. In particular, students who attend a school that has a one standard deviation better principal improve their achievement by between 0.05 and 0.1 standard deviations. Despite rich background information on principals, it is difficult to characterize successful management, suggesting that innate skills are central. We find that the scope for discretion is larger among voucher schools and in areas with school competition.

  • 11.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Edmark, Karin
    Stockholm University, SE‐106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berg, Heléne
    Stockholm University, SE‐106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ethnic Diversity and Preferencesfor Redistribution: Reply2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 288-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this reply, we briefly respond to three of the issues raised: possible measures of preferences for redistribution, sample selection bias, and the use of the refugee placement policy as an instrument for immigration.

  • 12.
    Edmark, Karin
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Migration Effects of Welfare Benefit Reform2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 511-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests for a migration response to the implementation of stricter rules for receiving welfare benefits (means-tested social assistance for individuals who lack sufficient work-related income), in the form of mandatory participation in activation programmes in Stockholm town districts. The results give no indications that activation programmes affect the moving choices of recipients of welfare benefits.

  • 13.
    Engström, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Worker absenteeism in search equilibrium2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 109, no 3, p. 439-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we introduce a general equilibrium model of search unemployment that incorporates absence from work as a distinct labor force state. Absenteeism is driven by random shocks to the value of leisure that are private information to the workers. Firms maximize profits while recognizing that the compensation package may affect the queue of job applicants and the absence rate. The analysis provides results concerning the effects of social insurance benefits and other determinants of workers' and firms' behavior. The normative analysis identifies externalities associated with firm-provided sick pay and examines the welfare implications of alternative policies.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lagerström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Competition between Employed and Unemployed Job Applicants: Swedish evidence2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 373-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the Swedish Applicant Database to empirically investigate whether being unemployed per se reduces the probability of getting contacted by a firm. All searchers looking for a new job are invited to submit their personal details to this database over the Internet. Since we have access to exactly the same information as the firms, we can minimize the problems associated with unobserved heterogeneity. Our results show that an unemployed applicant faces a lower contact probability than an otherwise identical employed applicant, thus supporting the notion that firms view employment status as a signal for productivity.

  • 15.
    Fiva, Jon H.
    et al.
    BI Norwegian Business School, NO-0442 Oslo, Norway.
    Folke, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Sörensen, Rune J.
    BI Norwegian Business School, NO-0442 Oslo, Norway.
    The Power of Parties: Evidence from Close Municipal Elections in Norway2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 3-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that small shifts in representation can affect policy in proportional election systems. Using data from Norway, we find that a larger left-wing party leads to more property taxation, higher childcare spending, and lower elderly care spending, while local public goods appear to be a non-partisan issue. These effects are partly due to shifts in bloc majorities, and partly due to changes in the left-right position of the council, keeping the majority constant. The estimates on spending allocations are rather imprecise, but they are consistent with evidence on politicians’ fiscal preferences and patterns in media attention.

  • 16.
    Forslund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Gottfries, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Westermark, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Prices, Productivity, and Wage Bargaining in Open Economies2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 169-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the standard union bargaining model, unemployment benefits should have big effects on wages, but product-market prices and productivity should play no role in the wage bargain. We formulate an alternative strategic bargaining model, where labour and product-market conditions together determine wages. A wage equation is derived and estimated on aggregate data for four Nordic countries. Wages are found to depend not only on unemployment and the replacement ratio, but also on productivity, international prices and exchange rates. There is evidence of considerable nominal wage rigidity. Exchange rate changes have large and persistent effects on competitiveness.

  • 17.
    Gottfries, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Comment on R.W. Cooper, Business cycles: Theory, evidence and policy implications1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 243-245Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooper's paper reviews some current research directions in macroeconomics. The paper made me worried about the state of macroeconomic research and my comments below consist of some critical remarks on the methodological approach in the literature reviewed in the paper.

  • 18.
    Gottfries, Nils
    Stockholms universitet.
    Price Dynamics of Exporting and Import-Competing Firms1986In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 417-436Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Gottfries, Nils
    Stockholms universitet.
    The Scientific Illusion in Empirical Macroeconomics - Comment1991In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 93, no 2, p. 149-154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Gottfries, Nils
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sjostrom, Tomas
    Pennsylvania State University.
    Profit-Sharing, Employment Efficiency and Wage Stability1995In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 281-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contract between a risk-neutral firm and its risk-average workers is considered under uncertainty about product demand. We show that profit sharing can be used to attain the efficient level of employment and, at the same time, preserve optimal risk sharing between the parties. Optimal profit sharing does not imply wage variability; instead, wages are stabilized across states.

  • 21.
    Gottfries, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjöström, Tomas
    Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA.
    Insider bargaining power, starting wages and involuntary unemployment2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 102, no 4, p. 669-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies of wage bargaining and unemployment have emphasized the distinction between insiders and outsiders, and that unions act in the interest of insiders. Yet it is typically assumed that insiders and recently hired outsiders are paid the same wage. We consider a model where the starting wage may differ from the insider wage, but incentive constraints associated with turnover affect the form of the contract. We examine under what conditions the starting wage is linked to the insider wage so that increased bargaining power of insiders raises the starting wage and reduces the hiring of outsiders.

  • 22. Hall, Robert
    et al.
    Gottfries, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Holden, Steinar
    Moen, Espen R.
    Schultz, Christian
    Macroeconomic fluctuations and the labor market - Preface2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 109, no 4, p. 643-644Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Hesselius, Patrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Social Behaviour in Work Absence2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 995-1019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By making use of a large-scale randomized experiment, we test whether social behaviour is important for work absence due to illness. The individuals treated in the experiment were exposed to less monitoring of their eligibility to collect sickness insurance benefits, which sharply increased their non-monitored work absence. This exogenous variation is exploited in two complementary analyses. In both analyses, we find significant social-behaviour effects. Using detailed data, we conclude that the social-behaviour effects most likely stem from fairness concerns.

  • 24.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Steigum, Erling
    Intergenerational transfers, taxes and the distribution of wealth: Editors' preface2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 103, no 3, p. 367-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Mellander, Erik
    et al.
    Institute of Labour Market Policy Evaluation (IFAU).
    Sandgren-Massih, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Proxying Ability by Family Background in Returns to Schooling Estimations is Generally a Bad Idea2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 110, no 4, p. 853-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When schooling is measured with error and data on ability are lacking, return to schooling estimates will be subject to positive omitted variable bias (OVB) and negative measurement error bias (MEB). We investigate how these biases are affected when ability is proxied by family background variables. We show that the effect on OVB is uncertain, while MEB invariably increases in magnitude. Our empirical analysis demonstrates that MEB generally dominates OVB. With more background variables or increased measurement error, the total bias rapidly becomes negative and increasing in magnitude, thereby driving the return estimate further and further away from the true value.

  • 26.
    Nykvist, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Entrepreneurship and Liquidity Constraints: Evidence from Sweden2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hurst and Lusardi (2004) use a specification with higher-order polynomials to estimate the relationship between wealth and entrepreneurship. They find evidence against the existence of extensive liquidity constraints in the United States. In this paper, their approach is replicated on Swedish data. A positive relationship between wealth and entrepreneurship is found, which supports the liquidity constraints hypothesis. Alternative methods for handling the endogeneity problem and distinguishing between absolute decreasing risk aversion and liquidity constraints lend further support to the hypothesis. The analysis suggests that there exist liquidity constraints in Sweden, which are possibly more extensive than in the United States.

  • 27.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Cost-benefit rules in a regionalized disequilibrium model1987In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 165-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1982-83, a mining company in northern Sweden laid off 1,800 employees. The Parliament allotted SEK 309 million for a program of job-creating measures. Evaluation of these measures requires a welfare-theoretic foundation. This analysis focuses on the welfare implications of public production of private goods. These effects depend on which market output is sold and the type of taxes used to balance the public budget. The rules include partial and indirect spilt-over effects that can be interpreted in terms of multipliers and marginal propensities to consume.

  • 28.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Vredin, Anders
    Political cycles and cyclical policies1996In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 98, no 2, p. 203-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We test how government revenue and expenditure depend on ideology, elections and economic activity. We show how fiscal forecasts can be used to identify the determinants of government revenue and expenditure. The approach is illustrated using a unique, unpublished Swedish data set of fiscal forecasts and forecasts of economic activity. We find partisan effects, but no election effects. Revenue and expenditure, but also the fiscal surplus, are lower with right-wing governments. Fiscal policy has been countercyclical. Revenue varies positively with nominal earnings; expenditure varies negatively with real GDP.

  • 29. Pirttilä, Jukka
    et al.
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Income Shifting within a Dual Income Tax System: Evidence from the Finnish Tax Reform of 19932011In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 120-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual income tax systems can suffer from income that shifts from progressively taxed labour income to capital income, which is taxed at a lower, flat rate. This paper empirically examines the 1993 Finnish dual income tax reform, which radically reduced the marginal tax rates on capital income for some, but not all, taxpayers. We measure how overall taxable income and the relative shares of capital income and labour income reacted to the reform. We find that the reform led to a small positive impact on overall taxable income, but part of the positive response was probably offset by income shifting among the self-employed.

  • 30.
    Selin, Hakan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Marginal Tax Rates and Tax-Favoured Pension Savings of the Self-Employed: Evidence from Sweden2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 79-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the study of how individuals respond to policies that aim at promoting pension savings has emerged as a vital area of economic research. This paper adds to this body of literature by estimating the tax price elasticity of contributions to tax-favoured pension-savings accounts on a population of self-employed individuals. I exploit a unique total database over the Swedish population that covers the years 19992005. Using instrumental variables, I obtain a tax price elasticity estimate of -0.51 and an income elasticity estimate of 0.13, whereas ordinary least-squares (OLS) produces estimates that conflict with consumer theory.

  • 31. van den Berg, Gerard J.
    et al.
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Monitoring Job Offer Decisions, Punishments, Exit to Work, and Job Quality2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 116, no 2, p. 284-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unemployment insurance systems include the monitoring of unemployed workers and punitive sanctions if job search requirements are violated. We analyze the causal effect of sanctions on the ensuing job quality, notably on wages and occupational level. We use Swedish data and estimate duration models dealing with selection on unobservables. We also develop a theoretical job search model that monitors job offer rejection versus job search effort. The empirical results show that, after a sanction, the wage rate is lower and individuals move more often to a part-time job and a lower occupational level, incurring human capital losses.

  • 32.
    Österholm, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Incorporating Judgement in Fan Charts2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 387-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a decision-making group, such as a central bank's monetary-policy committee, group members often hold differing views about the future of key economic variables. Such differences of opinion can be thought of as reflecting differing sets of judgement. This paper suggests modelling each agent's judgement as one scenario in a macroeconomic model. Each judgement set has a specific dynamic impact on the system and, accordingly, a particular predictive density—or fan chart—associated with it. A weighted linear combination of the predictive densities yields a final predictive density that reflects the uncertainty perceived by the agents generating the forecast.

1 - 32 of 32
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