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  • 1.
    Besley, Timothy
    et al.
    London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, Dept Econ, Houghton St, London WC2A 2AE, England.;CIFAR, London, England..
    Folke, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persson, Torsten
    CIFAR, London, England.;IIES, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rickne, Johanna
    UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, SOFI, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;IFN, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gender Quotas and the Crisis of the Mediocre Man: Theory and Evidence from Sweden2017In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 107, no 8, p. 2204-2242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a model where party leaders choose the competence of politicians on the ballot to trade off electoral success against their own survival. The predicted correlation between the competence of party leaders and followers is strongly supported in Swedish data. We use a novel approach, based on register data for the earnings of the whole population, to measure the competence of all politicians in 7 parties, 290 municipalities, and 10 elections (for the period 1982-2014). We ask how competence was affected by a zipper quota, requiring local parties to alternate men and women on the ballot, implemented by the Social Democratic Party in 1993. Far from being at odds with meritocracy, this quota raised the competence of male politicians where it raised female representation the most. We argue that resignation of mediocre male leaders was a key driver of this effect. (JEL D72, J16)

  • 2. Carlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Evaluating Microfoundations for Aggregate Price Rigidities: Evidence from Matched Firm-Level Data on Product Prices and Unit Labor Cost2012In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 102, no 4, p. 1571-1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using matched data on product-level prices and the producing firm's unit labor cost, we find a moderate pass-through of current idiosyncratic marginal-cost changes. Also, the response does not vary across firms facing very different idiosyncratic shock variances, but identical aggregate conditions. These results do not fit the predictions of Mackowiak and Wiederholt (2009). Neither do firms react strongly to predictable marginal-cost changes, as expected from Mankiw and Reis (2002). We find that firms consider both current and expected future marginal cost when setting prices. This points toward impediments to continuous price adjustments as a key driver of monetary non-neutrality.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnéuniversitetet .
    Do Employers Use Unemployment as a Sorting Criterion When Hiring? Evidence from a Field Experiment2014In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 104, no 3, p. 1014-1039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stigma associated with long-term unemployment spells could create large inefficiencies in labor markets. While the existing literature points toward large stigma effects, it has proven difficult to estimate causal relationships. Using data from a field experiment, we find that long-term unemployment spells in the past do not matter for employers' hiring decisions, suggesting that subsequent work experience eliminate this negative signal. Nor do employers treat contemporary short-term unemployment spells differently, suggesting that they understand that worker/firm matching takes time. However, employers attach a negative value to contemporary unemployment spells lasting at least nine months, providing evidence of stigma effects.

  • 4. Figlio, David
    et al.
    Guryan, Jonathan
    Karbownik, Krzysztof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Roth, Jeffrey
    The Effects of Poor Neonatal Health on Children's Cognitive Development2014In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 104, no 12, p. 3921-3955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We make use of a new data resource-merged birth and school records for all children born in Florida from 1992 to 2002-to study the relationship between birth weight and cognitive development. Using singletons as well as twin and sibling fixed effects models, we find that the effects of early health on cognitive development are essentially constant through the school career; that these effects are similar across a wide range of family backgrounds; and that they are invariant to measures of school quality. We conclude that the effects of early health on adult outcomes are therefore set very early.

  • 5.
    Fredriksson, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden;IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Hensvik, Lena
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden; CESifo, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden;IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Mismatch of Talent: Evidence on Match Quality, Entry Wages, and Job Mobility2018In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 108, no 11, p. 3303-3338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the impact of mismatch on entry wages, separations, and wage growth using unique data on worker talents. We show that workers are sorted on comparative advantage across jobs within occupations. The starting wages of inexperienced workers are unrelated to mismatch. For experienced workers, on the other hand, mismatch is negatively priced into their starting wages. Separations and wage growth are more strongly related to mismatch among inexperienced workers than among experienced workers. These findings are consistent with models of information updating, where less information is available about the quality of matches involving inexperienced workers.

  • 6.
    Graetz, Georg
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Michaels, Guy
    London School of Econonomics.
    Is Modern Technology Responsible for Jobless Recoveries?2017In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 168-173Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hjort, Jonas
    et al.
    Columbia Univ, Uris Hall 622,3022 Broadway, New York, NY 10027 USA;BREAD, New York, NY 10027 USA;CEPR, Washington, DC 20009 USA;NBER, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Poulsen, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The Arrival of Fast Internet and Employment in Africa2019In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 109, no 3, p. 1032-1079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To show how fast Internet affects employment in Africa, we exploit the gradual arrival of submarine Internet cables on the coast and maps of the terrestrial cable network. Robust difference-in-differences estimates from 3 datasets, covering 12 countries, show large positive effects on employment rates-also for less educated worker groups-with little or no job displacement across space. The sample-wide impact is driven by increased employment in higher-skill occupations, but less-educated workers' employment gain less so. Firm-level data available for some countries indicate that increased firm entry, productivity, and exporting contribute to higher net job creation. Average incomes rise.

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