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  • 1.
    Agius, Maria F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Strategies and Success in Litigation and Negotiation in the WTO2012In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 139-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes linkages between litigation in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) and negotiation in multilateral trade rounds and develops a typology of links that can occur between the two processes. These include creating conditions where bargaining is informed by law, influencing the agenda-setting and creating momentum for negotiation on key issues, and affecting the status quo from which negotiations proceed by influencing nterpretation of trade rules in the DSB. The purpose is to test whether poor and inexperienced states that are disadvantaged in negotiations can improve their bargaining power in negotiation rounds by pursuing legal proceedings, to see whether links can be exploited for strategy-making to promote the interests of these states, and to discuss how the WTO as an international organization benefits from their empowerment. The strategies suggested in this article could improve the commitment and active participation of relatively non-influential member states. This could be conducive to perceptions of the WTO as a legitimate organization and to a more constructive climate for effective negotiations.

  • 2.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Improving the effectiveness of multilateral trade negotiations: A synopsis2012In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of International Negotiation explores from different perspectives how multilateral trade negotiations, primarily within the World Trade Organization (WTO), can become more effective. The challenges associated with this task have grown, as the parties and issues involved in such talks have increased in number and diversity. The specific topics addressed include the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and domestic-level factors, agenda management, legitimacy and procedural issues, turning points, the challenge posed by the pursuit of bilateral and regional alternatives, and the question of gains to be had from multilateralism. The conclusions drawn from these studies are wide-ranging and relevant for multilateral negotiations generally. They highlight, among other matters, the significance of decision-making procedures used in the negotiation process.

  • 3.
    Albin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The Many Faces of Justice in International Negotiations2015In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 41-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a wide range of roles and effects that justice can have in negotiations at the international level. It can be a source of conflict and trigger for negotiation, a referent guiding negotiations, a subject of negotiation, a tool to reach effective agreements, and a tactical tool. Justice can assume any or several of these roles in any one negotiation. This article looks at justice as a lens through which to understand what drives negotiation processes and explains different results in the international arena.

  • 4.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Druckman, Daniel
    George Mason University, USA.
    Bargaining over Weapons: Justice and Effectiveness in Arms Control Negotiations2014In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 426-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the relationship between justice and effectiveness in bilateral and multilateral arms control negotiations. A set of hypotheses, derived from earlier research about the impacts of procedural and distributive justice on negotiation outcomes is evaluated. The sample consists of twenty cases, ten bilateral and ten multilateral. The results of statistical analyses show strong effects of procedural justice on the effectiveness of bilateral, but not multilateral, negotiations. Further analyses indicate that the effects are largely accounted for by half of the bilateral cases. Case-by-case analyses reveal some of the conditions that explain the correlation between pj principles and effective outcomes. Distributive justice correlated with more substantial agreements in the multilateral cases. Reasons for the limited effects of procedural justice on multilateral outcomes are discussed. The article concludes with more general implications and suggestions for further research.

  • 5.
    Albin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Young, Ariel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Setting the Table for Success - or Failure?: Agenda Management in the WTO2012In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 37-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does the agenda management process influence the effectiveness of multilateral trade talks in the World Trade Organization (WTO)? How can the all-important agenda be shaped so as to enhance the prospects of an agreement being reached? How the agenda is managed directly affects the negotiation process which follows and the eventual outcome. Yet researchers have paid little attention to the particular dynamics and challenges of agenda management in large-scale multilateral negotiations, and actual practice points to several weaknesses. This article proposes that the complexity of the agenda in multilateral talks needs to be managed and reduced in procedurally just ways if a successful outcome (agreement) is to result. It develops an analytical framework of agenda management in multilateral negotiations and conducts a structured focused comparison to explain the differences in outcomes of two rounds of WTO negotiations: the failure of the 2003 Cancún Ministerial Conference and the success of the 2004 Geneva negotiations in reaching an agreement. The findings support the proposition that a successful outcome depends in part on reducing agenda complexity and that this needs to be achieved in procedurally acceptable (if not just) ways.

  • 6.
    Duursma, Allard
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CSS, Haldeneggsteig 4, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Introducing an Agenda-based Measurement of Mediation Success: The Divergent Effects of the Manipulation Strategy in African Civil Wars2019In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 296-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous quantitative mediation research has relied on generalized measurements of "mediation success," such as agreements, ceasefires or peace durability. However, these measurements of success do not take into account what mediators were mandated to achieve. We propose benchmarking outcomes against the explicit mandates of the interventions, a novel way of conceptualizing mediation success. Utilizing data on the agendas of mediated negotiations in intrastate armed conflicts in Africa between 1990 and 2010 as a proxy for mediation mandates, we examine the relative effectiveness of manipulation as a mediation strategy. The study shows, in contrast to previous research, that third party manipulation does not have a significant effect on whether the goal of a given round of negotiations is achieved and, that under some circumstances, may decrease the likelihood of mediation success. We discuss the opportunities as well as limitations of a mandate-based approach to the study of mediation success.

  • 7.
    Höglund, Kristine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    'Damned if you do, and damned if you don’t': nordic involvement and third-party neutrality in Sri Lanka2008In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 341-364Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Lundgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Political Science, Stockholm University.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Leanings and Dealings: Exploring Bias and Trade Leverage in Civil War Mediation by International Organizations2014In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 315-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two characteristics of mediators – bias and leverage – are discussed intensively in the research on international mediation. However, whereas bias and leverage have been examined in mediation by states, relatively little is known about their role in mediation by international organizations (ios). This study provides new ways of conceptualizing io bias and leverage and utilizes unique data to measure the impact of io bias and leverage on mediation outcomes. Exploring all cases of civil war mediation by ios in the period 1975–2004, we find that ios where member states provide support to both sides in a conflict outperform ios whose member states remain disinterested. ios with significant trade leverage also increase the likelihood of mediation success. The study demonstrates that ios rarely have a neutral relationship to civil war combatants, that mediation by ios is laden with member state interests, and that such interests shape outcomes.

  • 9.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Introducing an Agenda-Based Approach to Mediation Success: The Divergent Effects of the Manipulation Strategy in African Civil WarsAccepted for publication (Nov 2018)2018In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Svensson, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Mediation with Muscles or Minds?: Exploring Power and Trust Mediators in Civil Wars2007In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 229-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mediation research has for a long time been divided on whether 'power mediators' or 'pure mediators' are preferred as peace brokers in armed conflicts. This study contributes by drawing a broader empirical picture of international mediation in civil wars. It is argued that these approaches to international mediation are complementary rather than contradictory, and that combining power mediators with pure mediators should be the best way of enhancing the prospect of mediation success. Using data from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program on internal armed conflicts (1989-2003), the study examines and compares the effect of power mediators with pure mediators on different kinds of mediation outcomes: (1) the likelihood that parties reach agreements and (2) the provisions of those agreements. The study finds that although all types of mediators have a positive effect in terms of reaching agreements, power mediators outperform pure mediators. Most effective are the mediation attempts when both power and pure mediators are active as third parties. Examining the content of agreements, the study finds that pure mediators are more effective in reaching political and territorial power sharing provisions, whereas power mediators are more likely to be associated with military pacts.

  • 11.
    Tritschoks, Annkatrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research. 2017/2018 Graduate Research Fellow at the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School.
    Rethinking Justice in International Environmental Negotiations: Toward a More Comprehensive Framework2018In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 446-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Justice is of central importance in international environmental negotiations. Key characteristics of this type of negotiation augment the complexities of justice issues and warrant a customized approach. Based on a discussion of these characteristics, the article derives four components that are central to a more comprehensive theoretical framework for analyzing justice in environmental negotiations: 1) going beyond narrow self-interest, 2) extending the notion of reciprocity, 3) linking backward- and forward-orientation, and 4) connecting process and outcome. The usefulness of the framework is illustrated by applying it to two important Conferences of the Parties (<small>COP</small>) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change – COP15 in Copenhagen and COP21 in Paris – which are compared. The framework is suited for a systematic analysis of the complex role played by justice issues in international environmental negotiation, as a key avenue for addressing global threats emerging from anthropogenic environmental change.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-08-01 00:01
  • 12.
    Walch, Colin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Rethinking Ripeness Theory: Explaining Progress and Failure in Civil War Negotiations in the Philippines and Colombia2016In: International Negotiation, ISSN 1382-340X, E-ISSN 1571-8069, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 75-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can ripeness theory be extended to explain when and why parties remain at the negotiating table until an agreement is reached? Existing ripeness theory is crucial in understanding when conflicting parties consider negotiation as preferable to continued fighting. However, factors which may explain why parties stay at the negotiation table after the start of the negotiation process - that is, how the ripe moment is sustained until an agreement has been reached - are not well elaborated. This study seeks to extend ripeness theory and argues that organizationally fragmented rebel groups are less flexible to make concessions and unlikely to stay at the negotiation table until an agreement is reached, especially when there is a lack of cohesion between the military and political branches. This argument is explored through a structured focused comparison of the peace negotiations in Colombia and in the Philippines with communist rebel groups.

1 - 12 of 12
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