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  • 1. Diehl, Paul F.
    et al.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Sarkees, Meredith Reid
    Geller, Daniel S.
    The Forum: Reflections and Reassessments on the Early Work and Ideas of J. David Singer2013In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 259-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The four essays in this forum consider the influence of J. David Singer's initial views and analyses dating from the 1960s and 1970s on topics that continue to hold great importance today. Three essays consider the implications of these early works and decisions on the subsequent study of war, as well as their continuing wisdom (or not) in light of subsequent research. The fourth essay examines Singer's policy prescriptions in light of subsequent decisions and choices. In some cases, the ideas continue to have resonance with contemporary conflict research and policy issues, but in other instances there are grounds for reevaluation and the adoption of new research and data collection strategies or policy perspectives.

  • 2.
    Forsberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Diffusion in the Study of Civil Wars: A Cautionary Tale2014In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 188-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay reviews diffusion as studied in large-N civil war research. In doing so, a number of pitfalls and lacunae are identified. First, the definition of diffusion as a process-whereby internal conflict in one location alters the probability of internal conflict erupting in another location at a later point in time-entails a number of difficulties for empirical modeling. Researching such a process involves an attempt to study a phenomenon that, in essence, is unobservable. It also creates difficulties in identifying relevant units of analysis, because the process involves at least two units. Second, diffusion is customarily identified based on correlations within a spatial and temporal proximity. Classifying it in this way risks simultaneously over-and underestimating cases of diffusion, which in turn generates uncertainty regarding the main determinants of diffusion. With these observations in mind, this essay ends with a word of caution for policymakers, with relevance extending beyond diffusion of civil war.

  • 3.
    Goldsmith, Benjamin E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    The East Asian Peace as a Second-Order Diffusion Effect2014In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 275-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While East Asia is often cited as a region at high risk of interstate military conflict, it has remained free of major hostilities since the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese war. In this article, I propose a second-order diffusion dynamic to help explain this East Asian peace. It is based on the stimulus event of China's shift in political-economic models that began in 1978. While the "flying geese" diffusion of open trading and developmental state policies in East Asia began earlier, China's shift contributed to dramatic region-wide change in a key variable: the volume of trade flows. Intraregional trade interdependence did not increase greatly because strong economic growth accompanied increased intraregional trade flows. Rather than interdependence, my argument focuses on the utility of high volumes of trade for interstate crisis signaling to avoid escalation to war. The first-order diffusion of trade-based strategies, I argue, had second-order effects on international relations in East Asia. While China was not the first adopter, diffusion of liberalization to this large, developing economy increased regional trade flows directly and indirectly via increased competitive pressures. The resulting higher flows of intraregional trade then inhibited the escalation of interstate conflicts. Statistical analyses support my contentions while controlling for a number of other plausible contributing factors.

  • 4.
    Guthrey, Holly L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History, The Hugo Valentin Centre.
    Microlevel Security after Armed Conflict: A New Framework for Analyzing Risks and Benefits of Peacebuilding Processes2019In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance and/or achievement of security is of paramount importance within settings recovering from armed conflict; however existing studies in the field of peacebuilding do not sufficiently explore how various processes undertaken within peacebuilding programming result in different types of security outcomes at the individual and community level. In this article, I develop a novel conceptual framework for analyzing “micro-level” security risks and benefits of peacebuilding processes, through an adapted version of Johan Galtung’s work on direct and structural violence. For the purposes of this article, the framework is applied in the context of “local” transitional justice (TJ) processes used in the aftermath of armed conflict, for which advocacy and implementation has increased in the recent past. Relying on a social psychological definition of security, I disaggregate components of direct and structural violence and use illustrative examples from existing empirical studies about the effects of local TJ processes in various settings to demonstrate ways in which these types of violence may be perpetuated, or initiated in new forms through these processes, thus posing security risks. The framework is further developed through the elucidation of factors that may help to repair the consequences of direct and structural violence and/or hinder the likelihood of their repetition, thematically conceptualized as physical and psychological welfare and social justice (respective to direct and structural violence) that I suggest link to security benefits. The framework intends to provide new perspectives on understanding how peacebuilding processes may both promote and prevent security from being realized at the local level following armed conflict.

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Desirée
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Revisiting an Elusive Concept: A Review of the Debate on Spoilers in Peace Processes2011In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 606-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a seminal article, Stedman (International Security, 22, 1997, 5) suggested that the greatest source of risk to civil war peace processes comes from so-called spoilers, leaders, and groups that perceive peace as threatening and use violence to undermine attempts to achieve it. The spoiler concept has since gained significant ground and widespread legitimacy both in the academic literature and in critical policy circles. In the footsteps of this development, however, we suggest that the spoiler concept has been stretched beyond its original meaning and given raise to a number of ambiguities concerning its definition and empirical applicability. This lack of clarity in regard to some of the key aspects of the spoiler concept does not only risk undermining the usefulness of the concept itself, but also risks hampering the accumulation of valuable research on this pertinent topic. This article presents a reflection on a burgeoning research field and aims to contribute to the same by attempting to offer greater conceptual clarity in regard to a number of issues that are the core of the spoiler debate and by presenting a conceptual framework for analyzing spoilers in future research.

  • 6.
    van Baalen, Sebastian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    Mobjörk, Malin
    Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Sipri).
    Climate Change and Violent Conflict in East Africa: Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Probe the Mechanisms2018In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 547-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How does climate change affect the risk and dynamics of violent conflict? Existing research shows that climate change can increase the risk of violent conflict and significantly alter the dynamics of existing conflicts. Less is known about the exact mechanisms through which climate change affects violent conflict. In this article, we address this lacuna in light of the first sys- tematic review of both quantitative and qualitative scholarship. Through an analysis of forty-three peer-reviewed articles on climate-related environ- mental change and violent conflict in East Africa published 1989–2016, we evaluate to what extent the literature provides coherent explanations that identify relevant mechanisms, actors, and outcomes. In addition, we discuss the expected temporal and spatial distribution of violence and the confounding political factors implied in the literature. Against this back- ground, we offer a number of suggestions for how future climate-conflict research can theorize and explore mechanisms. Future research should distinguish between explanations that focus on causes and dynamics of climate-related violent conflict, theoretically motivate when and where vi- olence is most likely to occur, systematically examine the role of state policies and intervention, and explore the implications of each explanation at the microlevel. 

  • 7.
    Wallensteen, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Peace and Conflict Research.
    J. David Singer and Systems Theory in Today’s World2013In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 15, p. 260-265Article in journal (Refereed)
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