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  • 1.
    Allen, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Saldeen, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Allele-specific HLA-DRB1 amplification of forensic evidence samples with mixed genotypes1995In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 454-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major problem in analyzing forensic casework samples is the presence of genetic material from more than one individual in the material evidence. For instance, in sexual assault cases the evidence (vaginal swabs) usually contains a majority of vaginal epithelial cells and varying amounts of sperm cells from the perpetrator. Samples with mixed genotypes are also common among other biological evidence materials such as nail scrapes and mixed bloodstains. We have developed an allele-specific amplification system for the highly polymorphic HLA class II DRB1 locus that permits the detection of individual alleles in a sample with mixed genotypes, independent of the initial frequency of the alleles. Using a set of eight allele-specific amplification primers and typing the amplified fragments with sequence-specific probes, most of the 60 DRB1 alleles can be resolved. The method is highly specific and sensitive, with the potential for amplifying 15 copies of a particular allele in a background of 3 x 10(5) copies of other alleles. The method was successfully applied to three forensic cases, where the material evidence consisted of sperm stains on panties, nail scrapes and bloodstains on skin. Thus the DRB1 allele-specific amplification system can be employed for the unambiguous determination of the presence of individual alleles in materials suspected to contain mixed genotypes, even when the alleles of interest constitute only a small fraction of the total DNA

  • 2.
    Allen, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Saldeen, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    PCR-based DNA typing of saliva on stamps and envelopes1994In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 546-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In forensic cases involving mail bombs, extortion, kidnapping or threatening letters, biological evidence such as the saliva used to attach the stamp and seal the envelope could be used for genetic analysis. We have developed a highly sensitive semi-nested PCR method for the HLA-DRB1 locus; suitable for the analyses of very limited amounts of DNA. When applied to a set of stamps and envelopes with saliva from control individuals, typing results were consistent with those obtained using hairs drawn from the same individuals. No interference was found due to DNA from the fingerprints of people handling the letters. The system was applied to three forensic cases with threatening letters. The first case resulted in an exclusion of the suspect. In the second case, the suspect could not be excluded (probability of identical genotype by chance > 0.01). These results demonstrate that biological evidence in cases with threatening letters is amenable to genetic typing.

  • 3.
    Andréasson, H.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Allen, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Real-Time DNA Quantification of Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA in Forensic Analysis2002In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 402-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of molecular genetic analysis tools has made it possible to analyze most biological materialfound at the scene of a crime. Evidence materials containing DNA quantities too low to be analyzed using nuclear markers can be analyzed using the highly abundant mtDNA. However, there is a shortage of sensitive nDNA and mtDNA quantification assays. In this study, an assay for the quantification of very small amounts of DNA, based on the real-time Taq-Man assay, has been developed. This analysis will provide an estimate of the total number of nDNA copies and the total number of mtDNA molecules in a particular evidence material. The quantification is easy to perform, fast, and requires a minimum of the valuable DNA extracted from the evidence materiaL The results will aid in the evaluation of whether the specific sample is suitable for nDNA or mtDNA analysis. Furthermore, the optimal amount of DNA to be used in further analysis can be estimated ensuring that the analysis is successful and that the DNA is retained for future independent analysis. This assay has significant advantages over existing techniques because of its high sensitivity, accuracy, and the combined analysis of nDNA and mtDNA. Moreover, it has the potential to provide additional information about the presence of inhibitors in forensic samples. Subsequent mitochondrial and nuclear analysis of quantified samples illustrated the potential to predict the number of DNA copies required for a successful analysis in a certain typing assay.

  • 4.
    Andréasson, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Asp, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Alderborn, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy.
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Allen, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Mitochondrial sequence analysis for forensic identification using Pyrosequencing technology2002In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 124-6, 128, 130-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent years, requests for mtDNA analysis in the field of forensic medicine have notably increased, and the results of such analyses have proved to be very useful in forensic cases where nuclear DNA analysis cannot be performed. Traditionally, mtDNA has been analyzed by DNA sequencing of the two hypervariable regions, HVI and HVII, in the D-loop. DNA sequence analysis using the conventional Sanger sequencing is very robust but time consuming and labor intensive. By contrast, mtDNA analysis based on the pyrosequencing technology provides fast and accurate results from the human mtDNA present in many types of evidence materials in forensic casework. The assay has been developed to determine polymorphic sites in the mitochondrial D-loop as well as the coding region to further increase the discrimination power of mtDNA analysis. The pyrosequencing technology for analysis of mtDNA polymorphisms has been tested with regard to sensitivity, reproducibility, and success rate when applied to control samples and actual casework materials. The results show that the method is very accurate and sensitive; the results are easily interpreted and provide a high success rate on casework samples. The panel of pyrosequencing reactions for the mtDNA polymorphisms were chosen to result in an optimal discrimination power in relation to the number of bases determined.

  • 5. Beisvåg, Vidar
    et al.
    Kauffmann, Audrey
    Malone, James
    Foy, Carole
    Salit, Marc
    Schimmel, Heinz
    Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Landegren, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular tools. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Parkinson, Helen
    Huber, Wolfgang
    Brazma, Alvis
    Sandvik, Arne K.
    Kuiper, Martin
    Contributions of the EMERALD project to assessing and improving microarray data quality2011In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 27-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While minimum information about a microarray experiment (MIAME) standards have helped to increase the value of the microarray data deposited into public databases like ArrayExpress and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), limited means have been available to assess the quality of this data or to identify the procedures used to normalize and transform raw data. The EMERALD FP6 Coordination Action was designed to deliver approaches to assess and enhance the overall quality of microarray data and to disseminate these approaches to the microarray community through an extensive series of workshops, tutorials, and symposia. Tools were developed for assessing data quality and used to demonstrate how the removal of poor-quality data could improve the power of statistical analyses and facilitate analysis of multiple joint microarray data sets. These quality metrics tools have been disseminated through publications and through the software package arrayQualityMetrics. Within the framework provided by the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations, ontology was developed to describe data transformations, and software ontology was developed for gene expression analysis software. In addition, the consortium has advocated for the development and use of external reference standards in microarray hybridizations and created the Molecular Methods (MolMeth) database, which provides a central source for methods and protocols focusing on microarray-based technologies.

  • 6.
    Darmanis, Spyros
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Kähler, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Spångberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Landegren, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Schallmeiner, Edith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Self-assembly of proximity probes for flexible and modular proximity ligation assays2007In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 443-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proximity ligation assay (PLA) is a recently developed strategy for protein analysis in which antibody-based detection of a target protein via a DNA ligation reaction of oligonucleotides linked to the antibodies results in the formation of an amplifiable DNA strand suitable for analysis. Here we describe a faster and more cost-effective strategy to construct the antibody-based proximity ligation probes used in PLA that is based on the noncovalent interaction of biotinylated oligonucleotides with streptavidin followed by the interaction of this complex with biotinylated antibodies.

  • 7. Gidlöf, Olof
    et al.
    Burvall, Sofia
    Edvinsson, Lars
    Montelius, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Allen, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Molin, Magnus
    Complete discrimination of six individuals based on high-resolution melting of hypervariable regions I and II of the mitochondrial genome2009In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 671-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in forensic samples is routinely carried out by direct sequencing of hypervariable regions within the non-coding displacement loop. Although the accuracy and sensitivity of this method cannot be questioned, it is both time-consuming and labor intensive. Finding a way to rapidly pre-screen forensic samples-prior to sequencing, to reduce the number of samples that need to be sequenced-would greatly benefit forensic laboratories. Herein, we describe an assay for discrimination of DNA from different individuals based on high-resolution melting analysis of the two hypervariable regions HVI and HVII of the mitochondrial genome. By clearly distinguishing the DNA melting curves of six different individuals, we show that this assay has the potential to function as a rapid and inexpensive pre-screening method for forensic samples prior to DNA sequencing.

  • 8. Hanke, J
    et al.
    Sanchez, DO
    Henriksson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Åslund, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Pettersson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Frasch, ACC
    Hoheisel, JD
    Mapping the Trypanosoma cruzi genome: Analyses of representative cosmid libraries1996In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 686-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to generate contiguous cosmid coverage of the genome of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi for large-scale sequence analysis, a cosmid library of 36864 individual, primary clones was generated. Total genomic DNA of the reference strain CL Brener was fragmented both by partial digestion with MboI and by physical shearing. For cloning, a modified cosmid vector was used that simplifies analyses such as restriction mapping. The library's representation is about 25 genome equivalents, assuming a size of 55 Mb per haploid genome. No chimerism of inserts in the clones could be detected. The colinearity between cosmid inserts and genomic DNA was verified. Also, hybridizations to the gel-separated karyotype of the organism were carried out as a quality check. Gridded onto two nylon filters, the library was analyzed with a variety of probes. Apart from being used for combined physical and transcriptional mapping of the genome, library filters and clones are also available to interested parties.

  • 9. Ihalainen, J
    et al.
    Siitari, H
    Laine, S
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Palotie, A
    Towards automatic detection of point mutations: use of scintillating microplates in solid-phase minisequencing1994In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 938-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simplification of molecular genetic techniques is one of the main features of large-scale clinical applications of mutation analysis. The solid-phase minisequencing method, which is based on single-nucleotide primer extension by a DNA polymerase on a solid support, is an easy way of detecting point mutations of previously known locations. Here the procedure was further simplified by the use of microplates made of scintillating plastics, a microplate format scintillation counter and an automatic microplate washer. DNA samples from patients with either a hereditary aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA) gene point mutation or an acquired N-ras gene mutation were analyzed by three different minisequencing detection procedures utilizing tritiated nucleotides. The new counting method with scintillating plates was compared to traditional liquid scintillation counting in scintillation vials or to another microplate format procedure, which requires addition of scintillation liquid. In all three methods, normal individuals, heterozygous carriers of the AGA mutation and homozygous patients could be unequivocally discriminated. The N-ras mutation in leukemic blasts could also be detected with high resolution. The coefficients of variation and reproducibility of the scintillating microplate method were almost identical to those of the traditional liquid scintillation assay, which was used as a reference method. The technical innovations adopted here for performing minisequencing assays reduce significantly the labor required without affecting the quality of the results.

  • 10.
    Jarvius, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Landegren, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    DNA Skyline: fonts to facilitate visual inspection of nucleic acid sequences2006In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 740-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Täpp, Ida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Malmberg, Lovisa
    Rennel, Emma
    Majstin, Wik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Homogeneous scoring of single nucleotide polymorphisms: The 5’-nuclease ”TaqMan” assay versus Molecular beacon probes2000In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 732-738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Homogeneous assays based on real-time fluorescence monitoring during PCR are relevant alternatives for large-scale genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We compared the performance of the homogeneous TaqMan 5'-nuclease assay and the Molecular Beacon assay using three SNPs in the human estrogen receptor gene as targets. When analyzing a panel of 90 DNA samples, both assays yielded a comparable power of discrimination between the genotypes of a C-to-T transition in codon 10 and a G-to-A transition in codon 594 of the estrogen receptor gene. The Molecular Beacon probes distinguished better than the TaqMan probes between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes of a C-to-G transversion in codon 325. The sensitivity of detecting one allele, present as a minority in a mixed sample, varied between the SNPs and was similar for both assays. With the Molecular Beacon assay, the measured signal ratios were proportional to the amount of the minor allele over a wider range than with the TaqMan assay at all three SNPs.

  • 12.
    Vennström, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Bysell, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Björkelund, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Lundqvist, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Andersson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Real-time viability assay based on 51Cr retention in adherent cells2008In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 237-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chromium (51Cr) release assay has been widely used for viability measurements, even though it has major disadvantages such as high manual workload and poor time resolution. By the use of LigandTracer 51Cr release viability measurements on adherent cells can be significantly simplified and improved. LigandTracer enables a time-resolved detection of 5SCr in target cells, with the result that the effect of toxic material is updated continuously throughout the experiment. Here we explain the principle behind this novel real-time viability assay and show viability curves for known toxic compounds on A431 and U343MGaCl2:6 cell lines.

  • 13.
    Xia, Hongyan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gravelsina, Sabine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine. Riga Stradins Univ, August Kirchenstein Inst Microbiol & Virol, Riga, Latvia..
    Öhrmalm, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Ottoson, Jakob
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Natl Food Adm Toxicol Lab, Dept Risk & Benefit Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Development of single-tube nested real-time PCR assays with long internally quenched probes for detection of norovirus genogroup II2016In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high sequence variation of RNA viruses necessitates use of degenerate primers and probes or multiple primers and probes in molecular diagnostic assays. We showed previously that PCR amplification in two rounds, first with long target-specific primers and then with short generic primers, followed by detection using long probes, can tolerate sequence variation. Here we demonstrate that long primers and probes of up to 56 nucleotides can also be applied in real-time PCR for the detection of norovirus genogroup II with improved sensitivity. Probe design (method of incorporating quenchers, use of Zen internal quencher or traditional quenchers) greatly affects the sensitivity of the real-time PCR assays.

1 - 13 of 13
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