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  • 1.
    Conrady, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sjöblom, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Larsson, Conny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Impact of snow on sound propagating from wind turbines2018In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 1282-1295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of snow on sound propagating from a wind farm in northern Sweden has been investigated. Simultaneous acoustic and meteorological measurements, combined with daily snow observations, have been analysed for the snow season in 2013 to 2014. Such measurements are crucial since significant knowledge gaps exist, especially for conditions in cold climates, in the implementation of atmospheric boundary layer complexity in sound propagation models. The effect of snow on sound propagation is shown to be dependent on the snow quality. Moreover, snow on trees (upplega) also has an influence on sound propagation. Compared with conditions without snow on trees, the average sound level is approximately 2 dBA lower. The effect is more distinct for higher frequencies compared with lower frequencies.

  • 2.
    Ivanell, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Sørensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Technical University of Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Robert
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Henningson, D.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Analysis of Numerically Generated Wake Structures2009In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations of the Navier–Stokes equations are performed to achieve a better understanding of the behaviour of wakes generated by wind turbines. The simulations are performed by combining the in-house developed computer code EllipSys3D with the actuator-line methodology. In the actuator-line method, the blades are represented by lines along which body forces representing the loading are introduced. The body forces are determined by computing local angles of attack and using tabulated aerofoil coefficients. The advantage of using the actuator-line technique is that it is not needed to resolve blade boundary layers and instead the computational resources are devoted to simulating the dynamics of the flow structures. In the present study, approximately 5 million mesh points are used to resolve the wake structure in a 120-degree domain behind the turbine. The results from the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are evaluated and the downstream evolution of the velocity field is depicted. Special interest is given to the structure and position of the tip vortices. Further, the circulation from the wake flow field is computed and compared to the distribution of circulation on the blades.

  • 3. Medici, D.
    et al.
    Ivanell, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Dahlberg, J-Å.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency .
    Alfredsson, P.H.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    The upstream flow of a wind turbine: blockage effect2011In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow upstream a wind turbine is studied in order to investigate blockage effects. We use rotating wind turbine models in a wind tunnel, where velocity measurements have been made both with hot-wire anemometry up to approximately 4.5 diameters (D) upstream the turbine, as well as laser particle image velocimetry measurements close to the turbine rotor. Also, numerical simulations have been carried out by means of a finite volume code. The measurements show, among other things, that the flow is affected more than 3D upstream the rotor plane.

  • 4.
    Mendoza, Victor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bachant, Peter
    WindESCo Inc, Boston, MA USA.
    Ferreira, Carlos
    Delft Univ Technol, Wind Energy Res Inst, TU Delft, Delft, Netherlands.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Near-Wake Flow Simulation of a Vertical Axis Turbine Using an Actuator Line Model2019In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 171-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the near‐wake generated for a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) was simulated using an actuator line model (ALM) in order to validate and evaluate its accuracy. The sensitivity of the model to the variation of the spatial and temporal discretization was studied and showed a bigger response to the variation in the mesh size as compared with the temporal discretization. The large eddy simulation (LES) approach was used to predict the turbulence effects. The performance of Smagorinsky, dynamic k‐equation, and dynamic Lagrangian turbulence models was tested, showing very little relevant differences between them. Generally, predicted results agree well with experimental data for velocity and vorticity fields in representative sections. The presented ALM was able to characterize the main phenomena involved in the flow pattern using a relatively low computational cost without stability concerns, identified the general wake structure (qualitatively and quantitatively), and the contribution from the blade tips and motion on it. Additionally, the effects of the tower and struts were investigated with respect to the overall structure of the wake, showing no significant modification. Similarities and discrepancies between numerical and experimental results are discussed. The obtained results from the various simulations carried out here can be used as a practical reference guideline for choosing parameters in VAWTs simulations using the ALM.

  • 5.
    Mendoza, Victor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Chaudhari, Ashvinkumar
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Sch Engn Sci, CEID, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Performance and wake comparison of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines under varying surface roughness conditions2019In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 458-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical study of both a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) with similar size and power rating is presented. These large scale turbines have been tested when operating stand-alone at their optimal tip speed ratio (TSR) within a neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The impact of three different surface roughness lengths on the turbine performance is studied for the both turbines. The turbines performance, the response to the variation in the surface roughness of terrain, and the most relevant phenomena involved on the resulting wake were investigated. The main goal was to evaluate the differences and similarities of these two different types of turbine when they operate under the same atmospheric flow conditions. An actuator line model (ALM) was used together with the large eddy simulation (LES) approach for predicting wake effects, and it was implemented using the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) library OpenFOAM to solve the governing equations and to compute the resulting flow fields. This model was first validated using wind tunnel measurements of power coefficients and wake of interacting HAWTs, and then employed to study the wake structure of both full scale turbines. A preliminary study test comparing the forces on a VAWT blades against measurements was also investigated. These obtained results showed a better performance and shorter wake (faster recovery) for an HAWT compared with a VAWT for the same atmospheric conditions.

  • 6.
    Mendoza, Victor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Improving farm efficiency of interacting vertical‐axis wind turbines through wake deflection using pitched struts2019In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 538-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a numerical study of the obtained performance and the resulting flow field between two interacting large scale vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs), under the influence of a deflected wake through the struts pitching of the upwind turbine. The configuration consists of two VAWTs aligned in the direction of the incoming flow in which a wide range of fixed struts pitching angles in the upwind turbine have been investigated. The main goal is to evaluate the influence of the wake deflection on the turbines performance while they are operating at their optimal tip speed ratio (TSR), and to reproduce the most relevant phenomena involved in the flow pattern of the interacting wake. Arrangements with cross-stream offsets have also been tested for quantifying the contribution of this modification into the overall performance. For this purpose, an actuator line model (ALM) has been implemented using the open-source CFD library OpenFOAM in order to solve the governing equations and to calculate the resulting flow. The Large eddy simulation (LES) approach is considered to reproduce the turbulence flow effects. A preliminary study to identify the optimal TSR of the interacting downwind turbine has been investigated.

  • 7.
    Möllerström, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Halmstad Univ, Dept Construct & Energy Engn, POB 823, SE-30118 Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    Halmstad Univ, Dept Construct & Energy Engn, POB 823, SE-30118 Halmstad, Sweden.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Eriksson, Sandra S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hylander, Jonny
    Halmstad Univ, Dept Construct & Energy Engn, POB 823, SE-30118 Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Turbulence influence on wind energy extraction for a medium size vertical axis wind turbine2016In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1963-1973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between power performance and turbulence intensity for a VAWT H-rotor is studied using logged data from a 14 month (discontinuous) period with the H-rotor operating in wind speeds up to 9 m/s. The turbine, designed originally fora nominal power of 200 kW, operated during this period mostly in a restricted mode due to mechanical concerns, reachingpower levels up to about 80 kW. Two different approaches are used for presenting results, one that can be compared topower curves consistent with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard and one that allows isolatingthe effect of turbulence from the cubic variation of power with wind speed. Accounting for this effect, the turbine stillshows slightly higher efficiency at higher turbulence, proposing that the H-rotor is well suited for wind sites with turbulentwinds. The operational data are also used to create a Cp(λ) curve, showing slightly lower Cp compared with a curvesimulated by a double multiple streamtube model.

  • 8.
    Nilsson, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Ivanell, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Mikkelsen, Robert
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Hansen, K.S.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Breton, Simon-Philippe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Henningson, D.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Large-eddy simulations of the Lillgrund wind farm2015In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 449-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The power production of the Lillgrund wind farm is determined numerically using large-eddy simulations and compared with measurements. In order to simulate realistic atmospheric conditions, pre-generated turbulence and wind shear are imposed in the computational domain. The atmospheric conditions are determined from data extracted from a met mast, which was erected prior to the establishment of the farm. In order to allocate most of the computational power to the simulations of the wake flow, the turbines are modeled using an actuator disc method where the discs are imposed in the computational domain as body forces which for every time step are calculated from tabulated airfoil data. A study of the influence of imposed upstream ambient turbulence is performed and shows that higher levels of turbulence results in slightly increased total power production and that it is of great importance to include ambient turbulence in the simulations. By introducing ambient atmospheric turbulence, the simulations compare very well with measurements at the studied inflow angles. A final study aiming at increasing the farm production by curtailing the power output of the front row turbines and thus letting more kinetic energy pass downstream is performed. The results, however, show that manipulating only the front row turbines has no positive effect on the farm production, and therefore, more complex curtailment strategies are needed to be tested.

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Shen, Wen Z.
    Sorensen, Jens N.
    Breton, Simon-Philippe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Ivanell, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Validation of the actuator line method using near wake measurements of the MEXICO rotor2015In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 499-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present work is to validate the capability of the actuator line method to compute vortex structures in the near wake behind the MEXICO experimental wind turbine rotor. In the MEXICO project/MexNext Annex, particle image velocimetry measurements have made it possible to determine the exact position of each tip vortex core in a plane parallel to the flow direction. Determining center positions of the vortex cores makes it possible to determine the trajectory of the tip vortices, and thus the wake expansion in space, for the analyzed tip speed ratios. The corresponding cases, in terms of tip speed ratios, have been simulated by large-eddy simulations using a Navier-Stokes code combined with the actuator line method. The flow field is analyzed in terms of wake expansion, vortex core radius, circulation and axial and radial velocity distributions. Generally, the actuator line method generates significantly larger vortex cores than in the experimental cases, but predicts the expansion, the circulation and the velocity distributions with satisfying results. Additionally, the simulation and experimental data are used to test three different techniques to compute the average axial induction in the wake flow. These techniques are based on the helical pitch of the tip vortex structure, 1D momentum theory and wake expansion combined with mass conservation. The results from the different methods vary quite much, especially at high values of . Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Karl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Shen, Wen Zhong
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Sørensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Technical University of Denmark.
    Breton, Simon-Philippe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Ivanell, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Validation of the actuator line method using near wake measurements of the MEXICO rotor.2014In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Olauson, Jon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bergkvist, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rydén, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Simulating intra-hourly wind power fluctuations on a power system level2017In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 973-985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In wind integration studies, sub-hourly, load synchronous wind data are often preferable. These datasets can be generatedby a hybrid approach, combining hourly measurements or output from meteorological models with a stochastic simulationof the high-frequency fluctuations. This paper presents a method for simulating aggregated intra-hourly wind power fluc-tuations for a power system, taking into account the time-varying volatility seen in measurements. Some key elements inthe modelling were transformations to stationarity, the use of frequency domain techniques including a search for appropri-ate phase angles and an adjustment of the resulting time series in order to get correct hourly means. Generation data fromDenmark and Germany with 5 and 15 min temporal resolution were used for training models. It is shown that the distribu-tion and non-stationarity of simulated deviations from hourly means closely follow those of measurements. Power spectraldensities and step change distributions agree well. Of particular importance is that the results are good also when the train-ing and objective power systems are not the same. The computational cost is low in comparison with other approaches forgenerating high-frequency data.

  • 12.
    Olauson, Jon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Edström, Per
    Sweco.
    Rydén, Jesper
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Wind turbine performance decline in Sweden2017In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 2049-2053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that Swedish wind turbines constructed before 2007 lose 0.15 capacity factor percentage points per year, corresponding to a lifetime energy loss of 6%. A gradual increase of downtime accounts for around one third of the deterioration and worsened efficiency for the remaining. Although the performance loss in Sweden is considerably smaller than previously reported in the UK, it is statistically significant and calls for a revision of the industry practice for wind energy calculations. The study is based on two partly overlapping datasets, comprising 1,100 monthly and 1,300 hourly time series spanning 5–25 years each.

  • 13.
    Ottermo, Fredric
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    An upper size of vertical axis wind turbines2014In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 1623-1629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scaling behaviour of a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine is considered. A scaling scheme is described that, in the presence of a wind shear profile, aims at leaving the material stresses of the scaled construction unchanged. On the basis of a recent 200 kW three-bladed H-rotor design, a structural upper size of the turbine is proposed, this size being the scale at which the gravitational force starts to become important. As gravity has a much worse scaling behaviour than the aerodynamic and centrifugal forces, the construction work will become increasingly more difficult above this scale. The upper size is estimated to be around 30 MW.

  • 14.
    Sarmast, Sasan
    et al.
    Tech Univ Denmark, DTU Wind Energy, Bldg 101A, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.;Royal Inst Technol, KTH Mech, Linne FLOW Ctr, Swedish E Sci Res Ctr SeRC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Segalini, Antonio
    Royal Inst Technol, KTH Mech, Linne FLOW Ctr, Swedish E Sci Res Ctr SeRC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mikkelsen, Robert F.
    Tech Univ Denmark, DTU Wind Energy, Bldg 101A, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Ivanell, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Royal Inst Technol, KTH Mech, Linne FLOW Ctr, Swedish E Sci Res Ctr SeRC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Comparison of the near-wake between actuator-line simulations and a simplified vortex model of a horizontal-axis wind turbine2016In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 471-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow around an isolated horizontal-axis wind turbine is estimated by means of a new vortex code based on the Biot-Savart law with constant circulation along the blades. The results have been compared with numerical simulations where the wind turbine blades are replaced with actuator lines. Two different wind turbines have been simulated: one with constant circulation along the blades, to replicate the vortex method approximations, and the other with a realistic circulation distribution, to compare the outcomes of the vortex model with real operative wind-turbine conditions (Tjaereborg wind turbine). The vortex model matched the numerical simulation of the turbine with constant blade circulation in terms of the near-wake structure and local forces along the blade. The results from the Tjaereborg turbine case showed some discrepancies between the two approaches, but overall, the agreement is qualitatively good, validating the analytical method for more general conditions. The present results show that a simple vortex code is able to provide an estimation of the flow around the wind turbine similar to the actuator-line approach but with a negligible computational effort.

  • 15.
    Svensson, Nina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bergström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sahlée, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Modification of the Baltic Sea wind field by land-sea interaction2019In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 764-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wind and turbulence fields over a small, high‐latitude sea are investigated. These fields are highly influenced by the proximity to the coast, which is never more than 200 km away. Simulations with the WRF model over the Baltic Sea are compared with a simplified, stationary wind model driven by the synoptic forcing. The difference between the models is therefore representative of the mesoscale influence. The results show that the largest wind‐field modifications compared with a neutral atmosphere occur during spring and summer, with a mean monthly increase of up to approximately 1 ms−1 at typical hub heights and upper rotor area (120‐170 m height) in the WRF model. The main reason for this is large‐scale low‐level jets caused by the land‐sea temperature differences, likely increasing in strength due to inertial oscillations. These kind of events can be persistent for approximately 12 hours and cover almost the entire basin, causing wind speed and wind shear to increase considerably. The strongest effect is around 2000 to 2300 local time. Sea breezes and coastal low‐level jets are of less importance, but while sea breezes are mostly detected near the coastline, other types of coastal jets can extend large distances off the coast. During autumn and winter, there are fewer low‐level jet occurrences, but the wind profile cannot be explained by the classical theory of the one‐dimensional model. This indicates that the coastal environment is complex and may be affected by advection from land surfaces to a large degree even when unstable conditions dominate.

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