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  • 1. Andersson, LP
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Initial etching in an RF butane plasma1978In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 28, p. 449-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, LP
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Evwaraye, AO
    Electrical characteristics of sputtering - induced defects in n-type silicon1977In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 28, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Högström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Urbonaite, Sigita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Furlan, Andrej
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Deposition and characterization of magnetron sputtered amorphous Cr-C films2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 9, p. 1408-1416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films in the Cr-C system with carbon content of 25-85 at.% have been deposited using non-reactive DC magnetron sputtering from elemental targets. Analyses with X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirm that the films are completely amorphous. Also, annealing experiment show that the films had not crystallized at 500 degrees C. Furthermore, X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy show that the films consist of two phases, an amorphous CrCx phase and an amorphous carbon (a-C) phase. The presence of two amorphous phases is also supported by the electrochemical analysis, which shows that oxidation of both chromium and carbon contributes to the total current in the passive region. The relative amounts of these amorphous phases influence the film properties. Typically, lower carbon content with less a-C phase leads to harder films with higher Young's modulus and lower resistivity. The results also show that both films have lower currents in the passive region compared to the uncoated 316L steel substrate. Finally, our results were compared with literature data from both reactively and non-reactively sputtered chromium carbide films. The comparison reveals that non-reactive sputtering tend to favour the formation of amorphous films and also influence e.g. the sp(2)/sp(3) ratio of the a-C phase. 

  • 4.
    Barankova, Hana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. BB Plasma Design AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bardos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. BB Plasma Design AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Silins, Kaspars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bardos, A.
    BB Plasma Design AB.
    Reactive Deposition of TiN Films by Magnetron with Magnetized Hollow Cathode Enhanced Target2018In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 152, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetized Hollow Cathode Activated Magnetron in which the target is coupled with the hollow cathode magnetized by the magnetic field of the magnetron was tested in the reactive process of TiN deposition. Increased deposition rate compared to the Ti metal deposition rate was confirmed. The depositions as well as optical measurements were performed at several pressures in the reactor. The results of the TiN reactive deposition are presented and discussed, including the TiN deposition in pure nitrogen.

  • 5.
    Bardos, Ladislav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Barankova, Hana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Plasma processes at atmospheric and low pressures2008In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 522-527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few decades there has been an intense development in non-equilibrium ("cold") plasma surface processing systems at atmospheric pressure. This new trend is stimulated mainly to decrease equipment costs by avoiding expensive pumping systems of conventional low-pressure plasma devices. This work summarizes physical and practical limitations where atmospheric plasmas cannot compete with low-pressure plasma and vice-versa. As the processing conditions for atmospheric plasma are rather different from reduced pressure systems in many cases these conditions may increase final equipment costs substantially. In this work we briefly review the main principles, advantages and drawbacks of atmospheric plasma for a better understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the atmospheric plasma processing technology compared with conventional low-pressure plasma processing. 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6. Barklund, AM
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Katardjiev, IV
    Nender, C
    Carlsson, P
    Ion-assisted selective deposition of aluminium for via-hole interconnections1993In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 44, no 3-4, p. 197-201Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Barklund, AM
    et al.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Bardos, L
    Patterning of silicon wafers using the plasma jet dry etching technique1990In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 41, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Baránková, Hana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bárdos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Effect of the electrode material on the atmospheric plasma conversion of NO in air mixtures2010In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 84, no 12, p. 1385-1388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is widely used for conversion of hazardous gases. Results from different laboratories confirm importance of energy non-equilibrium in the plasma where dominant energy carriers are electrons and a dominant chemistry is based on formation and interactions of radicals. Because of rather high electric fields required for generation and sustaining of air discharges at atmospheric pressure many plasma systems were found rather to create a lot of NO instead of removing it. A widely supported way to clean NO and NO2 from air mixtures is a plasma assisted catalytic reduction where the cold plasma is combined with the solid-state catalyst. In an ideal case the plasma acts as an oxidation catalyst where an atomic oxygen from air oxidizes NO to NO2 and the solid-state catalysts are then capable to convert all NO2 to N-2 and O-2. In most cases it is also necessary to involve auxiliary gases, e.g., propylene, to make the process efficient enough. This work introduces an original cold plasma system based on atmospheric hollow cathodes generated by a nanopulse DC power with controllable voltage and pulse frequency. The system was optimized in both the geometry and the applied power. However, the material of electrodes was found to be the most important factor affecting the plasma performance and consequently the chemical kinetics. A 100% conversion of NO to NO2 was achieved with a graphite electrode, without using any auxiliary gas and without catalyst. Plasma performance and conversion efficiency are compared for several electrode materials.

  • 9.
    Baránková, Hana
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bárdos, Ladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Optimization and performance of atmospheric Fused Hollow Cathodes2013In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 87, p. 128-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental results on the atmospheric hollow cathode plasma generation and performance, using a special configuration with tunable wall separations, are presented. The influence of the gas and type of the power used for generation on the optimum size of the cathode slit is investigated. The experimental results are in agreement with the hollow cathode model. The plasma source/plasma reactor design is of utmost importance for control of plasma-chemical kinetics. An example of the atmospheric hollow cathode plasma application for the NOx conversion is given. The energy consumption and plasma characteristics are discussed.

  • 10.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Andersson, LP
    Norström, H
    Grusell, E
    Substrate surface damages by RF sputtering1977In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 189-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Gelin, B
    Svärdström, Anders
    Babulanam, SM
    Influence of substrate material on the initial thin film growth during ion deposition from a glow discharge1984In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 34, no 10/11, p. 969-973Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Berg, Sören
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Nender, C
    Gelin, B
    Ion assisted selective deposition of thin films1988In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 38, no 8-10, p. 621-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Berg, Sören
    Östling, M
    Petersson, S
    Stoichiometry determination of reactively sputtered titanium-silicide1982In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 32, no 10/11, p. 665-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Blom, Hans-Olof
    et al.
    Norström, H
    Nender, C
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    DC-etching of polysilicon with fluorine chemistry1988In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 38, no 8-10, p. 813-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Carter, G
    et al.
    Nobes, MJ
    Katardjiev, Ilia V
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    The theory of ion beam polishing and machining1993In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 44, no 3-4, p. 303-309Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    CHAKAROV, DV
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    KASEMO, B
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    WATER-ADSORPTION ON GRAPHITE(0001)1995In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 46, no 8-10, p. 1109-1112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wafer adsorption on the clean graphite (0001) surface has been studied by high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). At 85 K H2O adsorbs non-dissociatively forming hydrogen-bonded aggregates. The structure and the growth mode of water clusters depend on the substrate temperature and the coverage. At all coverages, above a few per cent of a monolayer (ML), the desorption is characterized by zero-order kinetics, while the HREEL spectra reveal a threshold coverage approximately 1 ML when the average co-ordination of the H2O molecules changes. Isothermal measurements of the desorption rate and HREELS measurements at elevated temperatures suggest an irreversible phase transition from amorphous to crystalline ice at approximately 135 K.

  • 17. Eriksson, SÅ
    et al.
    Westman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    A simple/universal rf-generator module system for use in plasma processing1985In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 539-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Fondell, Mattis
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Gorgoi, M.
    von Fieandt, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Lindblad, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Phase control of iron oxides grown in nano-scale structures on FTO and Si(100): Hematite, maghemite and magnetite2015In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 117, p. 85-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that iron oxide in the form of hematite, suitable as absorption material in photo-electrochemical cells, can be produced by pulsed chemical vapour deposition. By choosing carbon monoxide or nitrogen as carrier gases in the process the phase and granularity of the grown material can be controlled. The choice of carrier gas affect the decomposition rate of iron pentacarbonyl used as iron precursor. The iron oxide phase is also dependent on the chosen substrate, here fluorine doped tin oxide and crystalline silicon have been used. Regardless of the substrate nitrogen yields hematite, whereas carbon monoxide gives, magnetite on Si and maghemite on fluorine doped tin oxide. A combination of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used for characterization of the crystalline phase and chemical composition in the films. Scanning electron microscopy were used to visualise the deposited films' nano-structure.

  • 19. Gelin, B
    et al.
    Barklund, AM
    Nender, C
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Patterning with the use of ion assisted selective deposition1990In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 41, no 4-6, p. 1074-1076-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Grusell, E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    The floating potential of a metal surface under bombardment of ions from a cold cathode grid1978In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 28, p. 329-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Hafiz, M
    et al.
    Mgbenu, E
    Tove, PA
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Norde, Herman
    Petersson, CS
    Investigations of metal contacts to amorphous evaporated Ge films1977In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 193-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Yantchev, Ventislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Recent developments in thin film electro-acoustic technology for biosensor applications2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 5, p. 520-531Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article reviews recent developments of the thin film electro-acoustic (TEA) technology in view of the design and fabrication of micro-acoustic transducers for biosensor applications. The use of the TEA technology leads to transducer miniaturisation, compatibility with the IC technology, possibility for multiplexing, decrease in fabrication cost, reduction of consumables, mass fabrication, etc. Focus lies on the design, fabrication and evaluation of the transducer performance in liquid media as judged by electro-acoustic behaviour and ultimately by mass and viscosity resolution. The analysis draws the conclusion that the thickness excited quasi-shear thin film bulk acoustic resonator technology is far ahead in its development with regard to other alternative approaches in terms of both performance and level of maturity. Consequently, the main aspects of the quasi-shear thin film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) technology from film synthesis and fabrication through to performance evaluation and demonstration are reviewed in detail.

  • 23.
    Kubart, Tomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Jensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Nyberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Liljeholm, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Depla, D.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Influence of the target composition on reactively sputtered titanium oxide films2009In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 83, no 10, p. 1295-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium dioxide thin films have many interesting properties and are used in various applications. High refractive index of titania makes it attractive for the glass coating industry, where it is used in low-emissivity and antireflective coatings. Magnetron sputtering is the most common deposition technique for large area coatings and a high deposition rate is therefore of obvious interest. It has been shown previously that high rate can be achieved using substoichiometric targets. This work deals with reactive magnetron sputtering of titanium oxide films from TiOx targets with different oxygen contents. The deposition rate and hysteresis behaviour are disclosed. Films were prepared at various oxygen flows and all films were deposited onto glass and silicon substrates with no external heating. The elemental compositions and structures of deposited films were evaluated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis and X-ray diffraction. All deposited films were X-ray amorphous. No significant effect of the target composition on the optical properties of coatings was observed. However, the residual atmosphere is shown to contribute to the oxidation of growing films.

  • 24.
    Lehmann, I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics.
    Nordhage, Ö.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics.
    Friden, C. -J.
    Uppsala University, The Svedberg Laboratory.
    Norman, G.
    Uppsala University, The Svedberg Laboratory.
    Ekström, C.
    Uppsala University, The Svedberg Laboratory.
    Johansson, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics.
    Wiedner, Ulrich
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics.
    Vacuum predictions and measurements for an internal Pellet Target at a storage ring2008In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 82, no 6, p. 645-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements with low Z targets at internal experiments typically imply a gas load which deteriorates the vacuum of a storage ring. Future experiments need reliable estimates for the expected vacuum conditions in order to design 4π detectors closely surrounding the interaction area.

    We present a method for the calculation of the resulting vacuum of such a complex system using a Pellet Target. In order to test the method, a vacuum system with diagnostic tools has been set-up and a Pellet Target was operated under realistic conditions. The results for the absolute vacuum agree within factors of two with the expected pressures.

  • 25.
    Liljeholm, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Nyberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Kubart, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Reactive sputtering of SiO2–TiO2 thin film from composite Six/TiO2 targets2010In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 317-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coatings of SiO2–TiO2 films are frequently used in a number of optical thin film applications. In this work we present results from depositing films with variable Si/Ti ratios prepared by reactive sputtering. The different Si/Ti ratios were obtained by varying the target composition of composite single targets. Compared to co-sputtering this facilitates process control and composition uniformity of the films. Varying the oxygen supply during sputter deposition can result in films ranging from metallic/substoichiometric to stoichiometric oxides. Transmittance spectra of the different films are presented and the optical constants are determined from these spectra. Furthermore, the deposition process, films structure and composition of the films are discussed. The study shows that by choosing the right composition and working in the proper oxygen flow range, it is possible to tune the refractive index.

  • 26.
    Liljeholm, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Electrical characterization of wurtzite (Al,B)N thin films2011In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 466-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wurtzite aluminum nitride (w-AlN) thin films are of great interest for electro-acoustic applications and their material properties have in recent years been extensively studied. One way to tailor material properties is to vary the composition by adding other elements. Boron is an element that can take the place of aluminum in the crystal lattice of w-AlN. In the present study, polycrystalline w-(AI,B)N thin films were grown on p-Si(100) and Al/p-Si(100) substrates by pulsed DC reactive magnetron sputtering from a single Al/B target. MIS and MIM structures were fabricated to investigate the electrical properties of w-(AI,B)N thin films. Important dielectric thin film properties for microelectronics applications are the breakdown field, the permittivity (K) and leakage current through the film. The (AI,B)N thin film is found to have a dielectric strength of similar to 3 x 10(6) V cm(-1) and a kappa close to 12. The measured leakage current through the film is assumed to be mainly due to Frenkel-Poole emission with a trap energy at 0.71 eV below the conduction band edge.

  • 27.
    Ma, D. L.
    et al.
    Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Key Lab Adv Technol Mat, Minist Educ China, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Liu, H. Y.
    Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Key Lab Adv Technol Mat, Minist Educ China, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Deng, Q. Y.
    Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Key Lab Adv Technol Mat, Minist Educ China, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Yang, W. M.
    China Acad Engn Phys, Inst Mech Mfg Technol, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Silins, Kaspars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Huang, N.
    Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Key Lab Adv Technol Mat, Minist Educ China, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Leng, Y. X.
    Southwest Jiaotong Univ, Key Lab Adv Technol Mat, Minist Educ China, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan, Peoples R China.
    Optimal target sputtering mode for aluminum nitride thin film deposition by high power pulsed magnetron sputtering2019In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 160, p. 410-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low surface roughness, low residual stress, and(002) textured aluminum nitride(AlN) thin films are favored for applications in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. In this paper, AlN thin films were deposited by reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering(HPPMS). The effect of aluminum target sputtering mode and sputtering power on thin film residual stress, crystalline structure, surface roughness, and morphology of AlN thin films was studied. The results indicate that, with Al target sputtering mode transfer from metallic mode to transitional and compound modes, respectively, the number of Al species decrease, and ion-to-neutral ratio of Al species increase. Comparing the AIN thin film deposited in compound mode with that deposited in transitional mode, the latter exhibited lower surface roughness and residual stress. In addition, AlN thin film with (002) texture and lower residual stress is obtained by increasing sputtering power in transitional mode. For fabricating AIN film via reactive HPPMS with a particular (002) texture, low surface roughness, and residual stress, sputtering the target in the transitional mode with high sputtering power is optimal.

  • 28. Malyshev, O. B.
    et al.
    Zajec, Bojan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Haase, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Leandersson, M.
    Bender, M.
    Krämer, A.
    Kollmus, H.
    Reich-Sprenger, H.
    Ar beam induced desorption from different materials at TSL2010In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 338-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes new experiments on the heavy ion desorption yield measurements with 5 MeV/u Ar8+ and summarizes all results of experiments with 5 MeV/u Ar8+ performed at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala (Sweden). These results are important for the update and design of the FAIR facility at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt (Germany) where the required increase in beam intensity is limited by ion induced pressure instability. It was shown that lowest desorption yields can be achieved with gold coatings, whereas grazing incident loss increases the desorption yield by roughly an order of magnitude compared to perpendicular loss. The desorption yield of saturated NEG samples was measured to be higher compared to any non pumping samples. The desorption yield of copper can be lower and higher compared to stainless steel depending on cleaning procedure and sample history. Additionally the secondary electron and ion yield was measured to be a few tens of electrons and ions emitted per projectile impact in backward direction. Their influence on the desorption yield due to secondary effects was less than 5% compared to the primary desorption by the high energetic projectile.

  • 29. Mgbenu, E
    et al.
    Petersson, CS
    Tove, PA
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Surface resistance measurement as an aid in controlling the fabrication of silicides1977In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 209-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Moradi, M
    et al.
    Nender, C
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Dynamic modeling of the process control of reactive sputtering1990In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 41, no 7-9, p. 1974-1976Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Moreira, Milena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Bjurström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Katardjiev, Ilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Yantchev, Ventsislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Aluminum scandium nitride thin-film bulk acoustic resonators for wide band applications2011In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 23-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Piezoelectric c-textured Al(1-x)ScxN thin films, where the Sc relative concentration, x, varies in the range 0-0.15 have been studied in view of radio frequency (RF) electro-acoustic applications. Thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators (FBARs) employing these films were fabricated and characterized as a function of the Sc concentration for the first time. The measured electromechanical coupling is found to increase by as much as 100% in the above concentration range. The results from this work underline the potential of the c-textured Al(1-x)ScxN based FBARs for wide band RF applications.

  • 32.
    Ning, Yuping
    et al.
    Beihang Univ, Dept Phys, Ctr Condensed Matter & Mat Phys, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Wenwen
    Beihang Univ, Dept Phys, Ctr Condensed Matter & Mat Phys, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Ying
    Beihang Univ, Dept Phys, Ctr Condensed Matter & Mat Phys, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Yongxin
    Beihang Univ, Dept Phys, Ctr Condensed Matter & Mat Phys, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Yingfang
    Beihang Univ, Dept Phys, Ctr Condensed Matter & Mat Phys, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Man, Hongliang
    Beihang Univ, Dept Phys, Ctr Condensed Matter & Mat Phys, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Malik, Muhammad Imran
    Beihang Univ, Dept Phys, Ctr Condensed Matter & Mat Phys, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Cong
    Beihang Univ, Dept Phys, Ctr Condensed Matter & Mat Phys, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.;Pneumat & Thermodynam Energy Storage & Supply Bei, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Shuxi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Tomasella, Eric
    Univ Clermont Ferrand, Clermont Univ, ICCF, CNRS,UMR 6296, 24 Ave Landais, F-63171 Aubiere, France..
    Bousquet, Angelique
    Univ Clermont Ferrand, Clermont Univ, ICCF, CNRS,UMR 6296, 24 Ave Landais, F-63171 Aubiere, France..
    Effects of substrates, film thickness and temperature on thermal emittance of Mo/substrate deposited by magnetron sputtering2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 128, p. 73-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal emittance of the Mo film, as an IR-refiector in solar selective absorbing coatings, is the most important property. The effects of the substrate material, the substrate surface roughness, the film thickness and the temperature on the thermal emittance of the Mo/substrate have been investigated. A series of Mo films with increasing film thickness were deposited on two types of substrate materials (glass and stainless steel). A saturated Mo thickness of 50 nm is found to produce the lowest thermal emittance. The thermal emittance of the Mo film is reduced by decreasing the substrate surface roughness. The emittance of the optimal Mo film remains 0.05 from 25 degrees C to 400 degrees C, which can meet the optical requirements for the IR-reflector.

  • 33.
    Norde, Herman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Tove, PA
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Behaviour of amorphous Ge contacts to monocrystalline silicon1977In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 201-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Norström, H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Experimental and design information for calculating impedance matching networks for use in RF sputtering and plasma chemistry1979In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 341-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Norström, H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Langmuir probe studies of the glow discharge in an RF sputtering system at various frequencies1979In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 29, p. 443-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Norström, H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    The electrical characteristics of RF magnetron and non-magnetron planar systems1980In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 30, p. 225-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Norström, H
    et al.
    Berg, Sören
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Andersson, LP
    Fast volume determinationusing a differential capacitance manometer1977In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 99-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Nsimama, P. D.
    et al.
    Niklasson, Gunnar A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Samiji, M. E.
    Mbise, G. W.
    Wennerberg, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Plasma emission monitoring (PEM) controlled DC reactive sputtered ZnO:Al thin films2012In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 86, no 12, p. 1939-1944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High deposition rate ZnO:Al films have been produced at room temperature by reactive DC sputtering using a plasma emission monitoring (PEM) control system. We have investigated the relationship between structural, optical and electrical properties of the ZnO:Al films. Crystal structures of the films have been studied by X-ray diffraction. Optimum ZnO:Al films, with 17-40 Omega/square sheet resistance range and transmittance approaching 88% in the visible region, exhibited a hexagonal ZnO structure with preferential (002) orientation and crystallite sizes of about 27 nm. Resistive transparent films displayed a more random orientation showing peaks at (100) and (102) orientations. Dark "metallic" films were shown to consist of mainly zinc. The optimal ZnO:Al film has been determined from a figure of merit based on power losses due to absorption and series resistance in the ZnO:Al films. It is highly transparent, with low resistance, pronounced (002) peak and large crystallite size. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 39.
    Rosén, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Defining the Surface Binding Energy in Dynamic Monte Carlo Simulation for Reactive Sputtering of Compounds2006In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 80, no 9, p. 944-948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Monte Carlo simulations of reactive sputtering, it is commonly assumed that the surface binding energy (SBE) for the different phases in the target exhibits a linear behaviour in the transition between the metal mode and the compound mode. In this work we study how the transition between the two modes takes place, and more specifically attempt to experimentally identify how the SBE for the different phases behaves in the transition between the two modes. In essence, this is done by comparing XPS measurements of the aluminium 2p binding energy on samples comprising pure aluminium, stoichiometric aluminium nitride and aluminium oxide with the corresponding measurements on understoichiometric aluminium nitride samples. In this work, it is assumed that the binding energy of the core level is directly correlated to the SBE of the phase in question. That is to say, if the aluminium 2p binding energy in aluminium nitride exhibits a constant and discrete value independent of the nitrogen concentration, the SBE for the compound exhibits a constant and discrete value independent of the surface concentration of nitrogen. It was found by the XPS measurement that the aluminium 2p binding energy in aluminium nitride exhibits a constant and discrete value independent of the nitrogen concentration in the samples and it was, therefore, concluded that the SBE for the different phases exhibits constant and discrete values independent of the surface concentration of nitrogen. The discrete behaviour of the SBE was implemented in the TRIDYN program and the results from these simulations were compared with simulations in which it is assumed that the SBE of the different phases exhibits a linear behaviour in the transition between the metal mode and the compound mode.

  • 40.
    Ruess, H.
    et al.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Mat Chem, Kopernikusstr 10, D-52074 Aachen, Germany..
    Baben, M. To
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Mat Chem, Kopernikusstr 10, D-52074 Aachen, Germany.;GTT Technol, Kaiserstr 103, D-52134 Herzogenrath, Germany..
    Mraz, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Mat Chem, Kopernikusstr 10, D-52074 Aachen, Germany..
    Shang, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Mat Chem, Kopernikusstr 10, D-52074 Aachen, Germany..
    Polcik, P.
    Plansee Composite Mat GmbH, Siebenburgerstr 23, D-86963 Lechbruck, Germany..
    Kolozsvari, S.
    Plansee Composite Mat GmbH, Siebenburgerstr 23, D-86963 Lechbruck, Germany..
    Hans, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Mat Chem, Kopernikusstr 10, D-52074 Aachen, Germany..
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
    Schneider, Jochen M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Mat Chem, Kopernikusstr 10, D-52074 Aachen, Germany.
    HPPMS deposition from composite targets: Effect of two orders of magnitude target power density changes on the composition of sputtered Cr-Al-C thin films2017In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 145, p. 285-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of target power density, substrate bias potential and substrate temperature on the thin film composition was studied. A Cr-Al-C composite target was sputtered utilizing direct current (DCMS: 2.3 W/cm(2)) and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS: 373 W/cm(2)) generators. At floating potential, all Cr-Al-C thin films showed similar compositions, independently of the applied target power density. However, as substrate bias potential was increased to -400 V, aluminum deficiencies by a factor of up to 1.6 for DCMS and 4.1 for HPPMS were obtained. Based on the measured ion currents at the substrate, preferential re-sputtering of Al is suggested to cause the dramatic Al depletion. As the substrate temperature was increased to 560 degrees C, the Al concentration was reduced by a factor of up to 1.9 compared to the room temperature deposition. This additional reduction may be rationalized by thermally induced desorption being active in addition to re-sputtering. 

  • 41.
    Skupinski, Marek
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Micro Structural Technology.
    Johansson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Jarmar, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Razpet, Alenka
    Hjort, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microsystems Technology.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Jensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Carbon nanopillar array deposition on SiO2 by ion irradiation through a porous alumina template2007In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 359-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for producing ordered carbon nanopillar arrays is presented. The method is based on ion irradiation through a small anodic porous alumina membrane, resulting in carbon deposition within the centers of the pores on a gold covered SiO2/Si substrate. Samples were irradiated by 4 MeV Cl2+ ions with fluences of . The combined use of pick’n place positioning of the small porous alumina templates and ion beam irradiation is well suited for post-processing on silicon based integrated circuits. It provides fast local deposition at low temperature of high-density ordered carbon nanopillar arrays in larger silicon based systems, e.g., for field emitting or biosensors applications.

  • 42.
    Ström, Petter
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Fus Plasma Phys, Sch Elect Engn, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Petersson, Per
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Fus Plasma Phys, Sch Elect Engn, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hamberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FREIA.
    Surface oxide and roughness on test samples for the Ultra High Vacuum section of the Laser Heater for the European XFEL2018In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 149, p. 83-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser has recently started with operation for users. An approximately 3 m long ultra high vacuum laser heater section is implemented to overcome possible electron bunch instabilities. We describe the process of determining the oxide layer thickness and surface roughness on test samples of the internal surface material in the laser heater vacuum chambers using elastic recoil detection analysis and optical surface profiling. The results are compared to specified values and show that surface roughness on the samples is larger than the requested maximum, with RMS deviations from a mean plane of up to 1.76 mu m for 0.60 x 0.45 square millimeter scans. The maximum oxide layer thickness is 5.5 nm on non-electropolished surfaces assuming cuprous oxide with density 6.0 g per cubic centimeter and 4.0 nm on electropolished surfaces.

  • 43.
    Ström, Petter
    et al.
    KTH, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Kreter, A.
    Möller, S.
    Rozniatowski, K.
    Characterisation of surface layers formed on plasma-facing components in controlled fusion devices: Role of heavy ion elastic recoil detection2015In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 122, p. 260-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wall components retrieved from the TEXTOR tokamak after tracer experiments with nitrogen-15 and molybdenum hexafluoride (MoF6) injection were studied to determine deposition patterns and, by this, to conclude on material migration. Toroidal limiter tiles made of carbon fibre composites and fine grain graphite were examined using time-of-flight heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis. Molybdenum deposition patterns indicated migration based on erosion and prompt re-deposition. Nitrogen-15 was trapped together with the deposited molybdenum. Some information on the depth distribution of species in the top 400 nm layer of the limiters was obtained; however surface roughness of the samples strongly limited resolution. In the case of molybdenum, the largest concentration was found in the 100 nm outermost layer, whereas fluorine and nitrogen-15 displayed more irregular profiles. Other species, besides deuterium fuel and carbon-12, were also identified: boron-10 and boron-11 originating from boronisations, carbon-13 from earlier tracer experiments, nitrogen-14 from plasma edge cooling and metals eroded from the Inconel wall.

  • 44.
    Tove, PA
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Formation and characterization of metal-semiconductor junctions1986In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 36, no 10, p. 659-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. Tynkova, A.
    et al.
    Sidorenko, S.
    Voloshko, S.
    Rennie, Adrian R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Vasylyev, M. A.
    Interdiffusion in Au(120 nm)/Ni(70 nm) thin films at the low-temperature annealing in the different atmospheres2013In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 87, p. 69-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of the interdiffusion processes and the surface morphology changes in thin films of Au(120 nm)/Ni(70 nm) during annealing at 200 degrees C for 20 min in vacuum with different residual atmosphere pressures of 10(-3) and 10(-6) Pa and in an environment of hydrogen at a pressure of 5 x 10(2) Pa have been studied. Secondary ion mass spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used. Surface microdefects that form in the films are related to the local oxidation of nickel and to the stress that arises due to interdiffusion. Defect formation and reactions at the surface are found to be controlling factors in the transport of nickel to the surface and in the observed morphology.

  • 46.
    Ziemann, Volker
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics.
    Vakdyn, a program to calculate time dependent pressure profiles2007In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 81, no 7, p. 866-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a program that calculates time dependent pressure profiles in conductance limited vacuum systems where the pump speed and out-gassing can vary as a function of time. In this way pump down or pressure bumps due to temporary leaks or out-gassing can be visualized and analyzed.

1 - 46 of 46
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