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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jan O
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4H7..
    Evolutionary genomics: is Buchnera a bacterium or an organelle?2000In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 10, no 23, p. R866-R868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first genome sequence of an intracellular bacterial symbiont of a eukaryotic cell has been determined. The Buchnera genome shares features with the genomes of both intracellular pathogenic bacteria and eukaryotic organelles, and it may represent an intermediate between the two.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jan O
    et al.
    The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4H7, Canada.
    Roger, Andrew J
    A cyanobacterial gene in nonphotosynthetic protists: an early chloroplast acquisition in eukaryotes?2002In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 115-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the incorporation of mitochondria and chloroplasts (plastids) into the eukaryotic cell by endosymbiosis, genes have been transferred from the organellar genomes to the nucleus of the host, via an ongoing process known as endosymbiotic gene transfer. Accordingly, in photosynthetic eukaryotes, nuclear genes with cyanobacterial affinity are believed to have originated from endosymbiotic gene transfer from chloroplasts. Analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome has shown that a significant fraction (2%-9%) of the nuclear genes have such an endosymbiotic origin. Recently, it was argued that 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (gnd)-the second enzyme in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway-was one such example. Here we show that gnd genes with cyanobacterial affinity also are present in several nonphotosynthetic protistan lineages, such as Heterolobosea, Apicomplexa, and parasitic Heterokonta. Current data cannot definitively resolve whether these groups acquired the gnd gene by primary and/or secondary endosymbiosis or via an independent lateral gene transfer event. Nevertheless, our data suggest that chloroplasts were introduced into eukaryotes much earlier than previously thought and that several major groups of heterotrophic eukaryotes have secondarily lost photosynthetic plastids.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Jan O
    et al.
    The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4H7, Canada.
    Sjögren, Åsa M
    Davis, Lesley A M
    Embley, T Martin
    Roger, Andrew J
    Phylogenetic analyses of diplomonad genes reveal frequent lateral gene transfers affecting eukaryotes2003In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 94-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important evolutionary mechanism among prokaryotes. The situation in eukaryotes is less clear; the human genome sequence failed to give strong support for any recent transfers from prokaryotes to vertebrates, yet a number of LGTs from prokaryotes to protists (unicellular eukaryotes) have been documented. Here, we perform a systematic analysis to investigate the impact of LGT on the evolution of diplomonads, a group of anaerobic protists.

    RESULTS: Phylogenetic analyses of 15 genes present in the genome of the Atlantic Salmon parasite Spironucleus barkhanus and/or the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia show that most of these genes originated via LGT. Half of the genes are putatively involved in processes related to an anaerobic lifestyle, and this finding suggests that a common ancestor, which most probably was aerobic, of Spironucleus and Giardia adapted to an anaerobic environment in part by acquiring genes via LGT from prokaryotes. The sources of the transferred diplomonad genes are found among all three domains of life, including other eukaryotes. Many of the phylogenetic reconstructions show eukaryotes emerging in several distinct regions of the tree, strongly suggesting that LGT not only involved diplomonads, but also involved other eukaryotic groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that LGT is a significant evolutionary mechanism among diplomonads in particular and protists in general. These findings provide insights into the evolution of biochemical pathways in early eukaryote evolution and have important implications for studies of eukaryotic genome evolution and organismal relationships. Furthermore, "fusion" hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes need to be rigorously reexamined in the light of these results.

  • 4.
    Barnett, Paul D
    et al.
    University of Adelaide.
    Nordström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    O'Carroll, David C
    University of Adelaide .
    Motion adaptation and the velocity coding of natural scenes2010In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 994-999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating relative velocity in the natural environment is challenging because natural scenes vary greatly in contrast and spatial structure. Widely accepted correlation-based models for elementary motion detectors (EMDs) are sensitive to contrast and spatial structure and consequently generate ambiguous estimates of velocity [1]. Identified neurons in the third optic lobe of the hoverfly can reliably encode the velocity of natural images largely independent of contrast [2], despite receiving inputs directly from arrays of such EMDs [3, 4]. This contrast invariance suggests an important role for additional neural processes in robust encoding of image motion [2, 5, 6]. However, it remains unclear which neural processes are contributing to contrast invariance. By recording from horizontal system neurons in the hoverfly lobula, we show two activity-dependent adaptation mechanisms acting as near-ideal normalizers for images of different contrasts that would otherwise produce highly variable response magnitudes. Responses to images that are initially weak neural drivers are boosted over several hundred milliseconds. Responses to images that are initially strong neural drivers are reduced over longer time scales. These adaptation mechanisms appear to be matched to higher-order natural image statistics reconciling the neurons' accurate encoding of image velocity with the inherent ambiguity of correlation-based motion detectors.

  • 5.
    Barnett, Paul
    et al.
    The University of Adelaide.
    Nordström, Karin
    O'Carroll, David
    The University of Adelaide.
    Retinotopic organization of small-field-target-detecting neurons in the insect visual system.2007In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 569-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Despite having tiny brains and relatively low-resolution compound eyes, many fly species frequently engage in precisely controlled aerobatic pursuits of conspecifics. Recent investigations into high-order processing in the fly visual system have revealed a class of neurons, coined small-target-motion detectors (STMDs), capable of responding robustly to target motion against the motion of background clutter. Despite limited spatial acuity in the insect eye, these neurons display exquisite sensitivity to small targets.

     

    Results

    We recorded intracellularly from morphologically identified columnar neurons in the lobula complex of the hoverfly Eristalis tenax. We show that these columnar neurons with exquisitely small receptive fields, like their large-field counterparts recently described from both male and female flies, have an extreme selectivity for the motion of small targets. In doing so, we provide the first physiological characterization of small-field neurons in female flies. These retinotopically organized columnar neurons include both direction-selective and nondirection-selective classes covering a large area of visual space.

     

    Conclusions

    The retinotopic arrangement of lobula columnar neurons sensitive to the motion of small targets makes a strong case for these neurons as important precursors in the local processing of target motion. Furthermore, the continued response of STMDs with such small receptive fields to the motion of small targets in the presence of moving background clutter places further constraints on the potential mechanisms underlying their small-target tuning.

  • 6.
    Bass, David
    et al.
    Ctr Environm Fisheries & Aquaculture Sci Cefas, Barrack Rd, Weymouth, Dorset, England;Nat Hist Museum, Dept Life Sci, Cromwell Rd, London, England.
    Ward, Georgia M.
    Ctr Environm Fisheries & Aquaculture Sci Cefas, Barrack Rd, Weymouth, Dorset, England;Nat Hist Museum, Dept Life Sci, Cromwell Rd, London, England;Univ Exeter, Biosci, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Burki, Fabien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ascetosporea2019In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 29, no 1, p. R7-R8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bazzi, Mohamad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala University, Music and Museums, Museum of Evolution.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ahlberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology. Univ New England, Sch Environm & Rural Sci, Palaeosci Res Ctr, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.
    Static Dental Disparity and Morphological Turnover in Sharks across the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction2018In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 28, no 16, p. 2607-2615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) mass extinction profoundly altered vertebrate ecosystems and prompted the radiation of many extant clades [1, 2]. Sharks (Selachimorpha) were one of the few larger-bodied marine predators that survived the K-Pg event and are represented by an almost-continuous dental fossil record. However, the precise dynamics of their transition through this interval remain uncertain [3]. Here, we apply 2D geometric morphometrics to reconstruct global and regional dental morphospace variation among Lamniformes (Mackerel sharks) and Carch-arhiniformes (Ground sharks). These clades are prevalent predators in today's oceans, and were geographically widespread during the late Cretaceous-early Palaeogene. Our results reveal a decoupling of morphological disparity and taxonomic richness. Indeed, shark disparity was nearly static across the K-Pg extinction, in contrast to abrupt declines among other higher-trophic-level marine predators [4, 5]. Nevertheless, specific patterns indicate that an asymmetric extinction occurred among lamniforms possessing lowcrowned/triangular teeth and that a subsequent proliferation of carcharhiniforms with similar tooth morphologies took place during the early Paleocene. This compositional shift in post-Mesozoic shark lineages hints at a profound and persistent K-Pg signature evident in the heterogeneity of modern shark communities. Moreover, such wholesale lineage turnover coincided with the loss of many cephalopod [6] and pelagic amniote [5] groups, as well as the explosive radiation of middle trophic-level teleost fishes [1]. We hypothesize that a combination of prey availability and post-extinction trophic cascades favored extant shark antecedents and laid the foundation for their extensive diversification later in the Cenozoic [7-10].

  • 8.
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ågren, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Hjorth, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Disrupting Reconsolidation Attenuates Long-Term Fear Memory in the Human Amygdala and Facilitates Approach Behavior2016In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, no 19, p. 2690-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Memories become labile and malleable to modification when recalled [1]. Fear-conditioning experiments in both rodents and humans indicate that amygdala-localized short-term fear memories can be attenuated by disruption of their reconsolidation with extinction training soon after memory activation [2-7]. However, this may not be true for natural long-term fears. Studies in rodents indicate that although it is possible to disrupt the reconsolidation of older memories [8-11], they appear to be more resistant [1, 3, 9, 12, 13]. In humans, 1-week-old conditioned fear memories have been attenuated by behaviorally induced disruption of reconsolidation [14], but it remains to be seen whether this is possible for naturally occurring long-term fears and whether the underlying neural mechanisms are similar to those found in experimental fear-conditioning paradigms. Using functional brain imaging in individuals with a lifelong fear of spiders, we show that fear memory activation followed by repeated exposure to feared cues after 10 min, which disrupts reconsolidation, attenuates activity in the basolateral amygdala at re-exposure 24 hr later. In contrast, repeated exposure 6 hr after fear memory activation, which allows for reconsolidation, did not attenuate amygdala activity. Disrupted, but not undisrupted, reconsolidation facilitated approach behavior to feared cues, and approach behavior was inversely related to amygdala activity during re-exposure. We conclude that memory activation immediately preceding exposure attenuates the neural and behavioral expression of decades-old fear memories and that, similar to experimentally induced fear memories, the basolateral amygdala is crucially involved in this process.

  • 9.
    Breton, Gwenna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Schlebusch, Carina M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University.
    Lombard, Marlize
    Sjödin, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Soodyall, Himla
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Lactase Persistence Alleles Reveal Partial East African Ancestry of Southern African Khoe Pastoralists2014In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 852-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to digest milk into adulthood, lactase persistence (LP), as well as specific genetic variants associated with LP, is heterogeneously distributed in global populations [1-4]. These variants were most likely targets of selection when some populations converted from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist or farming lifestyles [5-7]. Specific LP polymorphisms are associated with particular geographic regions and populations [1-4, 8-10]; however, they have not been extensively studied in southern Africa. We investigate the LP-regulatory region in 267 individuals from 13 southern African populations (including descendants of hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and agropastoralists), providing the first comprehensive study of the LP-regulatory region in a large group of southern Africans. The "East African" LP single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (14010G>C) was found at high frequency (>20%) in a strict pastoralist Khoe population, the Nama of Namibia, suggesting a connection to East Africa, whereas the "European" LP SNP (13910C>T) was found in populations of mixed ancestry. Using genome-wide data from various African populations, we identify admixture (13%) in the Nama, from an Afro-Asiatic group dating to >1,300 years ago, with the remaining fraction of their genomes being from San hunter-gatherers. We also find evidence of selection around the LCT gene among Khoe-speaking groups, and the substantial frequency of the 14010C variant among the Nama is best explained by adaptation to digesting milk. These genome-local and genome-wide results support a model in which an East African group brought pastoralist practices to southern Africa and admixed with local hunter-gatherers to form the ancestors of Khoe people.

  • 10.
    Budd, Graham E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Animal Evolution: Trilobites on Speed2013In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 23, no 19, p. R878-R880Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Burki, Fabien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    A new Lineage of Eukaryotes Illuminates Eraly Mitochondrial Genome Reduction2017In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Burki, Fabien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Organismal Biol, Program Systemat Biol, Sci Life Lab, Norbyvagen 18D, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mitochondrial Evolution: Going, Going, Gone2016In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, no 10, p. R410-R412Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Monocercomonoides is the first example of a eukaryote lacking even the most reduced form of a mitochondrion-related organelle. This has important implications for cellular processes and our understanding of reductive mitochondrial evolution across the eukaryotic tree of life.

  • 13.
    Camus, M. Florencia
    et al.
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Morrow, Edward H.
    Univ Sussex, Sch Life Sci, Brighton BN1 9QG, E Sussex, England..
    Dowling, Damian K.
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Single Nucleotides in the mtDNA Sequence Modify Mitochondrial Molecular Function and Are Associated with Sex-Specific Effects on Fertility and Aging2015In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 25, no 20, p. 2717-2722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitochondria underpin energy conversion in eukaryotes. Their small genomes have been the subject of increasing attention, and there is evidence that mitochondrial genetic variation can affect evolutionary trajectories and shape the expression of life-history traits considered to be key human health indicators [1, 2]. However, it is not understood how genetic variation across a diminutive genome, which in most species harbors only about a dozen protein-coding genes, can exert broad-scale effects on the organisnnal phenotype [2, 3]. Such effects are particularly puzzling given that the mitochondrial genes involved are under strong evolutionary constraint and that mitochondrial gene expression is highly conserved across diverse taxa [4]. We used replicated genetic lines in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, each characterized by a distinct and naturally occurring mitochondrial haplotype placed alongside an isogenic nuclear background. We demonstrate that sequence variation within the mitochondria! DNA (mtDNA) affects both the copy number of mitochondrial genomes and patterns of gene expression across key mitochondrial protein-coding genes. In several cases, haplotype-mediated patterns of gene expression were gene-specific, even for genes from within the same transcriptional units. This invokes post-transcriptional processing of RNA in the regulation of mitochondrial genetic effects on organismal phenotypes. Notably, the haplotype-mediated effects on gene expression could be traced backward to the level of individual nucleotides and forward to sex-specific effects on fertility and longevity. Our study thus elucidates how small-scale sequence changes in the mitochondrial genome can achieve broad-scale regulation of health-related phenotypes and even contribute to sex-related differences in longevity.

  • 14.
    Chen, Hwei-Yen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Longer life span evolves under high rates of condition-dependent mortality2012In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 22, no 22, p. 2140-2143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging affects nearly all organisms, but how aging evolves is still unclear [1-5]. The central prediction of classic theory is that high extrinsic mortality leads to accelerated aging and shorter intrinsic life span [6, 7]. However, this prediction considers mortality as a random process, whereas mortality in nature is likely to be condition dependent. Therefore, the novel theory maintains that condition dependence may dramatically alter, and even reverse, the classic pattern [2-4]. We present experimental evidence for the evolution of longer life span under high condition-dependent mortality. We employed an experimental evolution design, using a nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei, that allowed us to disentangle the effects of mortality rate (high versus low) and mortality source (random versus condition dependent). We observed the evolution of shorter life span under high random mortality, confirming the classic prediction. In contrast, high condition-dependent mortality led to the evolution of longer life span, supporting a key role of condition dependence in the evolution of aging. This life-span extension was not the result of a trade-off with reproduction. By simultaneously corroborating the classic results [8-10] and providing the first experimental evidence for the novel theory [2-4], our study resolves apparent contradictions in the study of aging and challenges the traditional paradigm by demonstrating that condition-environment interactions dictate the evolutionary trajectory of aging.

  • 15.
    Chen, Hwei-yen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Condition dependence of male mortality drives the evolution of sex differences in longevity2014In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 24, no 20, p. 2423-2427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males and females age at different rates and have different life expectancies across the animal kingdom, but what causes the longevity "gender gaps" remains one of the most fiercely debated puzzles among biologists and demographers [1-7]. Classic theory predicts that the sex experiencing higher rate of extrinsic mortality evolves faster aging and reduced longevity [1]. However, condition dependence of mortality [8, 9] can counter this effect by selecting against senescence in whole-organism performance [5, 10]. Contrary to the prevailing view but in line with an emerging new theory [7-9, 11], we show that the evolution of sex difference in longevity depends on the factors that cause sex-specific mortality and cannot be predicted from the mortality rate alone. Experimental evolution in an obligately sexual roundworm, Caenorhabditis remanei, in which males live longer than females, reveals that sexual dimorphism in longevity erodes rapidly when the extrinsic mortality in males is increased at random. We thus experimentally demonstrate evolution of the sexual monomorphism in longevity in a sexually dimorphic organism. Strikingly, when extrinsic mortalityis increased in a way that favors survival of fast-moving individuals, males evolve increased longevities, thereby widening the gender gap. Thus,sex-specific selection on whole-organism performance in males renders them less prone to the ravages of old age than females, despite higher rates of extrinsic mortality. Our results reconcile previous research with recent theoretical breakthroughs [8, 9] by showing that sexual dimorphism inlongevity evolves rapidly and predictably as a result of the sex-specific interactions between environmental hazard and organism's condition.

  • 16. Diard, Médéric
    et al.
    Sellin, Mikael E
    Dolowschiak, Tamas
    Arnoldini, Markus
    Ackermann, Martin
    Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich
    Antibiotic treatment selects for cooperative virulence of Salmonella typhimurium.2014In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 24, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics are powerful therapeutics but are not equally effective against all cells in bacterial populations. Bacteria that express an antibiotic-tolerant phenotype ("persisters") can evade treatment [1]. Persisters can cause relapses of the infection after the end of the therapy [2]. It is still poorly understood whether persistence affects the evolution of bacterial virulence. During infections, persisters have been found preferentially at particular sites within the host [3, 4]. If bacterial virulence factors are required to reach such sites, treatment with antibiotics could impose selection on the expression of virulence genes, in addition to their well-established effects on bacterial resistance. Here, we report that treatment with antibiotics selects for virulence and fosters transmissibility of Salmonella Typhimurium. In a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea, treatment with the broad-spectrum antibiotic ciprofloxacin reverses the outcome of competition between wild-type bacteria and avirulent mutants that can spontaneously arise during within-host evolution [5]. While avirulent mutants take over the gut lumen and abolish disease transmission in untreated mice, ciprofloxacin tilts the balance in favor of virulent, wild-type bacteria. This is explained by the need for virulence factors to invade gut tissues and form a persistent reservoir. Avirulent mutants remain in the gut lumen and are eradicated. Upon cessation of antibiotic treatment, tissue-lodged wild-type pathogens reseed the gut lumen and thereby facilitate disease transmissibility to new hosts. Our results suggest a general principle by which antibiotic treatment can promote cooperative virulence during within-host evolution, increase duration of transmissibility, and thereby enhance the spread of an infectious disease.

  • 17. Dublon, Ian A. N.
    et al.
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Flying insect swarms2014In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 24, no 18, p. R828-R830Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18. Edwards, Ceiridwen J.
    et al.
    Suchard, Marc A.
    Lemey, Philippe
    Welch, John J.
    Barnes, Ian
    Fulton, Tara L.
    Barnett, Ross
    O'Connell, Tamsin C.
    Coxon, Peter
    Monaghan, Nigel
    Valdiosera, Cristina E.
    Lorenzen, Eline D.
    Willerslev, Eske
    Baryshnikov, Gennady F.
    Rambaut, Andrew
    Thomas, Mark G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Bradley, Daniel G.
    Shapiro, Beth
    Ancient Hybridization and an Irish Origin for the Modern Polar Bear Matriline2011In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 21, no 15, p. 1251-1258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are among those species most susceptible to the rapidly changing arctic climate, and their survival is of global concern. Despite this, little is known about polar bear species history. Future conservation strategies would significantly benefit from an understanding of basic evolutionary information, such as the timing and conditions of their initial divergence from brown bears (U. arctos) or their response to previous environmental change. Results: We used a spatially explicit phylogeographic model to estimate the dynamics of 242 brown bear and polar bear matrilines sampled throughout the last 120,000 years and across their present and past geographic ranges. Our results show that the present distribution of these matrilines was shaped by a combination of regional stability and rapid, long-distance dispersal from ice-age refugia. In addition, hybridization between polar bears and brown bears may have occurred multiple times throughout the Late Pleistocene. Conclusions: The reconstructed matrilineal history of brown and polar bears has two striking features. First, it is punctuated by dramatic and discrete climate-driven dispersal events. Second, opportunistic mating between these two species as their ranges overlapped has left a strong genetic imprint. In particular, a likely genetic exchange with extinct Irish brown bears forms the origin of the modern polar bear matriline. This suggests that interspecific hybridization not only may be more common than previously considered but may be a mechanism by which species deal with marginal habitats during periods of environmental deterioration.

  • 19.
    Eklund, D. Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3800, Australia.
    Kanei, Masakazu
    Tokyo Univ Agr, Dept Biosci, Tokyo 1568502, Japan.
    Flores-Sandoval, Eduardo
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3800, Australia.
    Ishizaki, Kimitsune
    Kobe Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Kobe, Hyogo 6578501, Japan.
    Nishihama, Ryuichi
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Biostudies, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Kohchi, Takayuki
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Biostudies, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Genet & Plant Physiol, Umea Plant Sci Ctr, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Sakata, Yoichi
    Tokyo Univ Agr, Dept Biosci, Tokyo 1568502, Japan.
    Bowman, John L.
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3800, Australia.
    An Evolutionarily Conserved Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathway Regulates Dormancy in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha2018In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 28, no 22, p. 3691-3699.e3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dormancy is a key process allowing land plants to adapt to changing conditions in the terrestrial habitat, allowing the cessation of growth in response to environmental or physiological cues, entrance into a temporary quiescent state, and subsequent reactivation of growth in more favorable environmental conditions [1-3]. Dormancy may be induced seasonally, sporadically (e.g., in response to drought), or developmentally (e.g., seeds and apical dominance). Asexual propagules, known as gemmae, derived via clonal reproduction in bryophytes, are often dormant until displaced from the parent plant. In the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, gemmae are produced within specialized receptacles, gemma cups, located on the dorsal side of the vegetative thallus [4]. Mature gemmae are detached from the parent plant but may remain in the cup, with gemma growth suppressed as long as the gemmae remain in the gemma cup and the parental plant is alive [5]. Following dispersal of gemmae from gemma cups by rain, the gemmae germinate in the presence of light and moisture, producing clonal offspring [6]. In land plants, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of dormancy and water balance [7]. Here, we demonstrate that ABA plays a central role in the control of gemma dormancy as transgenic M. polymorpha gemmae with reduced sensitivity to ABA fail to establish and/or maintain dormancy. Thus, the common ancestor of land plants used the ABA signaling module to regulate germination of progeny in response to environmental cues, with both gemmae and seeds being derived structures co-opting an ancestral response system.

  • 20.
    Ekman, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and conservation biology.
    Delayed dispersal: youth costs carry lifetime gains2007In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 17, no 11, p. R417-R418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of reproductive success in the green woodhoopoe Phoeniculus purpures challenges the view that delayed dispersal is costly. Females delaying dispersal for longer had more reproductive events in life and higher lifetime production of offspring.

  • 21.
    Elina, Immonen
    et al.
    School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews.
    Ritchie, Michael G.
    School of Biology, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews.
    Animal communication: flies' ears are tuned in2011In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 21, no 8, p. R278-R280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Male fruit flies sing to females with quiet, close-range wing vibrations. A new study has found that the flies' antennal ears show active tuning to the species-specific frequencies of songs.

  • 22.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Evolutionary Genomics: A Dinosaur's View of Genome-Size Evolution2007In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 17, no 12, p. R470-R472Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Platypus genome suggests a recent origin for the human X.2008In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 18, no 13, p. R557-R559Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Sex determination: two copies for one cock.2009In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 19, no 19, p. R909-R910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular mechanism of sex determination in birds has long remained mysterious. Genetically male chicken embryos, which have two Z sex chromosomes, develop female gonads when the Z chromosome-linked gene DMRT1 is knocked out. This suggests that sex is determined by Z chromosome dosage.

  • 25.
    Fritzsche, Karoline
    et al.
    Graz Univ, Dept Zool, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Booksmythe, Isobel
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sex Ratio Bias Leads to the Evolution of Sex Role Reversal in Honey Locust Beetles2016In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, no 18, p. 2522-2526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reversal of conventional sex roles was enigmatic to Darwin, who suggested that it may evolve when sex ratios are female biased [1]. Here we present direct evidence confirming Darwin's hypothesis. We investigated mating system evolution in a sex-role reversed beetle (Megabruchidius dorsalis) using experimental evolution under manipulated sex ratios and food regimes. In female-biased populations, where reproductive competition among females was intensified, females evolved to be more attractive and the sex roles became more reversed. Interestingly, female-specific mating behavior evolved more rapidly than male-specific mating behavior. We show that sexual selection due to reproductive competition can be strong in females and can target much the same traits as in males of species with conventional mating systems. Our study highlights two central points: the role of ecology in directing sexual selection and the role that females play in mating system evolution.

  • 26.
    Griesser, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and conservation biology.
    Referential calls signal predator behavior in a group-living bird species2008In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 69-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predation is a powerful agent of natural selection, driving the evolution of antipredator calls [1]. These calls have been shown to communicate predator category [2-4] and/or predator distance to conspecifics [5-7]. However, the risk posed by predators depends also on predator behavior [8], and the ability of prey to communicate predator behavior to conspecifics would be a selective advantage reducing their predation risk. I tested this idea in Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus), a group-living bird species. Predation by hawks, and to a lesser extent by owls, is substantial and the sole cause of mortality in adult jays [9]. By using field data and predator-exposure experiments, I show here that jays used antipredator calls for hawks depending on predator behavior. A playback experiment demonstrated that these prey-to-prey calls were specific to hawk behavior (perch, prey search, attack) and elicited distinct, situation-specific escape responses. This is the first study to demonstrate that prey signals convey information about predator behavior to conspecifics. Given that antipredator calls in jays aim at protecting kin group members [10, 11], consequently lowering their mortality [9], kin-selected benefits could be an important factor for the evolution of predator-behavior-specific antipredator calls in such systems.

  • 27.
    Gueriau, Pierre
    et al.
    Univ Paris 06, CNRS, MNHN,CR2P,UMR 7207, Univ Paris 04,Ctr Rech Paleobiodiversite & Paleoe, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP 38, F-75005 Paris, France.;Museum Natl Hist Nat, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP 38, F-75005 Paris, France.;Univ Paris Saclay, IPANEMA, CNRS, Minist Culture & Commun,USR3461, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France.;Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48 St Aubin, F-91192 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Rabet, Nicolas
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris 04, MNHN,BOREA,UMR 7208, UCBN,CNRS,IRD,Unite Biol Organismes & Ecosyst Aqu, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP 26, F-75005 Paris, France.;Museum Natl Hist Nat, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP 26, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Clement, Gael
    Univ Paris 06, CNRS, MNHN,CR2P,UMR 7207, Univ Paris 04,Ctr Rech Paleobiodiversite & Paleoe, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP 38, F-75005 Paris, France.;Museum Natl Hist Nat, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP 38, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Lagebro, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Vannier, Jean
    Univ Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5276, Lab Geol Lyon Terre Planetes Environm LGLTPE, Geode, Campus LyonTech la Doua,2 Rue Dubois, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Briggs, Derek E. G.
    Yale Univ, Dept Geol & Geophys, POB 208109, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Yale Univ, Yale Peabody Museum Nat Hist, POB 208109, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Charbonnier, Sylvain
    Univ Paris 06, CNRS, MNHN,CR2P,UMR 7207, Univ Paris 04,Ctr Rech Paleobiodiversite & Paleoe, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP 38, F-75005 Paris, France.;Museum Natl Hist Nat, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP 38, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Olive, Sebastien
    Royal Belgian Inst Nat Sci, Directorate Earth & Hist Life Palaeobiosphere & E, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.;Univ Liege, Dept Geol, Evolut & Div Dynam Lab, B18,Allee Six Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Bethoux, Olivier
    Univ Paris 06, CNRS, MNHN,CR2P,UMR 7207, Univ Paris 04,Ctr Rech Paleobiodiversite & Paleoe, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP 38, F-75005 Paris, France.;Museum Natl Hist Nat, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP 38, F-75005 Paris, France..
    A 365-Million-Year-Old Freshwater Community Reveals Morphological and Ecological Stasis in Branchiopod Crustaceans2016In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 383-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Branchiopod crustaceans are represented by fairy, tadpole, and clam shrimps (Anostraca, Notostraca, Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata), which typically inhabit temporary freshwater bodies, and water fleas (Cladoceromorpha), which live in all kinds of freshwater and occasionally marine environments [1, 2]. The earliest branchiopods occur in the Cambrian, where they are represented by complete body fossils from Sweden such as Rehbachiella kinnekullensis [3] and isolated mandibles preserved as small carbonaceous fossils [4-6] from Canada. The earliest known continental branchiopods are associated with hot spring environments [7] represented by the Early Devonian Rhynie Chert of Scotland (410 million years ago) and include possible stem-group or crown-group Anostraca, Notostraca, and clam shrimps or Cladoceromorpha [8-10], which differmorphologically fromtheirmodern counterparts [1, 2, 11]. Here we report the discovery of an ephemeral pool branchiopod community from the 365-million-year-old Strud locality of Belgium. It is characterized by new anostracans and spinicaudatans, closely resembling extant species, and the earliest notostracan, Strudops goldenbergi [12]. These branchiopods released resting eggs into the sediment in a manner similar to their modern representatives [1, 2]. We infer that this reproductive strategy was critical to overcoming environmental constraints such as seasonal desiccation imposed by living on land. The pioneer colonization of ephemeral freshwater pools by branchiopods in the Devonian was followed by remarkable ecological and morphological stasis that persists to the present day.

  • 28.
    Guschanski, Katerina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig, Germany.
    Caillaud, Damien
    Robbins, Martha M.
    Vigilant, Linda
    Females Shape the Genetic Structure of a Gorilla Population2008In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 18, no 22, p. 1809-1814Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    He, Ding
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Fiz-Palacios, Omar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Fu, Cheng-Jie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Fehling, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Tsai, Chun-Chieh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Baldauf, Sandra L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    An Alternative Root for the Eukaryote Tree of Life2014In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 465-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The root of the eukaryote tree of life defines some of the most fundamental relationships among species. It is also critical for defining the last eukaryote common ancestor (LECA), the shared heritage of all extant species. The unikont-bikont root has been the reigning paradigm for eukaryotes for more than 10 years but is becoming increasingly controversial. We developed a carefully vetted data set, consisting of 37 nuclear-encoded proteins of close bacterial ancestry (euBacs) and their closest bacterial relatives, augmented by deep sequencing of the Acrasis kona (Heterolobosea, Discoba) transcriptome. Phylogenetic analysis of these data produces a highly robust, fully resolved global phy- logeny of eukaryotes. The tree sorts all examined eukaryotes into three megagroups and identifies the Discoba, and potentially its parent taxon Excavata, as the sister group to the bulk of known eukaryote diversity, the proposed Neozoa (Amorphea + Stramenopila+Alveolata+Rhizaria+ Plantae [SARP]). All major alternative hypotheses are rejected with as little as w50% of the data, and this resolu- tion is unaffected by the presence of fast-evolving alignment positions or distant outgroup sequences. This ‘‘neozoan- excavate’’ root revises hypotheses of early eukaryote evolution and highlights the importance of the poorly stud- ied Discoba for understanding the evolution of eukaryotic diversity and basic cellular processes. 

  • 30.
    Herbert-Read, James
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics.
    Collective Behaviour: Leadership and Learning in Flocks2015In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 25, no 23, p. R1127-R1129Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new study has decoded which birds become leaders in homing pigeon flocks, finding an unexpected benefit of leadership: faster birds emerge as leaders, and these leaders learn more about their environment than their followers.

  • 31.
    Hiltunen, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Grudzinska-Sterno, Magdalena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Wallerman, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Ryberg, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Maintenance of High Genome Integrity over Vegetative Growth in the Fairy-Ring Mushroom Marasmius oreades2019In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 29, no 16, p. 2758-2765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most mutations in coding regions of the genome are deleterious, causing selection to favor mechanisms that minimize the mutational load over time [1-5]. DNA replication during cell division is a major source of new mutations. It is therefore important to limit the number of cell divisions between generations, particularly for large and long-lived organisms [6-9]. The germline cells of animals and the slowly dividing cells in plant meristems are adaptations to control the number of mutations that accumulate over generations [9-11]. Fungi lack a separated germline while harboring species with very large and long-lived individuals that appear to maintain highly stable genomes within their mycelia [8, 12, 13]. Here, we studied genomic mutation accumulation in the fairy-ring mushroom Marasmius oreades. We generated a chromosome-level genome assembly using a combination of cutting-edge DNA sequencing technologies and resequenced 40 samples originating from six individuals of this fungus. The low number of mutations recovered in the sequencing data suggests the presence of an unknown mechanism that works to maintain extraordinary genome integrity over vegetative growth in M. oreades. The highly structured growth pattern of M. oreades allowed us to estimate the number of cell divisions leading up to each sample [14, 15], and from this data, we infer an incredibly low per mitosis mutation rate (3.8 x 10(-12) mutations per site and cell division) as one of several possible explanations for the low number of identified mutations.

  • 32.
    Hinas, Andrea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Wright, Amanda J.
    Hunter, Craig P.
    SID-5 Is an Endosome-Associated Protein Required for Efficient Systemic RNAi in C. elegans2012In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 22, no 20, p. 1938-1943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the nematode C. elegans, RNAi silencing signals are efficiently taken up from the environment and transported between cells and tissues [1-3]. Previous studies implicating endosomal proteins in systemic RNAi lack conclusive evidence [4, 5]. Here, we report the identification and characterization of SID-5, a C. elegans endosome-associated protein that is required for efficient systemic RNAi in response to both ingested and expressed double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). SID-5 is detected in cytoplasmic foci that partially colocalize with GFP fusions of late endosomal proteins RAB-7 and LMP-1. Furthermore, knockdown of various endosomal proteins similarly relocalizes both SID-5 and LMP-1::GFP. Consistent with a non-cell-autonomous function, intestine-specific SID-5 expression restored body wall muscle (bwm) target gene silencing in response to ingested dsRNA. Finally, we show that sid-5 is required for the previously described sid-/-independent transport of ingested RNAi triggers across the intestine [6]. Together, these data demonstrate that an endosome-associated protein, SID-5, promotes the transport of RNAi silencing signals between cells. Furthermore, SID-5 acts differently than the previously described SID-1, SID-2, and SID-3 proteins [3, 6-8], thus expanding the systemic RNAi pathway.

  • 33.
    Holmgren, Claes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Kanduri, Chandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Dell, Ghislaine
    Ward, Andrew
    Mukhopadhya, Ritu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Kanduri, Meena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Lobanenkov, Victor
    Ohlsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    CpG methylation regulates the Igf2/H19 insulator2001In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 11, no 14, p. 1128-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The differentially methylated 5'-flank of the mouse H19 gene unidirectionally regulates the communication between enhancer elements and gene promoters and presumably represses maternal Igf2 expression in vivo [1-6]. The specific activation of the paternally inherited Igf2 allele has been proposed to involve methylation-mediated inactivation of the H19 insulator function during male germline development [1-4, 6]. Here, we addressed the role of methylation by inserting a methylated fragment of the H19-imprinting control region (ICR) into a nonmethylated episomal H19 minigene construct, followed by the transfection of ligation mixture into Hep3B cells. Individual clones were expanded and analyzed for genotype, methylation status, chromatin conformation, and insulator function. The results show that the methylated status of the H19 ICR could be propagated for several passages without spreading into the episomal vector. Moreover, the nuclease hypersensitive sites, which are typical for the maternally inherited H19 ICR allele [1], were absent on the methylated ICR, underscoring the suggestion that the methylation mark dictates parent of origin-specific chromatin conformations [1] that involve CTCF [2]. Finally, the insulator function was strongly attenuated in stably maintained episomes. Collectively, these results provide the first experimental support that the H19 insulator function is regulated by CpG methylation.

  • 34.
    Hosken, David J.
    et al.
    Univ Exeter, Ctr Ecol & Conservat, Penryn TR109EZ, Cornwall, England.
    Archer, C. Ruth
    Univ Exeter, Ctr Ecol & Conservat, Penryn TR109EZ, Cornwall, England.
    Mank, Judith E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. UCL, Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London WC1E 6BT, England;Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
    Sexual conflict2019In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 29, no 11, p. R451-R455Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Hotzy, Cosima
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sperm Competition Favors Harmful Males in Seed Beetles2009In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 404-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most enigmatic observations in evolutionary biology is the evolution of morphological or physiological traits in one sex that physically injure members of the other sex [1-3]. Such traits occur in a wide range of taxa [3] and range from toxic ejaculate substances [4-6] to genital or external spines that wound females during copulation [7-11]. Current hypotheses for the adaptive evolution of such injurious traits rest entirely on the assumption that they are beneficial to their bearer by aiding in reproductive competition [1, 3]. Here, we assess this key assumption in seed beetles where genital spines in males physically injure females. We demonstrate that male spine length is positively correlated with harm to females during mating but also that males with longer spines are more successful in sperm competition. This is the first complete support for the proposal that sexual selection by sperm competition can favor morphological traits in males that inflict injury upon females. However, our results suggest that harm to females is a pleiotropic by-product, such that genital spines in males elevate success in sperm competition by means other than by causing harm.

  • 36.
    Hotzy, Cosima
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Polak, Michal
    Rönn, Johanna L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Arnqvist, Goran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Phenotypic Engineering Unveils the Function of Genital Morphology2012In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 22, no 23, p. 2258-2261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapidly evolving and often extraordinarily complex appearance of male genital morphology of internally fertilizing animals has been recognized for centuries [1]. Postcopulatory sexual selection is regarded as the likely evolutionary engine of this diversity [2], but direct support for this hypothesis is limited. We used two complementary approaches, evolution through artificial selection and microscale laser surgery, to experimentally manipulate genital morphology in an insect model system. We then assessed the competitive fertilization success of these phenotypically manipulated males and studied the fate of their ejaculate in females using high-resolution radioisotopic labeling of ejaculates. Males with longer genital spines were more successful in gaining fertilizations, providing experimental evidence that male genital morphology influences success in postcopulatory reproductive competition. Furthermore, a larger proportion of the ejaculate moved from the reproductive tract into the female body following mating with males with longer spines, suggesting that genital spines increase the rate at which seminal fluid passes into the female hemolymph. Our results show that genital morphology affects male competitive fertilization success and imply that sexual selection on genital morphology may be mediated in part through seminal fluid [3].

  • 37. Immonen, Elina
    et al.
    Ritchie, Michael
    Animal communication: Flies’ ears are tuned in2011In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Janouskovec, Jan
    et al.
    UCL, Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England.;San Diego State Univ, Dept Biol, San Diego, CA 92182 USA.;Univ British Columbia, Bot Dept, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Tikhonenkov, Denis V.
    Univ British Columbia, Bot Dept, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Russian Acad Sci, Inst Biol Inland Waters, Borok, Russia..
    Burki, Fabien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Univ British Columbia, Bot Dept, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Howe, Alexis T.
    Univ British Columbia, Bot Dept, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Rohwer, Forest L.
    San Diego State Univ, Dept Biol, San Diego, CA 92182 USA..
    Mylnikov, Alexander P.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Biol Inland Waters, Borok, Russia..
    Keeling, Patrick J.
    Univ British Columbia, Bot Dept, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    A New Lineage of Eukaryotes Illuminates Early Mitochondrial Genome Reduction2017In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 27, no 23, p. 3717-3724.e5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of eukaryotic cells represents a key transition in cellular evolution and is closely tied to outstanding questions about mitochondrial endosymbiosis [1, 2]. For example, gene-rich mitochondrial genomes are thought to be indicative of an ancient divergence, but this relies on unexamined assumptions about endosymbiont-to-host gene transfer [3-5]. Here, we characterize Ancoracysta twista, a new predatory flagellate that is not closely related to any known lineage in 201-protein phylogenomic trees and has a unique morphology, including a novel type of extrusome (ancoracyst). The Ancoracysta mitochondrion has a gene-rich genome with a coding capacity exceeding that of all other eukaryotes except the distantly related jakobids and Diphylleia, and it uniquely possesses heterologous, nucleus-, and mitochondrion-encoded cytochrome c maturase systems. To comprehensively examine mitochondrial genome reduction, we also assembled mitochondrial genomes from picozoans and colponemids and re-annotated existing mitochondrial genomes using hidden Markov model gene profiles. This revealed over a dozen previously overlooked mitochondrial genes at the level of eukaryotic supergroups. Analysis of trends over evolutionary time demonstrates that gene transfer to the nucleus was non-linear, that it occurred in waves of exponential decrease, and that much of it took place comparatively early, massively independently, and with lineage-specific rates. This process has led to differential gene retention, suggesting that gene-rich mitochondrial genomes are not a product of their early divergence. Parallel transfer of mitochondrial genes and their functional replacement by new nuclear factors are important in models for the origin of eukaryotes, especially as major gaps in our knowl-edge of eukaryotic diversity at the deepest level remain unfilled.

  • 39.
    Kanduri, Chandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Holmgren, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Pilartz, Marcel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Franklin, Gary
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Kanduri, Meena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Liu, Liang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Ginjala, Vasudeva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Ullerås, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Mattsson, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    Ohlsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Development and Genetics.
    The 5' flank of mouse H19 in an unusual chromatin conformation unidirectionally blocks enhancer-promoter communication2000In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 449-457Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Keeling, Patrick J.
    et al.
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Bot, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
    Burki, Fabien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Progress towards the Tree of Eukaryotes2019In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 29, no 16, p. R808-R817Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing a detailed understanding of how all known forms of life are related to one another in the tree of life has been a major preoccupation of biology since the idea of tree-like evolution first took hold. Since most life is microbial, our intuitive use of morphological comparisons to infer relatedness only goes so far, and molecular sequence data, most recently from genomes and transcriptomes, has been the primary means to infer these relationships. For prokaryotes this presented new challenges, since the degree of horizontal gene transfer led some to question the tree-like depiction of evolution altogether. Most eukaryotes are also microbial, but in contrast to prokaryotic life, the application of large-scale molecular data to the tree of eukaryotes has largely been a constructive process, leading to a small number of very diverse lineages, or 'supergroups'. The tree is not completely resolved, and contentious problems remain, but many well-established supergroups now encompass much more diversity than the traditional kingdoms. Some of the most exciting recent developments come from the discovery of branches in the tree that we previously had no inkling even existed, many of which are of great ecological or evolutionary interest. These new branches highlight the need for more exploration, by high-throughput molecular surveys, but also more traditional means of observations and cultivation.

  • 41. Kennedy, Daniel P.
    et al.
    D’Onofrio, Brian M.
    Quinn, Patrick D.
    Bölte, Sven
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders at Karolinska Institutet (KIND), Department of Women’s and Children’s Health,Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Center for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Genetic Influence on Eye Movements to Complex Scenes at Short Timescales2017In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 27, no 22, p. 3554-3560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Where one looks within their environment constrains one?s visual experiences, directly affects cognitive, emotional, and social processing [1?4], influences learning opportunities [5], and ultimately shapes one?s developmental path. While there is a high degree of similarity across individuals with regard to which features of a scene are fixated [6?8], large individual differences are also present, especially in disorders of development [9?13], and clarifying the origins of these differences is essential to understand the processes by which individuals develop within the complex environments in which they exist and interact. Toward this end, a recent paper [14] found that ?social visual engagement??namely, gaze to eyes and mouths of faces?is strongly influenced by genetic factors. However, whether genetic factors influence gaze to complex visual scenes more broadly, impacting how both social and non-social scene content are fixated, as well as general visual exploration strategies, has yet to be determined. Using a behavioral genetic approach and eye tracking data from a large sample of 11-year-old human twins (233 same-sex twin pairs; 51% monozygotic, 49% dizygotic), we demonstrate that genetic factors do indeed contribute strongly to eye movement patterns, influencing both one?s general tendency for visual exploration of scene content, as well as the precise moment-to-moment spatiotemporal pattern of fixations during viewing of complex social and non-social scenes alike. This study adds to a now growing set of results that together illustrate how genetics may broadly influence the process by which individuals actively shape and create their own visual experiences.

  • 42.
    Kilinc, Gülsah Merve
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Omrak, Ayca
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Lilla Frescativaegen 7, S-11418 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ozer, Fusun
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Günther, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Buyukkarakaya, Ali Metin
    Hacettepe Univ, Dept Anthropol, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Bicakci, Erhan
    Istanbul Univ, Dept Prehist, TR-34134 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Baird, Douglas
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Archaeol Class & Egyptol, Liverpool L69 7WZ, Merseyside, England..
    Donertas, Handan Melike
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Ghalichi, Ayshin
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Yaka, Reyhan
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Koptekin, Dilek
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Hlth Informat, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Acan, Sinan Can
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Parvizi, Poorya
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Krzewinska, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Daskalaki, Evangelia A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Lilla Frescativaegen 7, S-11418 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Yuncu, Eren
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Dagtas, Nihan Dilsad
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Fairbairn, Andrew
    Univ Queensland, Sch Social Sci, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Pearson, Jessica
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Archaeol Class & Egyptol, Liverpool L69 7WZ, Merseyside, England..
    Mustafaoglu, Gokhan
    Bulent Ecevit Univ, Dept Archaeol, TR-67100 Incivez, Zonguldak, Turkey..
    Erdal, Yilmaz Selim
    Hacettepe Univ, Dept Anthropol, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Cakan, Yasin Gokhan
    Istanbul Univ, Dept Prehist, TR-34134 Istanbul, Turkey..
    Togan, Inci
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Somel, Mehmet
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey..
    Stora, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Lilla Frescativaegen 7, S-11418 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gotherstrom, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    The Demographic Development of the First Farmers in Anatolia2016In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, no 19, p. 2659-2666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The archaeological documentation of the development of sedentary farming societies in Anatolia is not yet mirrored by a genetic understanding of the human populations involved, in contrast to the spread of farming in Europe [1-3]. Sedentary farming communities emerged in parts of the Fertile Crescent during the tenth millennium and early ninth millennium calibrated (cal) BC and had appeared in central Anatolia by 8300 cal BC [4]. Farming spread into west Anatolia by the early seventh millennium cal BC and quasi-synchronously into Europe, although the timing and process of this movement remain unclear. Using genome sequence data that we generated from nine central Anatolian Neolithic individuals, we studied the transition period from early Aceramic (Pre-Pottery) to the later Pottery Neolithic, when farming expanded west of the Fertile Crescent. We find that genetic diversity in the earliest farmers was conspicuously low, on a par with European foraging groups. With the advent of the Pottery Neolithic, genetic variation within societies reached levels later found in early European farmers. Our results confirm that the earliest Neolithic central Anatolians belonged to the same gene pool as the first Neolithic migrants spreading into Europe. Further, genetic affinities between later Anatolian farmers and fourth to third millennium BC Chalcolithic south Europeans suggest an additional wave of Anatolian migrants, after the initial Neolithic spread but before the Yamnaya-related migrations. We propose that the earliest farming societies demographically resembled foragers and that only after regional gene flow and rising heterogeneity did the farming population expansions into Europe occur.

  • 43.
    Kolm, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Mann, Richard P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Diversification of a Food-Mimicking Male Ornament via Sensory Drive2012In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 22, no 15, p. 1440-1443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolutionary divergence of sexual signals is often important during the formation of new animal species, but our understanding of the origin of signal diversity is limited [1, 2]. Sensory drive, the optimization of communication signal efficiency through matching to the local environment, has been highlighted as a potential promoter of diversification and speciation [3]. The swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei) is a tropical fish in which males display a flag-like ornament that elicits female foraging behavior during courtship. We show that the shape of the male ornament covaries with female diet across natural populations. More specifically, natural populations in which the female diet is more dominated by ants exhibit male ornaments more similar to the shape of an ant. Feeding experiments confirm that females habituated to a diet of ants prefer to bite at male ornaments from populations with a diet more dominated by ants. Our results show that the male ornament functions as a "fishing lure" that is diversifying in shape to match local variation in female search images employed during foraging. This direct link between variation in female feeding ecology and the evolutionary diversification of male sexual ornaments suggests that sensory drive may be a common engine of signal divergence.

  • 44.
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rogell, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Bundsen, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Svensson, Beatrice
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Zajitschek, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Brännström, Ioana Onut
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Immler, Simone
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Artificial selection on relative brain size in the guppy reveals costs and benefits of evolving a larger brain2013In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 168-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The large variation in brain size that exists in the animal kingdom has been suggested to have evolved through the balance between selective advantages of greater cognitive ability and the prohibitively high energy demands of a larger brain (the "expensive-tissue hypothesis" [1]). Despite over a century of research on the evolution of brain size, empirical support for the trade-off between cognitive ability and energetic costs is based exclusively on correlative evidence [2], and the theory remains controversial [3, 4]. Here we provide experimental evidence for costs and benefits of increased brain size. We used artificial selection for large and small brain size relative to body size in a live-bearing fish, the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and found that relative brain size evolved rapidly in response to divergent selection in both sexes. Large-brained females outperformed small-brained females in a numerical learning assay designed to test cognitive ability. Moreover, large-brained lines, especially males, developed smaller guts, as predicted by the expensive-tissue hypothesis [1], and produced fewer offspring. We propose that the evolution of brain size is mediated by a functional trade-off between increased cognitive ability and reproductive performance and discuss the implications of these findings for vertebrate brain evolution.

  • 45.
    Krzewinska, Maja
    et al.
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kjellstrom, Anna
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Osteoarchaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Günther, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution.
    Hedenstierna-Jonson, Charlotte
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zachrisson, Torun
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Omrak, Ayca
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yaka, Reyhan
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey.
    Kilinc, Gulsah Merve
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Somel, Mehmet
    Middle East Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey.
    Sobrado, Veronica
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evans, Jane
    British Geol Survey, NERC Isotope Geosci Lab, Nottingham NG12 5GG, England.
    Knipper, Conine
    Curt Engelhorn Zentrum Archaometrie, D6,3, D-68159 Mannheim, Germany.
    Jakobsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Human Evolution. Sci Life Lab, Tomtebodavagen 23A, S-17165 Solna, Sweden.
    Stora, Jan
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Osteoarchaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gotherstrom, Anders
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Archaeol & Class Studies, Archaeol Res Lab, Lilla Frescativagen 7, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Sci Life Lab, Tomtebodavagen 23A, S-17165 Solna, Sweden.
    Genomic and Strontium Isotope Variation Reveal Immigration Patterns in a Viking Age Town2018In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 28, no 17, p. 2730-2738.e10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of human mobility on the northern European urban populations during the Viking and Early Middle Ages and its repercussions in Scandinavia itself are still largely unexplored. Our study of the demographics in the final phase of the Viking era is the first comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation that includes genetics, isotopes, archaeology, and osteology on a larger scale. This early Christian dataset is particularly important as the earlier common pagan burial tradition during the Iron Age was cremation, hindering large-scale DNA analyses. We present genome-wide sequence data from 23 individuals from the 10th to 12th century Swedish town of Sigtuna. The data revealed high genetic diversity among the early urban residents. The observed variation exceeds the genetic diversity in distinct modern-day and Iron Age groups of central and northern Europe. Strontium isotope data suggest mixed local and non-local origin of the townspeople. Our results uncover the social system underlying the urbanization process of the Viking World of which mobility was an intricate part and was comparable between males and females. The inhabitants of Sigtuna were heterogeneous in their genetic affinities, probably reflecting both close and distant connections through an established network, confirming that early urbanization processes in northern Europe were driven by migration.

  • 46.
    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Ctr Adapt Rat, Lentzeallee 94, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.;Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Mueggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Lubeck Univ Appl Sci, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany..
    Krause, Stefan
    Lubeck Univ Appl Sci, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, D-23562 Lubeck, Germany..
    Viblanc, Paul E.
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Mueggelseedamm 310, D-12587 Berlin, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, Albrecht Daniel Thaer Inst, Invalidenstr 42, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics. Stockholm Univ, Dept Zool, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zaslansky, Paul
    Charite, Julius Wolff Inst, Fohrer Str 15, D-13353 Berlin, Germany..
    Domenici, Paolo
    CNR, IAMC, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Marras, Stefano
    CNR, IAMC, I-09170 Torregrande, Oristano, Italy..
    Steffensen, John F.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Marine Biol Sect, Strandpromenaden 5, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Svendsen, Morten B. S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Marine Biol Sect, Strandpromenaden 5, DK-3000 Helsingor, Denmark..
    Wilson, Alexander D. M.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Heydon Laurence Bldg A08, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Couillaud, Pierre
    Univ Paris 06, Dept Master Sci Univers Environm Ecol, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Boswell, Kevin M.
    Florida Int Univ, Dept Biol Sci, 3000 NE 151st St, N Miami, FL 33181 USA..
    Krause, Jens
    Humboldt Univ, Fac Life Sci, Albrecht Daniel Thaer Inst, Invalidenstr 42, D-10115 Berlin, Germany..
    The Evolution of Lateralization in Group Hunting Sailfish2017In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 521-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lateralization is widespread throughout the animal kingdom [1-7] and can increase task efficiency via shortening reaction times and saving on neural tissue [8-16]. However, lateralization might be costly because it increases predictability [17-21]. In predator-prey interactions, for example, predators might increase capture success because of specialization in a lateralized attack, but at the cost of increased predictability to their prey, constraining the evolution of lateralization. One unexplored mechanism for evading such costs is group hunting: this would allow individual-level specialization, while still allowing for group-level unpredictability. We investigated this mechanism in group hunting sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus, attacking schooling sardines, Sardinella aurita. During these attacks, sailfish alternate in attacking the prey using their elongated bills to slash or tap the prey [22-24]. This rapid bill movement is either leftward or rightward. Using behavioral observations of identifiable individual sailfish hunting in groups, we provide evidence for individual-level attack lateralization in sailfish. More strongly lateralized individuals had a higher capture success. Further evidence of lateralization comes from morphological analyses of sailfish bills that show strong evidence of one-sided micro-teeth abrasions. Finally, we show that attacks by single sailfish are indeed highly predictable, but predictability rapidly declines with increasing group size because of a lack of population-level lateralization. Our results present a novel benefit of group hunting: by alternating attacks, individual-level attack lateralization can evolve, without the negative consequences of individual-level predictability. More generally, our results suggest that group hunting in predators might provide more suitable conditions for the evolution of strategy diversity compared to solitary life.

  • 47.
    Leonard, Jennifer A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Vilà, Carles
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Fox-Dobbs, Kena
    Koch, Paul L.
    Wayne, Robert K.
    Van Valkenburgh, Blaire
    Megafaunal extinctions and the disappearance of a specialized wolf ecomorph2007In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 17, no 13, p. 1146-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is one of the few large predators to survive the Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions [1]. Nevertheless, wolves disappeared from northern North America in the Late Pleistocene, suggesting they were affected by factors that eliminated other species. Using skeletal material collected from Pleistocene permafrost deposits of eastern Beringia, we present a comprehensive analysis of an extinct vertebrate by exploring genetic (mtDNA), morphologic, and isotopic (delta(13)C, delta(15)N) data to reveal the evolutionary relationships, as well as diet and feeding behavior, of ancient wolves. Remarkably, the Late Pleistocene wolves are genetically unique and morphologically distinct. None of the 16 mtDNA haplotypes recovered from a sample of 20 Pleistocene eastern-Beringian wolves was shared with any modern wolf, and instead they appear most closely related to Late Pleistocene wolves of Eurasia. Moreover, skull shape, tooth wear, and isotopic data suggest that eastern-Beringian wolves were specialized hunters and scavengers of extinct megafauna. Thus, a previously unrecognized, uniquely adapted, and genetically distinct wolf ecomorph suffered extinction in the Late Pleistocene, along with other megafauna. Consequently, the survival of the species in North America depended on the presence of more generalized forms elsewhere.

  • 48.
    Lin, Kah Wai
    et al.
    Karolinska Biomics Center, Z5:01, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-17176 Stockholm.
    Yakymovych, Ihor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Jia, Min
    Karolinska Biomics Center, Z5:01, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-17176 Stockholm.
    Yakymovych, Mariya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy
    Karolinska Biomics Center, Z5:01, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-17176 Stockholm.
    Phosphorylation of eEF1A1 at Ser300 by T beta R-I Results in Inhibition of mRNA Translation2010In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 20, no 18, p. 1615-1625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation that regulates cell functions by activating specific serine/threonine kinase receptors on the cell surface. Type I TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-I) is essential for TGF-beta signaling, and substrates of T beta R-I provide insights into molecular mechanisms of TGF-beta signaling. Results: Here we identify eukaryotic elongation factor 1A1 (eEF1A1) as a novel substrate of T beta R-I. We show that T beta R-I phosphorylates eEF1A1 at Ser300 in vitro and in vivo. Ser300 was found to be important for aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) binding to eEF1A1. Ser300 phosphorylation or mutations of Ser300 correlate with inhibition of protein synthesis in vitro and in vivo. We show that mimicking eEF1A1 phosphorylation at Ser300 results in inhibition of cell proliferation, and that mutations of Ser300 affect TGF-beta dependency in inhibition of protein synthesis and cell proliferation. Increased expression of eEF1A has been reported to enhance carcinogenesis. An analysis of human breast cancer cases revealed a decrease of eEF1A1 phosphorylation at Ser300 in malignant tumor cells as compared to epithelial cells in noncancerous tissues. Conclusions: Phosphorylation of eEF1A1 by T beta R-I is a novel regulatory mechanism that provides a direct link to regulation of protein synthesis by TGF-beta, as an important component in the TGF-beta-dependent regulation of protein synthesis and cell proliferation.

  • 49.
    Lindberg, Julia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Björnerfeldt, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Saetre, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Svartberg, Kenth
    Seehuus, Birgitte
    Bakken, Morten
    Vilà, Carles
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Jazin, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Selection for tameness has changed brain gene expression in silver foxes2005In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 15, no 22, p. R915-916Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Lopes, Ricardo J.
    et al.
    Univ Porto, CIBIO InBIO, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, Campus Agr Vairao, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal..
    Johnson, James D.
    Auburn Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Auburn, AL 36849 USA..
    Toomey, Matthew B.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pathol & Immunol, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Ferreira, Mafalda S.
    Univ Porto, CIBIO InBIO, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, Campus Agr Vairao, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal..
    Araujo, Pedro M.
    Univ Porto, CIBIO InBIO, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, Campus Agr Vairao, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.;Univ Coimbra, Dept Life Sci, Marine & Environm Sci Ctr MARE, P-3004517 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Melo-Ferreira, Jose
    Univ Porto, CIBIO InBIO, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, Campus Agr Vairao, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias, Dept Biol, Rua Campo Alegre S-N, P-4169007 Oporto, Portugal..
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Texas A&M Univ, Coll Vet Med & Biomed Sci, Dept Vet Integrat Biosci, College Stn, TX 77845 USA..
    Hill, Geoffrey E.
    Auburn Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Auburn, AL 36849 USA..
    Corbo, Joseph C.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pathol & Immunol, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Carneiro, Miguel
    Univ Porto, CIBIO InBIO, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, Campus Agr Vairao, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias, Dept Biol, Rua Campo Alegre S-N, P-4169007 Oporto, Portugal..
    Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds2016In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 1427-1434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation.

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