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  • 1. Bjorn, H
    et al.
    Sundin, Peter
    Wesen, C
    Mu, H L
    Martinsen, K
    Kvernheim, A L
    Odham, G
    Chlorinated fatty acids in membrane lipids of fish1998In: Die Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 85, no 5, p. 229-232Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Engel, Fabian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Farrell, Kaitlin J.
    McCullough, Ian M.
    Scordo, Facundo
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    Dugan, Hilary A.
    de Eyto, Elvira
    Hanson, Paul C.
    McClure, Ryan P.
    Nõges, Peeter
    Nõges, Tiina
    Ryder, Elizabeth
    Weathers, Kathleen C.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    A lake classification concept for a more accurate global estimate of the dissolved inorganic carbon export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters2018In: The Science of Nature: Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 105, no 3, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnitude of lateral dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters strongly influences the estimate of the global terrestrial carbon dioxide (CO2) sink. At present, no reliable number of this export is available, and the few studies estimating the lateral DIC export assume that all lakes on Earth function similarly. However, lakes can function along a continuum from passive carbon transporters (passive open channels) to highly active carbon transformers with efficient in-lake CO2 production and loss. We developed and applied a conceptual model to demonstrate how the assumed function of lakes in carbon cycling can affect calculations of the global lateral DIC export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters. Using global data on in-lake CO2 production by mineralization as well as CO2 loss by emission, primary production, and carbonate precipitation in lakes, we estimated that the global lateral DIC export can lie within the range of 0.70(-0.31)(+0.27) 1.52(-0.90)(+1.09) Pg C yr(-1) depending on the assumed function of lakes. Thus, the considered lake function has a large effect on the calculated lateral DIC export from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters. We conclude that more robust estimates of CO2 sinks and sources will require the classification of lakes into their predominant function. This functional lake classification concept becomes particularly important for the estimation of future CO2 sinks and sources, since in-lake carbon transformation is predicted to be altered with climate change.

  • 3.
    Janssen, Ralf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Developmental abnormalities in Glomeris marginata (Villers 1789) (Myriapoda: Diplopoda): implications for body axis determination in a myriapod2013In: Die Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 33-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abnormally developing embryos (ADEs) of the common pill millipede Glomeris marginata have been investigated by means of nuclear staining and mRNA in situ hybridization. It showed that all ADEs represent cases of Duplicitas posterior, which means that the posterior body pole is duplicated. The severity of the duplication ranges from duplicated posterior trunk segments in one specimen to an almost completely duplicated specimen that only shares the very anterior head region. Remarkably, none of the encountered ADEs represents a case of Duplicitas anterior (duplicated anterior pole) or a case of Duplicitas cruciata (cruciate duplication with two anterior and two posterior poles). This observation is discussed in the light of earlier reports on G. marginata ADEs that claim to have found these abnormalities. The lack of any other axial abnormality aside from D. posterior implies that early axis determination in G. marginata, and possibly myriapods in general, underlies the developmental mechanisms that prevent the formation of any other type of axial duplication. It is proposed that the formation of D. posterior-type embryos could be caused by the formation of two instead of only one posterior cumulus early during development.

  • 4.
    Modesto, Sean P.
    et al.
    Cape Breton University.
    Smith, Roger M. H.
    Iziko Museums of South Africa.
    Campione, Nicolas E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Reisz, Robert R.
    University of Toronto Missisauga.
    The last “pelycosaur”: a varanopid synapsid from the PristerognathusAssemblage Zone, Middle Permian of South Africa2011In: Die Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 98, no 12, p. 1027-1034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a partial varanopid skull and mandible from the Pristerognathus Assemblage Zone of the Beaufort Group, in the South African Karoo Basin, which is probably latest Middle Permian (Capitanian) in age. This mycterosaurine is not only the youngest known varanopid from the Southern Hemisphere, but it is also the youngest known “pelycosaur” (i.e., non-therapsid synapsid). Like all other members of this clade of hypercarnivores, the teeth are strongly flattened, recurved, and have finely serrated cutting edges. The anterior dentary teeth form a caniniform region, and the splenial features a foramen intermandibularis oralis, the first ever to be described in a “pelycosaur.” The last varanopids were the smallest carnivores of latest Middle Permian continental faunas. Occupation of the small carnivore guild appears to have allowed varanopids to achieve a nearly cosmopolitan distribution throughout the Middle Permian, between the great Early Permian radiation of basal synapsids and the spectacular diversification of therapsid synapsids in the Late Permian and Early Triassic.

  • 5. Rosengaus, Rebeca B.
    et al.
    Cornelisse, Tara
    Guschanski, Katerina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Traniello, James F. A.
    Inducible immune proteins in the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis2007In: The Science of Nature: Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 25-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Sudyka, Joanna
    et al.
    Univ Warsaw, Ctr New Technol, Banacha 2c, PL-02097 Warsaw, Poland;Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Podmokla, Edyta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Dubiec, Anna
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Ul Wilcza 64, PL-00679 Warsaw, Poland.
    Arct, Aneta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland.
    Sex-specific effects of parasites on telomere dynamics in a short-lived passerinethe blue tit2019In: The Science of Nature: Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 106, no 1-2, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parasitic infections potentially drive host's life-histories since they can have detrimental effects on host's fitness. Telomere dynamics is a candidate mechanism to underlie life-history trade-offs and as such may correlate with observed fitness reduction in infected animals. We examined the relationship of chronic infection with two genera of haemosporidians causing avian malaria and malaria-like disease with host's telomere length (TL) in a longitudinal study of free-ranging blue tits. The observed overall infection prevalence was 80% and increased with age, constituting a potentially serious selective pressure in our population. We found longer telomeres in individuals infected with a parasite causing lesser blood pathologies i.e. Haemoproteus compared to Plasmodium genus, but this only held true among males. Female TL was independent of the infection type. Our results indicate that parasitic infections could bring about other types of costs to females than to males with respect to TL. Additionally, we detected linear telomere loss with age, however a random regression analysis did not confirm significant heterogeneity in TL of first breeders and telomere shortening rates in further life.

  • 7.
    Vicari, Mark
    et al.
    York Univ, Dept Biol, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Puentes, Adriana
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Georgeff, Jennifer
    York Univ, Dept Biol, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Strathdee, Fiona
    York Univ, Dept Biol, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Bazely, Dawn R.
    York Univ, Dept Biol, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Unpacking multi-trophic herbivore-grass-endophyte interactions: feedbacks across different scales in vegetation responses to Soay sheep herbivory2018In: The Science of Nature: Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 105, no 11-12, article id 66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grazing can induce changes in both plant productivity and nutritional quality, which may subsequently influence herbivore carrying capacity. While research on Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) dynamics on Hirta Island in the St. Kilda archipelago has elucidated the complexity of population drivers, including parasites, the role of herbivore-generated feedbacks as an intrinsic regulating factor remains unclear. The sheep lack large predators and every 3-9years undergo population crashes (overcompensatory mortality). We investigated the effects of grazing on (1) sward productivity and (2) quality (toxicity) of the primary forage species, red fescue (Festuca rubra L.), which is highly infected by an alkaloid-synthesizing fungal endophyte. Grazing had a negative impact on both forage quantity and quality. At higher sheep densities, impacts on sward growth were magnified, resulting in a nonlinear relationship with plant productivity. Simultaneously, endophyte hyphal load (and by inference, toxicity) peaked close to the time of a crash. A greenhouse experiment showed that alkaloid concentration in F. rubra increased in response to artificial defoliation. We conclude that at high sheep densities, grazing-mediated reductions in productivity, together with sustained alkaloid production, are likely to influence sheep dynamics. Future research should consider the interactive effects of forage toxicity, quantity, and nutritional content.

  • 8.
    Yamane, Takashi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Yasuda, Tetsuya
    The effects of mating status and time since mating on female sex pheromone levels in the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium2014In: Die Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 153-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although mating status affects future mating opportunities, the biochemical changes that occur in response to mating are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of mating status on the quantities of sex pheromone components found in whole-body extracts and volatile emissions of females of the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium. When sampled at one of four time points within a 4-day postmating period, females that had copulated with a male had greater whole-body quantities of sex pheromone components than those of virgin females sampled at the same times. The quantities of sex pheromone components emitted by virgin females over a 24-h period were initially high but then steadily decreased, whereas 24-h emissions were persistently low among mated females when measured at three time points within the 4 days after mating. As a result, soon after mating, the mated females emitted less sex pheromones than virgin females, but there were no significant differences between mated and virgin females at the end of the experiment. Thus, postmating reduction in the rate of emission of sex pheromones could explain previously observed changes in female attractiveness to male T. caelestialium.

  • 9.
    Zaton, Michal
    et al.
    Univ Silesia, Fac Earth Sci, Bedzinska 60, PL-41200 Sosnowiec, Poland..
    Broda, Krzysztof
    Univ Silesia, Fac Earth Sci, Bedzinska 60, PL-41200 Sosnowiec, Poland..
    Qvarnström, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ahlberg, Per Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    The first direct evidence of a Late Devonian coelacanth fish feeding on conodont animals2017In: The Science of Nature: Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 104, no 3-4, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the first known occurrence of a Devonian coelacanth specimen from the lower Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland, with a conodont element preserved in its digestive tract. A small spiral and phosphatic coprolite (fossil excrement) containing numerous conodont elements and other unrecognized remains was also found in the same deposits. The coprolite is tentatively attributed to the coelacanth. Although it is unclear whether the Late Devonian coelacanth from Poland was an active predator or a scavenger, these finds provide the first direct evidence of feeding on conodont animals by early coelacanth fish, and one of the few evidences of feeding on these animals known to date. It also expands our knowledge about the diet and trophic relations between the Paleozoic marine animals in general.

  • 10.
    Ödeen, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Moray, Clea M.
    Drosophila melanogaster virgins are more likely to mate with strangers than familiar flies2008In: Die Naturwissenschaften, ISSN 0028-1042, E-ISSN 1432-1904, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 253-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evidence shows that females of many species can discriminate against males and/or male phenotypes they have mated with previously. However, these studies have not tested whether actual mating is necessary to induce the avoidance behaviour. A preference for strangers may have evolved because it avoids multiple matings with similar genotypes. Alternatively, there may be selection against mating with familiar individuals directly. By choosing its first mate among unfamiliar individuals (which are less likely close relatives than are those encountered early in life), a virgin might disentangle some of the potential benefits of avoiding genetic incompatibility and inbreeding in the offspring from the costs of remating. In this study, we test whether Drosophila melanogaster flies bias their mate choice towards strangers according to previous, non-copulatory, experience. Based on 173 trials over 12 weeks, virgin females presented with two virgin males were 59% more likely to mate with a novel male than the one which she had been housed with for 8 h the day before. Hence we present the first report showing that a dipteran can distinguish between previously encountered and not previously encountered conspecifics.

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