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  • 1.
    Andersson, Ole
    et al.
    Dept. of Physics, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Ingemar
    Dept. of Physics, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Quantum Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Sjöqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Uppsala universitet.
    Geometric phases for mixed states of the Kitaev chain2016In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 374, no 2069, article id 20150231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Berry phase has found applications in building topological order parameters for certain condensed matter systems. The question whether some geometric phase for mixed states can serve the same purpose has been raised, and proposals are on the table. We analyze the intricate behaviour of Uhlmann’s geometric phase in the Kitaev chain at finite temperature, and then argue that it captures quite different physics from that intended. We also analyze the behaviour of a geometric phase introduced in the context of interferometry. For the Kitaev chain, this phase closely mirrors that of the Berry phase, and we argue that it merits further investigation. 

  • 2. Bahaj, AbuBakr S.
    Marine current energy conversion: the dawn of a new era in electricity production2013In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine currents can carry large amounts of energy, largely driven by the tides, which are a consequence of the gravitational effects of the planetary motion of the Earth, the Moon and the Sun. Augmented flow velocities can be found where the underwater topography (bathymetry) in straits between islands and the mainland or in shallows around headlands plays a major role in enhancing the flow velocities, resulting in appreciable kinetic energy. At some of these sites where practical flows are more than 1 m s−1, marine current energy conversion is considered to be economically viable. This study describes the salient issues related to the exploitation of marine currents for electricity production, resource assessment, the conversion technologies and the status of leading projects in the field. This study also summarizes important issues related to site development and some of the approaches currently being undertaken to inform device and array development. This study concludes that, given the highlighted commitments to establish favourable regulatory and incentive regimes as well as the aspiration for energy independence and combating climate change, the progress to multi-megawatt arrays will be much faster than that achieved for wind energy development.

  • 3. Balmer, R. S.
    et al.
    Friel, I.
    Woollard, S. M.
    Wort, C. J. H.
    Scarsbrook, G. A.
    Coe, S. E.
    El-Hajj, H.
    Kaiser, A.
    Denisenko, A.
    Kohn, E.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Unlocking diamond's potential as an electronic material2008In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 366, no 1863, p. 251-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we review the suitability of diamond as a semiconductor material for high-performance electronic applications. The current status of the manufacture of synthetic diamond is reviewed and assessed. In particular, we consider the quality of intrinsic material now available and the challenges in making doped structures suitable for practical devices. Two practical applications are considered in detail. First, the development of high-voltage switches capable of switching voltages in excess of 10kV. Second, the development of diamond MESFETs for high-frequency and high-power applications. Here device data are reported showing a current density of more than 30mAmm -1 along with small-signal RF measurements demonstrating gigahertz operation. We conclude by considering the remaining challenges which will need to be overcome if commercially attractive diamond electronic devices are to be manufactured.

  • 4. Batten, W.M.J.
    et al.
    Harrison, M.E.
    Bahaj, A. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    The accuracy of the actuator disc-RANS approach for predicting the performance and far wake of a horizontal axis tidal stream turbine2013In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The actuator disc-RANS model has been widely used in wind and tidal energy to predict the wake of a horizontal axis turbine. The model is appropriate where large scale effects of the turbine on a flow are of interest, for example, when considering environmental impacts, or arrays of devices. The accuracy of the model for modelling the wake of tidal stream turbines has not been demonstrated, and flow predictions presented in the literature for similar modelled scenarios vary significantly. This paper compares the results of the actuator disc-RANS model, where the turbine forces have been derived using a blade element approach, to experimental data measured in the wake of a scaled turbine. It also compares the results to those of a simpler uniform actuator disc model. The comparisons show that the model is accurate and can predict up to 94\% of the variation in the experimental data measured on the centreline of the wake. The study demonstrates that the actuator-disc RANS model is an accurate approach for modelling a turbine wake, and conservative approach to predict performance and loads. It can therfore applied to similar scenarios with confidence.

  • 5.
    Breton, Simon-Philippe
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Sumner, J.
    Dawson Coll, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Sörensen, J. N.
    DTU Wind Energy, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Hansen, K. S.
    DTU Wind Energy, Lyngby, Denmark..
    Sarmast, S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Ivanell, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    A survey of modelling methods for high-fidelity wind farm simulations using large eddy simulation2017In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 375, no 2091, article id 20160097Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large eddy simulations (LES) of wind farms have the capability to provide valuable and detailed information about the dynamics of wind turbine wakes. For this reason, their use within the wind energy research community is on the rise, spurring the development of new models and methods. This review surveys the most common schemes available to model the rotor, atmospheric conditions and terrain effects within current state-of-the-art LES codes, of which an overview is provided. A summary of the experimental research data available for validation of LES codes within the context of single and multiple wake situations is also supplied. Some typical results for wind turbine and wind farm flows are presented to illustrate best practices for carrying out high-fidelity LES of wind farms under various atmospheric and terrain conditions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  • 6.
    Coates, C. S.
    et al.
    Inorgan Chem Lab, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QR, England.
    Gray, H. J.
    Inorgan Chem Lab, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QR, England.
    Bulled, J. M.
    Inorgan Chem Lab, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QR, England.
    Boström, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Simonov, A.
    Inorgan Chem Lab, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QR, England.
    Goodwin, A. L.
    Inorgan Chem Lab, South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QR, England.
    Ferroic multipolar order and disorder in cyanoelpasolite molecular perovskites2019In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 377, no 2149, article id 20180219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a combination of variable-temperature highresolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction measurements and Monte Carlo simulations to characterize the evolution of two different types of ferroic multipolar order in a series of cyanoelpasolite molecular perovskites. We show that ferroquadrupolar order in [C3N2H5](2)Rb[Co(CN)(6)] is a first-order process that is well described by a fourstate Potts model on the simple cubic lattice. Likewise, ferrooctupolar order in [NMe4](2)B[Co(CN)(6)] (B= K, Rb, Cs) also emerges via a first-order transition that now corresponds to a six-state Potts model. Hence, for these particular cases, the dominant symmetry breaking mechanisms are well understood in terms of simple statistical mechanical models. By varying composition, we find that the effective coupling between multipolar degrees of freedom- and hence the temperature at which ferromultipolar order emerges-can be tuned in a chemically sensible manner. This article is part of the theme issue 'Mineralomimesis: natural and synthetic frameworks in science and technology'.

  • 7. Daly, T.
    et al.
    Myers, L. E.
    Bahaj, A. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Modelling of the flow field surrounding tidal turbine arrays for varying positions in a channel2013In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modelling of tidal turbines and the hydrodynamic effects of tidal power extraction represents a relatively new challenge in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Many different methods of defining flow and boundary conditions have been postulated and examined to determine how accurately they replicate the many parameters associated with tidal power extraction. This paper outlines the results of numerical modelling analysis carried out to investigate different methods of defining the inflow velocity boundary condition. This work is part of a wider research programme investigating flow effects in tidal turbine arrays. Results of this numerical analysis were benchmarked against previous experimental work conducted at the University of Southampton Chilworth hydraulics laboratory. Results show significant differences between certain methods of defining inflow velocities. However, certain methods do show good correlation with experimental results. This correlation would appear to justify the use of these velocity inflow definition methods in future numerical modelling of the far-field flow effects of tidal turbine arrays.

  • 8. Dandouras, Iannis
    et al.
    Garnier, Philippe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Mitchell, Donald G.
    Roelof, Edmond C.
    Brandt, Pontus C.
    Krupp, Norbert
    Krimigis, Stamatios M.
    Titan's exosphere and its interaction with Saturn's magnetosphere2009In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 367, no 1889, p. 743-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titan's nitrogen-rich atmosphere is directly bombarded by energetic ions, due to its lack of a significant intrinsic magnetic field. Singly charged energetic ions from Saturn's magnetosphere undergo charge-exchange collisions with neutral atoms in Titan's upper atmosphere, or exosphere, being transformed into energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). The ion and neutral camera, one of the three sensors that comprise the magnetosphere imaging instrument (MIMI) on the Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan, images these ENAs like photons, and measures their fluxes and energies. These remote-sensing measurements, combined with the in situ measurements performed in the upper thermosphere and in the exosphere by the ion and neutral mass spectrometer instrument, provide a powerful diagnostic of Titan's exosphere and its interaction with the Kronian magnetosphere. These observations are analysed and some of the exospheric features they reveal are modelled.

  • 9.
    Grandfield, Kathryn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Palmquist, Anders
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    High-resolution three-dimensional probes of biomaterials and their interfaces2012In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 370, no 1963, p. 1337-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interfacial relationships between biomaterials and tissues strongly influence the success of implant materials and their long-term functionality. Owing to the inhomogeneity of biological tissues at an interface, in particular bone tissue, two-dimensional images often lack detail on the interfacial morphological complexity. Furthermore, the increasing use of nanotechnology in the design and production of biomaterials demands characterization techniques on a similar length scale. Electron tomography (ET) can meet these challenges by enabling high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biomaterial interfaces. In this article, we review the fundamentals of ET and highlight its recent applications in probing the three-dimensional structure of bioceramics and their interfaces, with particular focus on the hydroxyapatite-bone interface, titanium dioxide-bone interface and a mesoporous titania coating for controlled drug release.

  • 10.
    Höök, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Davidsson, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Johansson, Sheshti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Tang, Xu
    China University of Petroleum - Beijing.
    Decline and depletion rates of oil production: a comprehensive investigation2014In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 372, no 2006, p. 0120448-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two of the most fundamental concepts in the current debate about future oil supply are oil field decline rates and depletion rates. These concepts are related, but not identical. This paper clarifies the definitions of these concepts, summarises the underlying theory and empirically estimates decline and depletion rates for different categories of oil field. A database of 880 post-peak fields is analysed to determine typical depletion levels, depletion rates, and decline rates. This demonstrates that the size of oil fields has a significant influence on decline and depletion rates, with generally high values for small fields and comparatively low values for larger fields. These empirical findings have important implications for oil supply forecasting.

  • 11.
    Höök, Mikael
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Global Energy Systems.
    Fantazzini, Dean
    Moscow School of Economics.
    Angelantoni, André
    Post Peak Living.
    Snowden, Simon
    Liverpool University.
    Hydrocarbon liquefaction: viability as a peak oil mitigation strategy2014In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 372, no 2006, p. 20120319-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current world capacity of hydrocarbon liquefaction is around 400,000 barrels per day (kb/d), providing a marginal share of the global liquid fuel supply. This study performs a broad review of technical, economic, environmental, and supply chains issues related to coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). We find three issues predominate. First, significant amounts of coal and gas would be required to obtain anything more than a marginal production of liquids. Second, the economics of CTL plants are clearly prohibitive, but are better for GTL. Nevertheless, large scale GTL plants still require very high upfront costs, and for three real world GTL plants out of four, the final cost has been so far approximately three times that initially budgeted. Small scale GTL holds potential for associated gas. Third, CTL and GTL both incur significant environmental impacts, ranging from increased greenhouse gas emissions (in the case of CTL) to water contamination. Environmental concerns may significantly affect growth of these projects until adequate solutions are found.

  • 12.
    Kacar, Betul
    et al.
    Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    Guy, Lionel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Smith, Eric
    Earth-Science Life Institute, Tokyo, Japan; Santa Fe Institute, SantaFe, USA.
    Baross, John
    University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Resurrecting ancestral genes in bacteria to interpret ancient biosignatures2017In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 375, no 2109, article id 20160352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two datasets, the geologic record and the genetic content of extant organisms, provide complementary insights into the history of how key molecular components have shaped or driven global environmental and macroevolutionary trends. Changes in global physico-chemical modes over time are thought to be a consistent feature of this relationship between Earth and life, as life is thought to have been optimizing protein functions for the entirety of its approximately 3.8 billion years of history on the Earth. Organismal survival depends on how well critical genetic and metabolic components can adapt to their environments, reflecting an ability to optimize efficiently to changing conditions. The geologic record provides an array of biologically independent indicators of macroscale atmospheric and oceanic composition, but provides little in the way of the exact behaviour of the molecular components that influenced the compositions of these reservoirs. By reconstructing sequences of proteins that might have been present in ancient organisms, we can downselect to a subset of possible sequences that may have been optimized to these ancient environmental conditions. How can one use modern life to reconstruct ancestral behaviours? Configurations of ancient sequences can be inferred from the diversity of extant sequences, and then resurrected in the laboratory to ascertain their biochemical attributes. One way to augment sequence-based, single-gene methods to obtain a richer and more reliable picture of the deep past, is to resurrect inferred ancestral protein sequences in living organisms, where their phenotypes can be exposed in a complex molecular-systems context, and then to link consequences of those phenotypes to biosignatures that were preserved in the independent historical repository of the geological record. As a first step beyond single-molecule reconstruction to the study of functional molecular systems, we present here the ancestral sequence reconstruction of the beta-carbonic anhydrase protein. We assess how carbonic anhydrase proteins meet our selection criteria for reconstructing ancient biosignatures in the laboratory, which we term palaeophenotype reconstruction.This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  • 13. Langer, Max
    et al.
    Cloetens, Peter
    Hesse, Bernhard
    Suhonen, Heikki
    Pacureanu, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Raum, Kay
    Peyrin, Françoise
    Priors for X-ray in-line phase tomography of heterogeneous objects2014In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 372, no 2010, p. 20130129:1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new prior for phase retrieval from X-ray Fresnel diffraction patterns. Fresnel diffraction patterns are achieved by letting a highly coherent X-ray beam propagate in free space after interaction with an object. Previously, either homogeneous or multi-material object assumptions have been used. The advantage of the homogeneous object assumption is that the prior can be introduced in the Radon domain. Heterogeneous object priors, on the other hand, have to be applied in the object domain. Here, we let the relationship between attenuation and refractive index vary as a function of the measured attenuation index. The method is evaluated using images acquired at beamline ID19 (ESRF, Grenoble, France) of a phantom where the prior is calculated by linear interpolation and of a healing bone obtained from a rat osteotomy model. It is shown that the ratio between attenuation and refractive index in bone for different levels of mineralization follows a power law. Reconstruction was performed using the mixed approach but is compatible with other, more advanced models. We achieve more precise reconstructions than previously reported in literature. We believe that the proposed method will find application in biomedical imaging problems where the object is strongly heterogeneous, such as bone healing and biomaterials engineering.

  • 14.
    Liang, Shuai
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Guangdong Key Lab New & Renewable Energy Res & De, Guangzhou Inst Energy Convers, Key Lab Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China.
    Hall, Kyle Wm.
    Temple Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19122 USA.
    Laaksonen, Aatto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, Arrhenius Lab, Stockholm, Sweden;Petru Poni Inst Macromol Chem, Ctr Adv Res Bionanoconjugates & Biopolymers, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda 41A, Iasi 700487, Romania.
    Zhang, Zhengcai
    Univ Calgary, Dept Chem, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Kusalik, Peter G.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Chem, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Characterizing key features in the formation of ice and gas hydrate systems2019In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 377, no 2146, article id 20180167Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crystallization in liquids is critical to a range of important processes occurring in physics, chemistry and life sciences. In this article, we review our efforts towards understanding the crystallization mechanisms, where we focus on theoretical modelling and molecular simulations applied to ice and gas hydrate systems. We discuss the order parameters used to characterize molecular ordering processes and how different order parameters offer different perspectives of the underlying mechanisms of crystallization. With extensive simulations of water and gas hydrate systems, we have revealed unexpected defective structures and demonstrated their important roles in crystallization processes. Nucleation of gas hydrates can in most cases be characterized to take place in a two-step mechanism where the nucleation occurs via intermediate metastable precursors, which gradually reorganizes to a stable crystalline phase. We have examined the potential energy landscapes explored by systems during nucleation, and have shown that these landscapes are rugged and funnel-shaped. These insights provide a new framework for understanding nucleation phenomena that has not been addressed in classical nucleation theory. This article is part of the theme issue 'The physics and chemistry of ice: scaffolding across scales, from the viability of life to the formation of planets'.

  • 15.
    Mann, J.
    et al.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark..
    Angelou, N.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark..
    Arnqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Callies, D.
    Fraunhofer Inst Wind Energy & Energy Syst Tech IW, Kassel, Germany..
    Cantero, E.
    Natl Renewable Energy Ctr CENER, Sarriguren, Spain..
    Arroyo, R. Chavez
    Natl Renewable Energy Ctr CENER, Sarriguren, Spain..
    Courtney, M.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark..
    Cuxart, J.
    Univ Les Illes Balears, Mallorca, Spain..
    Dellwik, E.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark..
    Gottschall, J.
    Ivanell, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Kuehn, P.
    Fraunhofer Inst Wind Energy & Energy Syst Tech IW, Kassel, Germany..
    Lea, G.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark..
    Matos, J. C.
    Inst Ciencia & Inovacao Engn Mecan & Gestao Ind I, Oporto, Portugal..
    Palma, J. M. L. M.
    Univ Porto, Fac Engn, Oporto, Portugal..
    Pauscher, L.
    Fraunhofer Inst Wind Energy & Energy Syst Tech IW, Kassel, Germany..
    Pena, A.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark..
    Rodrigo, J. Sanz
    Natl Renewable Energy Ctr CENER, Sarriguren, Spain..
    Soederberg, S.
    WeatherTech Scandinavia AB, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Vasiljevic, N.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark..
    Rodrigues, C. Veiga
    Univ Porto, Fac Engn, Oporto, Portugal..
    Complex terrain experiments in the New European Wind Atlas2017In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 375, no 2091, p. 1-23, article id 20160101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The New European Wind Atlas project will create a freely accessible wind atlas covering Europe and Turkey, develop the model chain to create the atlas and perform a series of experiments on flow in many different kinds of complex terrain to validate the models. This paper describes the experiments of which some are nearly completed while others are in the planning stage. All experiments focus on the flow properties that are relevant for wind turbines, so the main focus is the mean flow and the turbulence at heights between 40 and 300 m. Also extreme winds, wind shear and veer, and diurnal and seasonal variations of the wind are of interest. Common to all the experiments is the use of Doppler lidar systems to supplement and in some cases replace completely meteorological towers. Many of the lidars will be equipped with scan heads that will allow for arbitrary scan patterns by several synchronized systems. Two pilot experiments, one in Portugal and one in Germany, show the value of using multiple synchronized, scanning lidar, both in terms of the accuracy of the measurements and the atmospheric physical processes that can be studied. The experimental data will be used for validation of atmospheric flow models and will by the end of the project be freely available. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  • 16. Sigmundsson, Freysteinn
    et al.
    Pinel, Virginie
    Lund, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Albino, Fabien
    Pagli, Carolina
    Geirsson, Halldór
    Sturkell, Erik
    Climate effects on volcanism: influence on magmatic systems of loading and unloading from ice mass variations, with examples from Iceland2010In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 368, no 1919, p. 2519-2534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressure influences both magma production and the failure of magma chambers. Changes in pressure interact with the local tectonic settings and can affect magmatic activity. Present-day reduction in ice load on subglacial volcanoes due to global warming is modifying pressure conditions in magmatic systems. The large pulse in volcanic production at the end of the last glaciation in Iceland suggests a link between unloading and volcanism, and models of that process can help to evaluate future scenarios. A viscoelastic model of glacio-isostatic adjustment that considers melt generation demonstrates how surface unloading may lead to a pulse in magmatic activity. Iceland's ice caps have been thinning since 1890 and glacial rebound at rates exceeding 20 mm yr(-1) is ongoing. Modelling predicts a significant amount of 'additional' magma generation under Iceland due to ice retreat. The unloading also influences stress conditions in shallow magma chambers, modifying their failure conditions in a manner that depends critically on ice retreat, the shape and depth of magma chambers as well as the compressibility of the magma. An annual cycle of land elevation in Iceland, due to seasonal variation of ice mass, indicates an annual modulation of failure conditions in subglacial magma chambers.

  • 17.
    Snodgrass, C.
    et al.
    Open Univ, Sch Phys Sci, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    A'Hearn, M. F.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Aceituno, F.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Afanasiev, V.
    Russian Acad Sci, Special Astrophys Observ, Nizhnii Arkhyz, Russia..
    Bagnulo, S.
    Armagh Observ, Coll Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, North Ireland..
    Bauer, J.
    Jet Prop Lab, M-S 183-401,4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA..
    Bergond, G.
    CSIC MPG, Ctr Astron Hispano Aleman, Gergal 04550, Spain..
    Besse, S.
    ESA ESAC, POB 78, Villanueva La Canada 28691, Spain..
    Biver, N.
    Univ Paris Diderot, LESIA, Observ Paris, CNRS,UPMC Univ Paris 06, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Bodewits, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Boehnhardt, H.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensystforsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Bonev, B. P.
    Amer Univ, Dept Phys, 4400 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington, DC 20016 USA..
    Borisov, G.
    Armagh Observ, Coll Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, North Ireland.;Inst Astron, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee Blvd, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.;Natl Astron Observ, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee Blvd, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Carry, B.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lagrange, France.;Univ Lille, CNRS, IMCCE, Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ,UPMC Univ, Lille, France..
    Casanova, V.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Cochran, A.
    Armagh Observ, Coll Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, North Ireland.;Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, 1 Univ Stn, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;LATMOS IPSL, 11 Bld Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt, France..
    Conn, B. C.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT, Australia.;Recinto AURA, Gemini Observ, Colina El Pino S-N,Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile..
    Davidsson, B.
    Jet Prop Lab, M-S 183-401,4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA..
    Davies, J. K.
    Royal Observ Edinburgh, UK Astron Technol Ctr, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    de Leon, J.
    IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, San Cristobal la Laguna 38205, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38206, Spain..
    de Mooij, E.
    Queens Univ, Sch Math & Phys, Astrophys Res Ctr, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    de Val-Borro, M.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.;Astrochemistry Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Code 6930, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Catholic Univ Amer, Dept Phys, Washington, DC 20064 USA..
    Delacruz, M.
    Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    DiSanti, M. A.
    Astrochemistry Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Code 6930, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Drew, J. E.
    Univ Hertfordshire, Sch Phys Astron & Math, Coll Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    Duffard, R.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Edberg, Niklas J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Faggi, S.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Feaga, L.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Fitzsimmons, A.
    Queens Univ, Sch Math & Phys, Astrophys Res Ctr, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Fujiwara, H.
    Natl Astron Observ Japan, Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 USA..
    Gibb, E. L.
    Univ Missouri, Dept Phys & Astron, St Louis, MO 63121 USA..
    Gillon, M.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Gephys, Allee 6 Aout 17, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Green, S. F.
    Open Univ, Sch Phys Sci, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Guijarro, A.
    CSIC MPG, Ctr Astron Hispano Aleman, Gergal 04550, Spain..
    Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.
    Univ Franche Comte, UMR 6213, CNRS, Inst UTINAM, Besancon, France..
    Gutierrez, P. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Hadamcik, E.
    CNRS INSU, 11 Bld Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt, France.;UPMC, Sorbonne Univ, 11 Bld Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt, France.;UVSQ, UPSay, 11 Bld Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt, France.;LATMOS IPSL, 11 Bld Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt, France..
    Hainaut, O.
    European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Haque, S.
    Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, St Augustine, Trinid & Tobago..
    Hedrosa, R.
    CSIC MPG, Ctr Astron Hispano Aleman, Gergal 04550, Spain..
    Hines, D.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Hopp, U.
    Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munich, UnivObserv, Scheiner Str 1, D-81679 Munich, Germany..
    Hoyo, F.
    CSIC MPG, Ctr Astron Hispano Aleman, Gergal 04550, Spain..
    Hutsemekers, D.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Gephys, Allee 6 Aout 17, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Hyland, M.
    Queens Univ, Sch Math & Phys, Astrophys Res Ctr, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Ivanova, O.
    Slovak Acad Sci, Astron Inst, Tatranska Lomnica 05960, Slovakia..
    Jehin, E.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Gephys, Allee 6 Aout 17, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Jones, G. H.
    Univ Coll London, Holmbury St Mary, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.;UCL Birkbeck, Ctr Planetary Sci, Gower St, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Keane, J. V.
    Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Kelley, M. S. P.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Kiselev, N.
    Natl Acad Sci, Main Astron Observ, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Kleyna, J.
    Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Kluge, M.
    Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munich, UnivObserv, Scheiner Str 1, D-81679 Munich, Germany..
    Knight, M. M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Kokotanekova, R.
    Open Univ, Sch Phys Sci, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England.;Max Planck Inst Sonnensystforsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Koschny, D.
    European Space Agcy, Res & Sci Support Dept, NL-2201 Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Kramer, E. A.
    Jet Prop Lab, M-S 183-401,4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA..
    Lopez-Moreno, J. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Lacerda, P.
    Queens Univ, Sch Math & Phys, Astrophys Res Ctr, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Lara, L. M.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Lasue, J.
    Univ Toulouse, UPS OMP, IRAP CNRS, Toulouse, France..
    Lehto, H. J.
    Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, Suzhou 21500, Peoples R China..
    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.
    UPMC, Sorbonne Univ, BC 102,4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France.;UVSQ, UPSay, BC 102,4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France.;CNRS INSU, BC 102,4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France.;LATMOS IPSL, BC 102,4 Pl Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Licandro, J.
    IAC, C Via Lactea S-N, San Cristobal la Laguna 38205, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38206, Spain..
    Lin, Z. Y.
    Natl Cent Univ, Grad Inst Astron, 300 Zhongda Rd, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan..
    Lister, T.
    Las Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr,Ste 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA..
    Lowry, S. C.
    Univ Kent, Sch Phys Sci, Ctr Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Canterbury CT2 7NH, Kent, England..
    Mainzer, A.
    Jet Prop Lab, M-S 183-401,4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA..
    Manfroid, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Gephys, Allee 6 Aout 17, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Marchant, J.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Mckay, A. J.
    Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, 1 Univ Stn, Austin, TX 78712 USA.;Astrochemistry Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Code 6930, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    McNeill, A.
    Queens Univ, Sch Math & Phys, Astrophys Res Ctr, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Meech, K. J.
    Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Micheli, M.
    ESA SSA NEO Coordinat Ctr, Frascati, Italy..
    Mohammed, I.
    Caribbean Inst Astron, St Augustine, Trinid & Tobago..
    Monguio, M.
    Univ Hertfordshire, Sch Phys Astron & Math, Coll Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    Moreno, F.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Munoz, O.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Mumma, M. J.
    Astrochemistry Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Code 6930, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Nikolov, P.
    Inst Astron, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee Blvd, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.;Natl Astron Observ, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee Blvd, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Opitom, C.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Gephys, Allee 6 Aout 17, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.;European Southern Observ, Alonso Cordova 3107, Santiago, Chile..
    Ortiz, J. L.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Paganini, L.
    Astrochemistry Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Code 6930, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Pajuelo, M.
    Univ Lille, CNRS, IMCCE, Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ,UPMC Univ, Lille, France.;Pontificia Univ Catolica Peru, Dept Ciencias, Secc Fis, Apartado 1761, Lima, Peru..
    Pozuelos, F. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain.;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Gephys, Allee 6 Aout 17, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Protopapa, S.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Pursimo, T.
    Nord Optic Telescope, Apartado 474, Santa Cruz Tenerife, CA 38700 USA..
    Rajkumar, B.
    Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, St Augustine, Trinid & Tobago..
    Ramanjooloo, Y.
    Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Ramos, E.
    CSIC MPG, Ctr Astron Hispano Aleman, Gergal 04550, Spain..
    Ries, C.
    Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munich, UnivObserv, Scheiner Str 1, D-81679 Munich, Germany..
    Riffeser, A.
    Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munich, UnivObserv, Scheiner Str 1, D-81679 Munich, Germany..
    Rosenbush, V.
    Natl Acad Sci, Main Astron Observ, Kiev, Ukraine..
    Rousselot, P.
    Univ Franche Comte, Observ Sci, Inst UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213,Univ THETA, BP 1615, F-25010 Besancon, France..
    Ryan, E. L.
    SETI Inst, 189 Bernardo Ave Suite 200, Mountain View, CA 94043 USA..
    Santos-Sanz, P.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Schleicher, D. G.
    Lowell Observ, 1400 W Mars Hill Rd, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 USA..
    Schmidt, M.
    Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munich, UnivObserv, Scheiner Str 1, D-81679 Munich, Germany..
    Schulz, R.
    European Space Agcy, Sci Support Off, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Sen, A. K.
    Assam Univ, Dept Phys, Silchar 788011, India..
    Somero, A.
    Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, Suzhou 21500, Peoples R China..
    Sota, A.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Stinson, A.
    Armagh Observ, Coll Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, North Ireland..
    Sunshine, J. M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Thompson, A.
    Queens Univ, Sch Math & Phys, Astrophys Res Ctr, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Tozzi, G. P.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Tubiana, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensystforsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Villanueva, G. L.
    Astrochemistry Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Code 6930, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Wang, X.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Yunnan Observ, POB 110, Kunming 650011, Yunnan, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Struct & Evolut Celestial Objects, Kunming 650011, Peoples R China..
    Wooden, D. H.
    NASA Ames Res Ctr, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA..
    Yagi, M.
    Natl Astron Observ, 2-21-1 Osawa, 0 Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan..
    Yang, B.
    European Southern Observ, Alonso Cordova 3107, Santiago, Chile..
    Zaprudin, B.
    Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, Suzhou 21500, Peoples R China..
    Zegmott, T. J.
    Univ Kent, Sch Phys Sci, Ctr Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Canterbury CT2 7NH, Kent, England..
    The 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observation campaign in support of the Rosetta mission2017In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 375, no 2097, article id 20160249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a summary of the campaign of remote observations that supported the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission. Telescopes across the globe (and in space) followed comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko from before Rosetta's arrival until nearly the end of the mission in September 2016. These provided essential data for mission planning, large-scale context information for the coma and tails beyond the spacecraft and a way to directly compare 67P with other comets. The observations revealed 67P to be a relatively 'well-behaved' comet, typical of Jupiter family comets and with activity patterns that repeat from orbit to orbit. Comparison between this large collection of telescopic observations and the in situ results from Rosetta will allow us to better understand comet coma chemistry and structure. This work is just beginning as the mission ends-in this paper, we present a summary of the ground-based observations and early results, and point to many questions that will be addressed in future studies. This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'.

  • 18. Stell, Anthony
    et al.
    Sinnott, Richard
    Jiang, Jipu
    Donald, Rob
    Chambers, Iain
    Citerio, Giuseppe
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Gregson, Barbara
    Howells, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Kiening, Karl
    Nilsson, Pelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Ragauskas, Arminas
    Sahuquillo, Juan
    Piper, Ian
    Federating distributed clinical data for the prediction of adverse hypotensive events2009In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 367, no 1898, p. 2679-2690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to predict adverse hypotensive events, where a patient's arterial blood pressure drops to abnormally low (and dangerous) levels, would be of major benefit to the fields of primary and secondary health care, and especially to the traumatic brain injury domain. A wealth of data exist in health care systems providing information on the major health indicators of patients in hospitals (blood pressure, temperature, heart rate, etc.). It is believed that if enough of these data could be drawn together and analysed in a systematic way, then a system could be built that will trigger an alarm predicting the onset of a hypotensive event over a useful time scale, e.g. half an hour in advance. In such circumstances, avoidance measures can be taken to prevent such events arising. This is the basis for the Avert-IT project (http://www.avert-it.org), a collaborative EU-funded project involving the construction of a hypotension alarm system exploiting Bayesian neural networks using techniques of data federation to bring together the relevant information for study and system development.

  • 19.
    Sörensen, Jens N.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Mikkelsen, Robert F.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    Ivanell, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Sarmast, Sasan
    Andersen, Soren J.
    Simulation of wind turbine wakes using the actuator line technique2015In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 373, no 2035, p. 20140071-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The actuator line technique was introduced as a numerical tool to be employed in combination with large eddy simulations to enable the study of wakes and wake interaction in wind farms. The technique is today largely used for studying basic features of wakes as well as for making performance predictions of wind farms. In this paper, we give a short introduction to the wake problem and the actuator line methodology and present a study in which the technique is employed to determine the near-wake properties of wind turbines. The presented results include a comparison of experimental results of the wake characteristics of the flow around a three-bladed model wind turbine, the development of a simple analytical formula for determining the near-wake length behind a wind turbine and a detailed investigation of wake structures based on proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of numerically generated snapshots of the wake.

  • 20. Wood, Robert J. K.
    et al.
    Bahaj, Abubakr S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Turnock, Stephen R.
    Wang, Ling
    Evans, Martin-Halfdan
    Tribological design constraints of marine renewable energy systems2010In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Against the backdrop of increasing energy demands, the threat of climate change and dwindling fuel reserves, finding reliable, diverse, sustainable/renewable, affordable energy resources has become a priority for many countries. Marine energy conversion systems are at the forefront of providing such a resource. Most marine renewable energy conversion systems require tribological components to covert wind or tidal streams to rotational motion for generating electricity while wave machines typically use oscillating hinge or piston within cylinder geometries to promote reciprocating linear motion. This paper looks at the tribology of three green marine energy systems, offshore wind, tidal and wave machines. Areas covered include lubrication and contamination, bearing and gearbox issues, biofouling, cavitation erosion, tribocorrosion, condition monitoring as well as design trends and loading conditions associated with tribological components. Current research thrusts are highlighted along with areas needing research as well as addressing present day issues related to the tribology of offshore energy conversion technologies.

1 - 20 of 20
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