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  • 1. Aad, G.
    et al.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Buszello, Claus P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Coniavitis, Elias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Isaksson, Charlie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pelikan, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    A Particle Consistent with the Higgs Boson Observed with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 338, no 6114, p. 1576-1582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly 50 years ago, theoretical physicists proposed that a field permeates the universe and gives energy to the vacuum. This field was required to explain why some, but not all, fundamental particles have mass. Numerous precision measurements during recent decades have provided indirect support for the existence of this field, but one crucial prediction of this theory has remained unconfirmed despite 30 years of experimental searches: the existence of a massive particle, the standard model Higgs boson. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has now observed the production of a new particle with a mass of 126 giga-electron volts and decay signatures consistent with those expected for the Higgs particle. This result is strong support for the standard model of particle physics, including the presence of this vacuum field. The existence and properties of the newly discovered particle may also have consequences beyond the standard model itself.

  • 2. Aartsen, M. G.
    et al.
    Abbasi, R.
    Abdou, Y.
    Ackermann, M.
    Adams, J.
    Aguitar, J. A.
    Alders, M.
    Altmann, D.
    Auffetibery, J.
    Ba, X.
    Baker, M.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Baum, V.
    Bay, R.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Bechet, S.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Becker, K-H
    Benabderrahmane, M. L.
    BenZvi, S.
    Berghaus, P.
    Berley, D.
    Bernardini, E.
    Bernhard, A.
    Bertrand, D.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Binder, G.
    Bindig, D.
    Bissok, M.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Blumenthal, J.
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Boliaichuk, S.
    Bohm, C.
    Bose, D.
    Boeser, S.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brayeur, L.
    Bretz, H-P
    Brown, A. M.
    Bruijn, R.
    Brunner, J.
    Carson, M.
    Casey, J.
    Casier, M.
    Chirkin, D.
    Christov, A.
    Christy, B.
    Clark, K.
    Cleverrnann, F.
    Coenders, S.
    Cohen, S.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    Danninger, M.
    Daughhetee, J.
    Davis, J. C.
    Day, M.
    De Clercq, C.
    Ridder, S. De
    Desiati, P.
    de Vries, K. D.
    de With, M.
    DeYoung, T.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Dunkman, M.
    Eagan, R.
    Eberhardt, B.
    Eichmann, B.
    Eisch, J.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    Euler, S.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Fadiran, O.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Fedynitch, A.
    Feinzeig, J.
    Feusels, T.
    Filimonov, K.
    Finley, C.
    Fischer-Wasels, T.
    Flis, S.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Frantzen, K.
    Fuchs, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Gallagher, J.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Gladstone, L.
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Golup, G.
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Gora, D.
    Grandmont, D. T.
    Grant, D.
    Gross, A.
    Ha, C.
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Hallen, P.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Hanson, K.
    Heerernan, D.
    Heinen, D.
    Helbing, K.
    Hellauer, R.
    Hickford, S.
    Hill, G. C.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Hoffmann, R.
    Homeier, A.
    Hoshina, K.
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Hulth, P. O.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Hussain, S.
    Ishihara, A.
    Jacobi, E.
    Jacobsen, J.
    Jagielski, K.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Jero, K.
    Jlelati, O.
    Kaminsky, B.
    Kappes, A.
    Karg, T.
    Karle, A.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Kiryluk, J.
    Klaes, J.
    Klein, S. R.
    Koehne, J-H
    Kohnen, C.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Koepke, L.
    Kopper, C.
    Kopper, S.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Kowalski, M.
    Krasberg, M.
    Krings, K.
    Kroll, G.
    Kunnen, J.
    Kurahashi, N.
    Kowabara, T.
    Labare, M.
    Landsman, H.
    Larson, M. J.
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    Leuermann, M.
    Leute, J.
    Luenemann, J.
    Madsen, J.
    Maggi, G.
    Maruyama, R.
    Mase, K.
    Matis, H. S.
    McNally, F.
    Meagher, K.
    Merck, M.
    Meures, T.
    Miarecki, S.
    Middell, E.
    Milke, N.
    Miller, J.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Montaruli, T.
    Morse, R.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    Naumann, U.
    Niederhausen, H.
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Obertacke, A.
    Odrowski, S.
    Olivas, A.
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Paul, L.
    Pepper, J. A.
    de los Heros, Carlos Perez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pfendner, C.
    Pieloth, D.
    Pinat, E.
    Posselt, J.
    Price, P. B.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Raedel, L.
    Rameez, M.
    Rawlins, K.
    Redl, P.
    Reimann, R.
    Resconi, E.
    Rhode, W.
    Ribordy, M.
    Richman, M.
    Riedel, B.
    Rodrigues, J. P.
    Rott, C.
    Ruhe, T.
    Ruzybayev, B.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Saba, S.
    Salameh, T.
    Sander, H-G
    Santander, M.
    Sarkar, S.
    Schatto, K.
    Scheriau, F.
    Schmidt, T.
    Schmitz, M.
    Schoenen, S.
    Schoeneberg, S.
    Schoenwald, A.
    Schokraft, A.
    Schulte, L.
    Schulz, O.
    Seckel, D.
    Sestayo, Y.
    Seunarine, S.
    Shanidze, R.
    Sheremata, C.
    Smith, M. W. E.
    Soldin, D.
    Spiczak, G. A.
    Spiering, C.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Stanev, T.
    Stasik, A.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Stoessl, A.
    Strahler, E. A.
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Tamburro, A.
    Tepe, A.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Tesic, G.
    Tilav, S.
    Toale, P. A.
    Toscana, S.
    Unger, E.
    Usner, M.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Van Overloop, A.
    van Santen, J.
    Vehring, M.
    Voge, M.
    Vraeghe, M.
    Walck, C.
    Waldenmaier, T.
    Wallraff, M.
    Weaver, Ch
    Wellons, M.
    Wendt, C.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Wiebe, K.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Williams, D. R.
    Wissing, H.
    Wolf, M.
    Wood, T. R.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Xu, D. L.
    Xu, X. W.
    Yanez, J. P.
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    Zarzhitsky, P.
    Ziemann, J.
    Zierke, S.
    Zoll, M.
    Evidence for High-Energy Extraterrestrial Neutrinos at the IceCube Detector2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 342, no 6161, p. 947-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on results of an all-sky search for high-energy neutrino events interacting within the IceCube neutrino detector conducted between May 2010 and May 2012. The search follows up on the previous detection of two PeV neutrino events, with improved sensitivity and extended energy coverage down to about 30 TeV. Twenty-six additional events were observed, substantially more than expected from atmospheric backgrounds. Combined, both searches reject a purely atmospheric origin for the 28 events at the 4 sigma level. These 28 events, which include the highest energy neutrinos ever observed, have flavors, directions, and energies inconsistent with those expected from the atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. These properties are, however, consistent with generic predictions for an additional component of extraterrestrial origin.

  • 3.
    Aartsen, M. G.
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Al Samarai, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Altmann, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Andeen, K.
    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA.
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Ansseau, I.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Anton, G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Arguelles, C.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Arsioli, B.
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Inst Fis Gleb Wataghin, R Sergio Buarque de Holanda 777, BR-13083859 Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Axani, S.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Bagherpour, H.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA.
    Barron, J. P.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Baum, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Becker, K. -H
    Ben Zvi, S.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Bindig, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Blot, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borner, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Bos, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Boser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bourbeau, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bourbeau, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Bradascio, F.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Brenzke, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Bretz, H. -P
    Bron, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Brostean-Kaiser, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Burgman, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Busse, R. S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Carver, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Christov, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Clark, K.
    SNOLAB, 1039 Reg Rd 24,Creighton Mine 9, Lively, ON P3Y IN2, Canada.
    Classen, L.
    Westfal Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Coenders, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Collin, G. H.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Conrad, J. M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Coppin, P.
    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Correa, P.
    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Cross, R.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
    Dave, P.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Day, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    De Clercq, C.
    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    DeLaunay, J. J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    de Vries, K. D.
    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    de Wasseige, G.
    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    De Young, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    di Lorenzo, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Dujmovic, H.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dunkman, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Dvorak, E.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA.
    Eberhardt, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Eichmann, B.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Eller, P.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flis, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Franckowiak, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Friedman, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Fritz, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Giommi, P.
    ICRANet, Piazzale Repubbl 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy;ASI, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy;Tech Univ Munich, Inst Adv Studies, Lichtenbergstr 2a, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Glauch, T.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Glusenkamp, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Grant, D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Griffith, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Helbing, K.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Hickford, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Hoinka, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Hokanson-Fasig, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan.
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hunnefeld, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Hussain, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    In, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Iovine, N.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA.
    Jeong, M.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Jones, B. J. P.
    Univ Texas Arlington, Dept Phys, 502 Yates St,Sci Hall Rm 108,Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 USA.
    Kalaczynski, P.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Kang, W.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Kappes, A.
    Westfal Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Kappesser, D.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Keivani, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Kim, J.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Kim, M.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Kintscher, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Kittler, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Kopke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Kopper, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Koschinsky, J. P.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kowalski, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Krammer, B.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Kroll, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Kruckl, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Kunwar, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Kyriacou, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lauber, F.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Leonard, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Liu, Q. R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Mariscal, C. J. Lozano
    Westfal Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Lu, L.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Lunemann, J.
    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Luszczak, W.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Maggi, G.
    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Mancina, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Meier, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Menne, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Micallef, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Momente, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Moore, R. W.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Morse, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Moulai, M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Nakarmi, P.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Niederhausen, H.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Pollmann, A. Obertacke
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    O'Sullivan, E.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Padovani, P.
    European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Pankova, D. V.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Peiffer, P.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Pepper, J. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Plum, M.
    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA.
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Radel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA.
    Rea, I. C.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Relethford, B.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Relich, M.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Rhode, W.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark;Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Rysewyk, D.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Safa, I.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Sahakyan, N.
    ICRANet Armenia, Marshall Baghramian Ave 24a, Yerevan 0019, Armenia.
    Salzer, T.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Herrera, S. E. Sanchez
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Santander, M.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark;Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, England.
    Satalecka, K.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Schlunder, P.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Schneider, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Schoneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Schumacher, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Sclafani, S.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Soedingrekso, J.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stachurska, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stettner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Steuer, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Stossl, A.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stuttard, T.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Taboada, I.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Tenholt, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Toennis, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Toscano, S.
    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Tselengidou, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Tung, C. F.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Turley, C. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Ty, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Unger, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Van Driessche, W.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    van Eijk, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Vogel, E.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Wandler, F. D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Waza, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Weaver, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Weiss, M. J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Werthebach, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Wills, L.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Wolf, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Wood, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Yanez, J. P.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Yuan, T.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Neutrino emission from the direction of the blazar TXS 0506+056 prior to the IceCube-170922A alert2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 361, no 6398, p. 147-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube on 22 September 2017 was coincident in direction and time with a gamma-ray flare from the blazar TXS 0506+056. Prompted by this association, we investigated 9.5 years of IceCube neutrino observations to search for excess emission at the position of the blazar. We found an excess of high-energy neutrino events, with respect to atmospheric backgrounds, at that position between September 2014 and March 2015. Allowing for time-variable flux, this constitutes 3.5 sigma evidence for neutrino emission from the direction of TXS 0506+056, independent of and prior to the 2017 flaring episode. This suggests that blazars are identifiable sources of the high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux.

  • 4.
    Aartsen, M. G.
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Al Samarai, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Altmann, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Andeen, K.
    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA.
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Ansseau, I.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Anton, G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Arguelles, C.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Axani, S.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Bagherpour, H.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA.
    Barron, J. P.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Baum, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Becker, K. -H
    BenZvi, S.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Bernardini, E.
    INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA.
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Bindig, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Blot, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borner, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Bos, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Boser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bourbeau, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bourbeau, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Bradascio, F.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Brenzke, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Bretz, H. -P
    Bron, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Brostean-Kaiser, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Burgman, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy;SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA;Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.
    Busse, R. S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Carver, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Christov, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Clark, K.
    SNOLAB, 1039 Reg Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2, Canada.
    Classen, L.
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Coenders, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Collin, G. H.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Conrad, J. M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Coppin, P.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Correa, P.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Ctr Particle & Gravitat Astrophys, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Cross, R.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
    Dave, P.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Day, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    De Clercq, C.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    DeLaunay, J. J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Ctr Particle & Gravitat Astrophys, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    de Wasseige, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    DeYoung, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Guadalajara, Dept Fis, Ctr Univ Ciencias Exactase Ingn, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico;Univ Guadalajara, Ctr Univ Valles CUValles, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    di Lorenzo, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Dujmovic, H.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Dumm, J. P.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dunkman, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Dvorak, E.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA.
    Eberhardt, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Eichmann, B.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Eller, P.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Fazely, A. R.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flis, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Friedman, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Fritz, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Gerhardt, L.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Glauch, T.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Glusenkamp, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Grant, D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Griffith, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Helbing, K.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Hickford, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Hoinka, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Hokanson-Fasig, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan.
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hunnefeld, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Hussain, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    In, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Iovine, N.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA.
    Jeong, M.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Jones, B. J. P.
    Univ Texas Arlington, Dept Phys, 502 Yates St,Sci Hall Rm 108,Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 USA.
    Kalaczynski, P.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Kang, W.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Kappes, A.
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Kappesser, D.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Keivani, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Ctr Particle & Gravitat Astrophys, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Kim, J.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Kim, M.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Kintscher, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Kittler, T.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Kopke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Kopper, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Koschinsky, J. P.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kowalski, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Kroll, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Kruckl, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Kunwar, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Kuwabara, T.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Kyriacou, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lauber, F.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Leonard, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Liu, Q. R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Mariscal, C. J. Lozano
    Westfalische Wilhelms Univ Munster, Inst Kernphys, D-48149 Munster, Germany.
    Lu, L.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Lunemann, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Luszczak, W.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Mancina, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Meier, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Menne, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Micallef, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Momente, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Moore, R. W.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Morse, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Moulai, M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Nakarmi, P.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Niederhausen, H.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Nygren, D. R.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Pollmann, A. Obertacke
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany.
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    O'Sullivan, E.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Pankova, D. V.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Peiffer, P.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Pepper, J. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Plum, M.
    Marquette Univ, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA.
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Radel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rauch, L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA.
    Rea, I. C.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Relethford, B.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Relich, M.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Rhode, W.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany;TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Rysewyk, D.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Safa, I.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Salzer, T.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Herrera, S. E. Sanchez
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Santander, M.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA;Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA;Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada;Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, England.
    Satalecka, K.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany;DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Schlunder, P.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Schneider, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Schoneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Schumacher, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Sclafani, S.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Soedingrekso, J.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA.
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stachurska, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stein, R.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stettner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Steuer, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Stezelberger, T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Stossl, A.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Stuttard, T.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Taboada, I.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Tenholt, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Toennis, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea.
    Toscano, S.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Tselengidou, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Tung, C. F.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Turley, C. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Ctr Particle & Gravitat Astrophys, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Ty, B.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Unger, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Van Driessche, W.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    van Eijk, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel VUB, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Vogel, E.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Mallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Wandler, F. D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Waza, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Weaver, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Weiss, M. J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Werthebach, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Whitehorn, N.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany.
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Wills, L.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Wolf, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Wood, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA.
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
    Yanez, J. P.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.
    Yuan, T.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
    Abdollahi, S.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
    Ajello, M.
    Clemson Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Kinard Lab Phys, Clemson, SC 29634 USA.
    Angioni, R.
    Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Baldini, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy;Univ Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
    Ballet, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CEA IRFU CNRS, Lab AIM, CEA Saclay,Serv Astrophys, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste, Italy;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy;INFN, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste, Italy;Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
    Bastieri, D.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis Astron G Galilei, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Bechtol, K.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 933 North Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
    Berenji, B.
    Calif State Univ Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90032 USA.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy;Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Blandford, R. D.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Bonino, R.
    Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, I-10125 Turin, Italy;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Bottacini, E.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Bregeon, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, F-34095 F- Montpellier, France.
    Bruel, P.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.
    Buehler, R.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Burnett, T. H.
    Univ Washington, Dept Phys, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Burns, E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA;NASA, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Buson, S.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA;NASA, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Caputo, R.
    CRESST, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Milano, Via E Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Italian Space Agcy, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Charles, E.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Chen, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Cheung, C. C.
    Naval Res Lab, Div Space Sci, Washington, DC 20375 USA.
    Chiang, J.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Chiaro, G.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Milano, Via E Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Ciprini, S.
    Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Snc, Via Politecnico, I-00133 Rome, Italy;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, F-34095 F- Montpellier, France.
    Conrad, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Costantin, D.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis Astron G Galilei, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Cutini, S.
    Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Snc, Via Politecnico, I-00133 Rome, Italy;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.
    D'Ammando, F.
    INAF Ist Radioastron, I-40129 Bologna, Italy;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Astron, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.
    de Palma, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy;Univ Telemat Pegaso, Piazza Trieste & Trento 48, I-80132 Naples, Italy.
    Digel, S. W.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Di Lalla, N.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy;Univ Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
    Di Mauro, M.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Di Venere, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy;Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Dominguez, A.
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain;Univ Complutense Madrid, Grp Altas Energias, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy;Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Fukazawa, Y.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
    Funk, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany;Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
    Fusco, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy;Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Gargano, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Snc, Via Politecnico, I-00133 Rome, Italy;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.
    Giglietto, N.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy;Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Giomi, M.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Giommi, P.
    Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Space Sci Data Ctr, Snc, Via Politecnico, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Giordano, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy;Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Giroletti, M.
    INAF Ist Radioastron, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Glanzman, T.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Green, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CEA IRFU CNRS, Lab AIM, CEA Saclay,Serv Astrophys, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Guiriec, S.
    George Washington Univ, Dept Phys, 725 21st St, Washington, DC 20052 USA;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Harding, A. K.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Hayashida, M.
    Chiba Univ, Inst Global Prominent Res, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan;Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Konan Univ, 8 Chome 9-1 Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 6580072, Japan;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Hays, E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Hewitt, J. W.
    Univ North Florida, Dept Phys, 1 UNF Dr, Jacksonville, FL 32224 USA.
    Horan, D.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.
    Johannesson, G.
    Univ Iceland, Inst Sci, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kadler, M.
    Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
    Kensei, S.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
    Kocevski, D.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Krauss, F.
    Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands;Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Postbus 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Kreter, M.
    Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
    Kuss, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
    La Mura, G.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis Astron G Galilei, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Larsson, S.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Phys, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;AlbaNova, Oskar Klein Ctr Cosmoparticle Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Latronico, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Univ Bordeaux, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan, France;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France.
    Li, J.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Longo, F.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy;Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy;Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
    Loparco, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy;Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Lovellette, M. N.
    Naval Res Lab, Div Space Sci, Washington, DC 20375 USA.
    Lubrano, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.
    Magill, J. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Maldera, S.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Malyshev, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Manfreda, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy;Univ Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    McEnery, J. E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Meyer, M.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Mizuno, T.
    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Morselli, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INFN Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Negro, M.
    Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, I-10125 Turin, Italy;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Nuss, E.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, F-34095 F- Montpellier, France.
    Ojha, R.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Omodei, N.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Orienti, M.
    INAF Ist Radioastron, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Orlando, E.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Palatiello, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy;Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
    Paliya, V. S.
    Clemson Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Kinard Lab Phys, Clemson, SC 29634 USA.
    Perkins, J. S.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Persic, M.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy;Univ Bologna, INAF Trieste, Bologna, Italy;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy;Univ Bologna, Dept Phys & Astron, Bologna, Italy;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy;Osserv Astron Trieste, Ist Nazl Astrofis, I-34143 Trieste, Italy.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
    Piron, F.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CNRS IN2P3, F-34095 F- Montpellier, France.
    Porter, T. A.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Principe, G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Raino, S.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy;Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Rando, R.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis Astron G Galilei, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Rani, B.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Razzano, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
    Razzaque, S.
    Univ Johannesburg, Dept Phys, Box 524, ZA-2006 Auckland, New Zealand.
    Reimer, A.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria;Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Theoret Phys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Reimer, O.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria;Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Theoret Phys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Renault-Tinacci, N.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CEA IRFU CNRS, Lab AIM, CEA Saclay,Serv Astrophys, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France;UPMC CNRS, Inst Astrophys Paris, UMR7095, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Ritz, S.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Astron & Astrophys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Rochester, L. S.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Parkinson, P. M. Saz
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Astron & Astrophys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA;Univ Hong Kong, Dept Phys, Pokfulam Rd, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China;Univ Hong Kong, Lab Space Res, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Sgro, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
    Siskind, E. J.
    NYCB Real Time Comp Inc, Lattingtown, NY 11560 USA.
    Spandre, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
    Spinelli, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy;Univ Politecn Bari, Dipartimento Fis M Merlin, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    Suson, D. J.
    Purdue Univ Northwest, Hammond, IN 46323 USA.
    Tajima, H.
    Nagoya Univ, Solar Terr Environm Lab, Nagoya, Aichi 4648601, Japan;Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Takahashi, M.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Tanaka, Y.
    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Thompson, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, IRAP, UPS,CNES, F-31028 Toulouse, France.
    Torres, D. F.
    ICREA, E-08010 Barcelona, Spain;Inst Space Sci CSICIEEC, Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain.
    Torresi, E.
    INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Tosti, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy;Univ Perugia, Dipartimento Fis, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.
    Troja, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Valverde, J.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.
    Vianello, G.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Vogel, M.
    Calif State Univ Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90032 USA.
    Wood, K.
    Naval Res Lab, Washington, DC 20375 USA;Praxis Inc, Alexandria, VA 22303 USA.
    Wood, M.
    Stanford Univ, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, Stanford, CA 94305 USA;Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, WW Hansen Expt Phys Lab, Dept Phys, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Zaharijas, G.
    Univ Nova Gorica, Ctr Astrophys & Cosmol, Nova Gorica, Slovenia;Univ Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
    Ahnen, M. L.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Ansoldi, S.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
    Antonelli, L. A.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
    Arcaro, C.
    INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Baack, D.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Babic, A.
    Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany;Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia;BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
    Banerjee, B.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, HBNI, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India.
    Bangale, P.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    de Almeida, U. Barres
    URCA, CBPF, BR-2229018 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Barrio, J. A.
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Gonzalez, J. Becerra
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
    Bednarek, W.
    Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland.
    Berti, A.
    Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia;Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia;Univ Trieste, Dipartimento Fis, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
    Bhattacharyya, W.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Biland, A.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Blanch, O.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bonnoli, G.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
    Carosi, A.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy;Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France.
    Carosi, R.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
    Ceribella, G.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Chatterjee, A.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, HBNI, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India.
    Colak, S. M.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Colin, P.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Colombo, E.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
    Contreras, J. L.
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Cortina, J.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Covino, S.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
    Cumani, P.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Da Vela, P.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
    Dazzi, F.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
    De Angelis, A.
    INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    De Lotto, B.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
    Delfino, M.
    Port Informac Cient PIC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain;BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Delgado, J.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Di Pierro, F.
    INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Prester, D. . Dominis
    Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
    Dorner, D.
    Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
    Doro, M.
    INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Einecke, S.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Elsaesser, D.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Ramazani, V. Fallah
    Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland;Univ Turku, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland;Univ Oulu, Astron Div, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Fernandez-Barral, A.
    INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy;BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Fidalgo, D.
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Foffano, L.
    INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Pfrang, K.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.
    Fonseca, M. V.
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Font, L.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
    Franceschini, A.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, E-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Fruck, C.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Galindo, D.
    Univ Barcelona, ICC, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Gallozzi, S.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
    Lopez, R. J. Garcia
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
    Garczarczyk, M.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Gaug, M.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
    Giammaria, P.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
    Godinovic, N.
    Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
    Gora, D.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Phys, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland;Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Guberman, D.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Hadasch, D.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Hahn, A.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Hassan, T.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Herrera, J.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
    Hose, J.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Hrupec, D.
    Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
    Inoue, S.
    RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 3510198, Japan.
    Ishio, K.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Konno, Y.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Kubo, H.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Kushida, J.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Lelas, D.
    Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
    Lindfors, E.
    Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland;Univ Turku, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland;Univ Oulu, Astron Div, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Lombardi, S.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
    Lopez, M.
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Maggio, C.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
    Majumdar, P.
    Saha Inst Nucl Phys, HBNI, 1-AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064, India.
    Makariev, M.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Maneva, G.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Manganaro, M.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
    Mannheim, K.
    Univ Wurzburg, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
    Maraschi, L.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
    Mariotti, M.
    INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Martinez, M.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Masuda, S.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Mazin, D.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Minev, M.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.
    M, J. M.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
    Mirzoyan, R.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Moralejo, A.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Moreno, V.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, CERES IEEC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain;Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Dept Fis, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain.
    Moretti, E.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Nagayoshi, T.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Neustroev, V.
    Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland;Univ Turku, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland;Univ Oulu, Astron Div, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Niedzwiecki, A.
    Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland.
    Rosillo, M. Nievas
    Univ Complutense, Unidad Particulas & Cosmol UPARCOS, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Nigro, C.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Nilsson, K.
    Univ Turku, Finnish Ctr Astron ESO FINCA, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland;Univ Turku, Finnish MAGIC Consortium, Tuorla Observ, Vaisalantie 20, FI-21500 Piikkio, Finland;Univ Oulu, Astron Div, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Ninci, D.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Nishijima, K.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Noda, K.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Nogues, L.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Paiano, S.
    INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Palacio, J.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Paneque, D.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Paoletti, R.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
    Paredes, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, ICC, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Pedaletti, G.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Peresano, M.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
    Moroni, P. G. Prada
    Univ Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy;INFN Pisa, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
    Prandini, E.
    INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Puljak, I.
    Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
    Garcia, J. Rodriguez
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Reichardt, I.
    INFN, I-35131 Padua, Italy;Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy.
    Ribo, M.
    Univ Barcelona, ICC, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Rico, J.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Righi, C.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
    Rugliancich, A.
    Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy;INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
    Saito, T.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Schweizer, T.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Sitarek, J.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Snidaric, I.
    Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
    Sobczynska, D.
    Univ Lodz, Dept Astrophys, PL-90236 Lodz, Poland.
    Stamerra, A.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
    Strzys, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Suric, T.
    Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
    Tavecchio, F.
    Natl Inst Astrophys INAF, I-00136 Rome, Italy.
    Temnikov, P.
    Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res & Nucl Energy, BG-1784 Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Terzic, T.
    Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
    Teshima, M.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Torres-Alba, N.
    Univ Barcelona, ICC, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Treves, A.
    Univ Udine, I-33100 Udine, Italy;INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
    Tsujimoto, S.
    Univ Tokushima, Tokushima 7708502, Japan;Tokai Univ, Kanagawa 2591292, Japan;Kyoto Univ, Dept Phys, Kyoto 6068502, Japan;Univ Tokyo, Japanese MAGIC Consortium ICRR, Chiba 2778582, Japan.
    Vanzo, G.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
    Acosta, M. Vazquez
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, E-38200 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, E-38206 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
    Vovk, I.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Ward, J. E.
    BIST, IFAE, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
    Will, M.
    Max Planck Inst Phys & Astrophys, D-80805 Munich, Germany.
    Zaric, D.
    Univ Zagreb FER, Zagreb 21000, Croatia;Univ Rijeka, Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rijeka 51000, Croatia;Univ Osijek, Osijek 31000, Croatia;Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Zagreb 10000, Croatia;Univ Zagreb FESB, Split 21000, Croatia.
    Lucarelli, F.
    INAF OAR, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;ASI Space Sci Data Ctr SSDC, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Tavani, M.
    Univ Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy;Gran Sasso Sci Inst, Viale Francesco Crispi 7, I-67100 Laquila, Italy;INAF IAPS Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Piano, G.
    INAF IAPS Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Donnarumma, I.
    ASI, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Pittori, C.
    INAF OAR, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;ASI Space Sci Data Ctr SSDC, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Verrecchia, F.
    INAF OAR, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;ASI Space Sci Data Ctr SSDC, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Bulgarelli, A.
    INAF IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Caraveo, P.
    INAF IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Cattaneo, P. W.
    INFN Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa;INAF OAR, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Costa, E.
    ASI, Via Politecn Snc, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF IAPS Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Di Cocco, G.
    INAF IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Ferrari, A.
    Univ Turin, Phys Dept, CIFS, Via P Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Gianotti, F.
    INAF IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Giuliani, A.
    INAF IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Lipari, P.
    INFN Roma Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
    Mereghetti, S.
    INAF IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy;IASF Milano, INAF, Via E Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Pacciani, L.
    INAF IAPS Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Paoletti, F.
    East Windsor RSD, 25a Leshin Lane, Hightstown, NJ 08520 USA;INAF IAPS Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Parmiggiani, N.
    INAF IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Pellizzoni, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Cagliari, Via Sci 5, I-09047 Selargius, CA, Italy.
    Picozza, P.
    INFN Roma Tor Vergata, Via Ric Sci 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Pilia, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Cagliari, Via Sci 5, I-09047 Selargius, CA, Italy.
    Rappoldi, A.
    INFN Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
    Trois, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Cagliari, Via Sci 5, I-09047 Selargius, CA, Italy.
    Vercellone, S.
    INAF Oss Astron Brera, Via E Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate, LC, Italy.
    Vittorini, V.
    INAF IAPS Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Stanek, K. Z.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave Columbus, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Kochanek, C. S.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave Columbus, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, 191 W Woodruff S9 Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Beacom, J. F.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave Columbus, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, 191 W Woodruff S9 Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA;Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 191 W Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Thompson, T. A.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 140 West 18th Ave Columbus, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.
    Holoien, W. -S
    Dong, S.
    Peking Univ, Kavli Inst Astron & Astrophys, 5 Yiheyuanlu, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China.
    Prieto, J. L.
    Univ Diego Port, Nucleo Astron, Fac Ingn Ciencias, Av Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile;Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile. Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
    Shappee, B. J.
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile. Univ Hawaii, Inst Astron, 2680 Woodlawn Dr, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
    Holmbo, S.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Abeysekara, A. U.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT USA;Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA.
    Albert, A.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, New York, NY 10027 USA;Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany;Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA;Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Alfaro, R.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Alvarez, C.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico.
    Arceo, R.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico.
    Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.
    Univ Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico.
    Rojas, D. Avila
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Solares, H. A. Ayala
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Becerril, A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Belmont-Moreno, E.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Bernal, A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Caballero-Mora, K. S.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Capistran, T.
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico.
    Carraminana, A.
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico.
    Casanova, S.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Phys, IFJ PAN, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland;Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Castillo, M.
    Univ Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico.
    Cotti, U.
    Univ Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico.
    Cotzomi, J.
    Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Fac Ciencias Fis Matemat, Puebla, Mexico.
    de Leon, S. Coutino
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico.
    De Leon, C.
    Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Fac Ciencias Fis Matemat, Puebla, Mexico.
    De la Fuente, E.
    Univ Guadalajara, Dept Fis, Ctr Univ Ciencias Exactase Ingn, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico;Univ Guadalajara, Ctr Univ Valles CUValles, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.
    Hernandez, R. Diaz
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico.
    Dichiara, S.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Dingus, B. L.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA.
    DuVernois, M. A.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Phys, Madison, WI USA.
    Ellsworth, R. W.
    George Mason Univ, Sch Phys Astron & Computat Sci, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA.
    Engel, K.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Fiorino, D. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Fleischhack, H.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Dept Phys, Houghton, MI 49931 USA.
    Fraija, N.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Garcia-Gonzalez, J. A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Garfias, F.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Munoz, A. Gonzalez
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Gonzalez, M. M.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Goodman, J. A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Hampel-Arias, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Phys, Madison, WI USA.
    Harding, J. P.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA.
    Hernandez, S.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Hona, B.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Dept Phys, Houghton, MI 49931 USA.
    Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, F.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico.
    Hui, C. M.
    NASA, George C Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Astrophys Off, Huntsville, AL 35812 USA.
    Huntemeyer, P.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Dept Phys, Houghton, MI 49931 USA.
    Iriarte, A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Jardin-Blicq, A.
    Max Planck Inst Nucl Phys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Joshi, V.
    Max Planck Inst Nucl Phys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Kaufmann, S.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico.
    Kunde, G. J.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA.
    Lara, A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Geofis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Lauer, R. J.
    Univ New Mexico, Dept Phys & Astron, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA.
    Lee, W. H.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Lennarz, D.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
    Vargas, H. Leon
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Linnemann, J. T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Longinotti, A. L.
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico.
    Luis-Raya, G.
    Univ Politecn Pachuca, Pachuca, Hgo, Mexico.
    Luna-Garcia, R.
    Inst Politecn Nacl, Ctr Invest Computac, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Malone, K.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Marinelli, S. S.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Martinez, O.
    Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Fac Ciencias Fis Matemat, Puebla, Mexico.
    Martinez-Castellanos, I.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Martinez-Castro, J.
    Inst Politecn Nacl, Ctr Invest Computac, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Martinez-Huerta, H.
    IPN, Dept Phys, Ctr Invest & Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Matthews, J. A.
    Univ New Mexico, Dept Phys & Astron, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA.
    Miranda-Romagnoli, P.
    Univ Autonoma Estado Hidalgo, Pachuca, Mexico.
    Moreno, E.
    Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Fac Ciencias Fis Matemat, Puebla, Mexico.
    Mostafa, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Nayerhoda, A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Phys, IFJ PAN, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.
    Nellen, L.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Ciencias Nucl, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Newbold, M.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT USA.
    Nisa, M. U.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
    Noriega-Papaqui, R.
    Univ Autonoma Estado Hidalgo, Pachuca, Mexico.
    Pelayo, R.
    Inst Politecn Nacl, Ctr Invest Computac, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Pretz, J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Perez-Perez, E. G.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA.
    Ren, Z.
    Univ New Mexico, Dept Phys & Astron, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA.
    Rho, C. D.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
    Riviere, C.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Rosa-Gonzalez, D.
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico.
    Rosenberg, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Ruiz-Velasco, E.
    Max Planck Inst Nucl Phys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Greus, F. Salesa
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Phys, IFJ PAN, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.
    Sandoval, A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Schneider, M.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Schoorlemmer, H.
    Max Planck Inst Nucl Phys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sinnis, G.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA.
    Smith, A. J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
    Springer, R. W.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT USA.
    Surajbali, P.
    Max Planck Inst Nucl Phys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Tibolla, O.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico.
    Tollefson, K.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    Torres, I.
    Inst Nacl Astrofis, Opt Elect, Puebla, Mexico.
    Villasenor, L.
    Benemerita Univ Autonoma Puebla, Fac Ciencias Fis Matemat, Puebla, Mexico.
    Weisgarber, T.
    Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Phys, Madison, WI USA.
    Werner, F.
    Max Planck Inst Nucl Phys, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Yapici, T.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA.
    Gaurang, Y.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Zepeda, A.
    IPN, Dept Phys, Ctr Invest & Estudios Avanzados, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Zhou, H.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Phys, Los Alamos, NM USA.
    Alvarez, J. D.
    Univ Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico.
    Abdalla, H.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Anguner, E. O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France.
    Armand, C.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France.
    Backes, M.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Becherini, Y.
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Phys & Elect Engn, S-35195 Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Berge, D.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Bottcher, M.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Boisson, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Bolmont, J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.
    Bonnefoy, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.
    Bordas, P.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Brun, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS IN2P3, Ctr Etud Nucl Bordeaux Gradignan, F-33175 Gradignan, France.
    Buchele, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
    Bulik, T.
    Univ Warsaw, Astron Observ, Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Caroff, S.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.
    Cerruti, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.
    Chakraborty, N.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Chandra, S.
    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Chen, A.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Davids, I. D.
    Univ Namibia, Dept Phys, Private Bag 13301, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Deil, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Devin, J.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France.
    Djannati-Atai, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Egberts, K.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.
    Emery, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.
    Eschbach, S.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
    Fiasson, A.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France.
    Fontaine, G.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.
    Fussling, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France.
    Gate, F.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France.
    Giavitto, G.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Glawion, D.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Gottschall, D.
    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.
    Haupt, M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Henri, G.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Hoischen, C.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.
    Holch, T. L.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Huber, D.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland.
    Jankowsky, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Jouvin, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
    Kerszberg, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.
    Khelifi, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    King, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Klepser, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland.
    Komin, Nu.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Kraus, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Lemiere, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Lenain, J. -P
    Leser, E.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.
    Lohse, T.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
    Lopez-Coto, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Lorentz, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Lypova, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Marandon, V.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Marti-Devesa, G. Guillem
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
    Maurin, G.
    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France.
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Moderski, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland.
    Mohamed, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Mohrmann, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
    Moulin, E.
    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Murach, T.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    de Naurois, M.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.
    Niederwanger, F.
    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
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    Inst Fizyki Jadrowej PAN, Ul Radzikowskiego 152, PL-31342 Krakow, Poland.
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
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    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Ohm, S.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland.
    Oya, I.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Panter, M.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Perennes, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.
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    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, APC, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
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    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France.
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    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Univ Tubingen, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Sand 1, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany.
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
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    Leopold Franzens Univ Innsbruck, Inst Astro & Teilchenphys, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France.
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    ITA Univ Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany;Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Romoli, C.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
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    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland.
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    Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Annecy Phys Particules, CNRS,LAPP, F-74000 Annecy, France.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
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    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inst Theoret Phys, Lehrstuhl Weltraum & Astrophys 4, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Schulz, A.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, Newtonstr 15, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
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    Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, 1 Jan Smuts Ave, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa.
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    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
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    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany;Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.
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    Univ Paris Saclay, IRFU, CEA, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Taylor, A. M.
    DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
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    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France.
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, CC 72,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France.
    van Eldik, C.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
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    North West Univ, Ctr Space Res, ZA-2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa.
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    Univ Free State, Dept Phys, POB 339, ZA-9300 Bloemfontein, South Africa.
    Veh, J.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
    Vincent, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Phys Nucl & Hautes Energies, Sorbonne Paris Cite,LPNHE,CNRS IN2P3, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris, France.
    Voisin, F.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Phys Sci, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
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    Heidelberg Univ, Landessternwarte, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
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    Stockholm Univ, Albanova Univ Ctr, Dept Phys, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Ecole Polytech, Lab Leprince Ringuet, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.
    Zanin, R.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland.
    Zech, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, LUTH, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ziegler, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, Erlangen, Germany.
    Zorn, J.
    Max Planck Inst Kernphys, POB 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Zywucka, N.
    Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Obserwatorium Astron, Ul Orla 171, PL-30244 Krakow, Poland.
    Savchenko, V.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, ISDC, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Ferrigno, C.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, ISDC, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Bazzano, A.
    INAF, Inst Space Astrophys & Planetol, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Diehl, R.
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Garching, Germany.
    Kuulkers, E.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Laurent, P.
    CEA Saclay, DSM Irfu Serv Astrophys, Bat 709 Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France;Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS IN2P3, AstroParticule & Cosmol, CEA Irfu,Observ Paris Sorbonne Paris Cite,APC, 10 Rue Alice Domont & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris 13, France.
    Natalucci, L.
    INAF, Inst Space Astrophys & Planetol, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Panessa, F.
    INAF, Inst Space Astrophys & Planetol, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Rodi, J.
    INAF, Inst Space Astrophys & Planetol, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Ubertini, P.
    INAF, Inst Space Astrophys & Planetol, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Morokuma, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Astron, Grad Sch Sci, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 1810015, Japan.
    Ohta, K.
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Dept Astron, Sakyo Ku, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Tanaka, Y. T.
    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
    Mori, H.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
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    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
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    Hiroshima Univ, Hiroshima Astrophys Sci Ctr, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
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    Stanford Univ, Kavli Inst Particle Astrophys & Cosmol, SLAC Natl Accelerator Lab, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.
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    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
    Kawabata, M.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
    Nagashima, H.
    Hiroshima Univ, Dept Phys Sci, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 7398526, Japan.
    Yoshida, M.
    Natl Inst Nat Sci, Subaru Telescope, Natl Astron Observ Japan, 650 N Aohoku Pl, Hilo, HI 96720 USA.
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    Ehime Univ, Res Ctr Space & Cosm Evolut, Matsuyama, Ehime 7908577, Japan.
    Itoh, R.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Dept Phys, 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Tokyo 1528551, Japan.
    Keel, W.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Copperwheat, C.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, IC2,Liverpool Sci Pk, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Steele, I.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, IC2,Liverpool Sci Pk, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
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    Univ Maryland, Joint Space Sci Inst, College Pk, MD 20742 USA;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Astrophys Sci Div, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
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    Univ Leicester, Xray & Observat Astron Res Grp, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Fox, D. B.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Ctr Particle & Gravitat Astrophys, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, University Pk, PA 16802 USA;Penn State Univ, Inst Gravitat & Cosmos, Ctr Theoret & Observat Cosmol, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Kennea, J. A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Marshall, F. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Mail Code 660-1, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.
    Osborne, J. P.
    Univ Leicester, Xray & Observat Astron Res Grp, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Tohuvavohu, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Archer, A.
    Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA.
    Benbow, W.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observ, Amado, AZ 85645 USA.
    Bird, R.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Brill, A.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, New York, NY 10027 USA.
    Brose, R.
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany;DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Buchovecky, M.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Buckley, J. H.
    Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA.
    Bugaev, V.
    Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA.
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    Calif Polytech State Univ San Luis Obispo, Dept Phys, San Luis Obispo, CA 94307 USA.
    Connolly, M. P.
    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Phys, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland.
    Cui, W.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA;Tsinghua Univ, Ctr Astrophys, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China;Tsinghua Univ, Dept Phys, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.
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    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observ, Amado, AZ 85645 USA.
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    Washington Univ, Dept Phys, St Louis, MO 63130 USA.
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    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, Davey Lab 525, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.
    Feng, Q.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Finley, J. P.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.
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    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA.
    Furniss, A.
    Calif State Univ East Bay, Dept Phys, Hayward, CA 94542 USA.
    Gueta, O.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Hutten, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Hervet, O.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
    Hughes, G.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observ, Amado, AZ 85645 USA.
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    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, New York, NY 10027 USA.
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    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
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    Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA.
    Kar, P.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA.
    Kelley-Hoskins, N.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Kertzman, M.
    Depauw Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Greencastle, IN 46135 USA.
    Kieda, D.
    Univ Utah, Dept Phys & Astron, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA.
    Krause, M.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Krennrich, F.
    Iowa State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ames, IA 50011 USA.
    Kumar, S.
    Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA;Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.
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    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Phys, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland.
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    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Maier, G.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    McArthur, S.
    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.
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    Natl Univ Ireland Galway, Sch Phys, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland.
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    Columbia Univ, Barnard Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, New York, NY 10027 USA.
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    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, New York, NY 10027 USA.
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    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin 4, Ireland.
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    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
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    Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
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    Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
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    Columbia Univ, Dept Phys, New York, NY 10027 USA.
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany;DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Popkow, A.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Pueschel, E.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Quinn, J.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Ragan, K.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
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    Cork Inst Technol, Dept Phys Sci, Cork, Ireland.
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    Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA;Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, 837 State St NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.
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    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Fred Lawrence Whipple Observ, Amado, AZ 85645 USA.
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    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA.
    Sadeh, I.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
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    Purdue Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, W Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.
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    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA.
    Sushch, I.
    DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    Trepanier, S.
    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
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    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Vassiliev, V. V.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Phys & Astron, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
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    Univ Chicago, Enrico Fermi Inst, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
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    Iowa State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ames, IA 50011 USA.
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    Iowa State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Ames, IA 50011 USA.
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    Univ Iowa, Dept Phys & Astron, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA.
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    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany;DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
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    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Inst Particle Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA;Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Phys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA.
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    McGill Univ, Dept Phys, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
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    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
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    Natl Radio Astron Observ, 1003 Lopezville Rd, Socorro, NM 87801 USA.
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    Curtin Univ, Int Ctr Radio Astron Res, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
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    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Multimessenger observations of a flaring blazar coincident with high-energy neutrino IceCube-170922A2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 361, no 6398, article id eaat1378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Neutrinos are tracers of cosmic-ray acceleration: electrically neutral and traveling at nearly the speed of light, they can escape the densest environments and may be traced back to their source of origin. High-energy neutrinos are expected to be produced in blazars: intense extragalactic radio, optical, x-ray, and, in some cases, γ-ray sources characterized by relativistic jets of plasma pointing close to our line of sight. Blazars are among the most powerful objects in the Universe and are widely speculated to be sources of high-energy cosmic rays. These cosmic rays generate high-energy neutrinos and γ-rays, which are produced when the cosmic rays accelerated in the jet interact with nearby gas or photons. On 22 September 2017, the cubic-kilometer IceCube Neutrino Observatory detected a ~290-TeV neutrino from a direction consistent with the flaring γ-ray blazar TXS 0506+056. We report the details of this observation and the results of a multiwavelength follow-up campaign.

    RATIONALE

    Multimessenger astronomy aims for globally coordinated observations of cosmic rays, neutrinos, gravitational waves, and electromagnetic radiation across a broad range of wavelengths. The combination is expected to yield crucial information on the mechanisms energizing the most powerful astrophysical sources. That the production of neutrinos is accompanied by electromagnetic radiation from the source favors the chances of a multiwavelength identification. In particular, a measured association of high-energy neutrinos with a flaring source of γ-rays would elucidate the mechanisms and conditions for acceleration of the highest-energy cosmic rays. The discovery of an extraterrestrial diffuse flux of high-energy neutrinos, announced by IceCube in 2013, has characteristic properties that hint at contributions from extragalactic sources, although the individual sources remain as yet unidentified. Continuously monitoring the entire sky for astrophysical neutrinos, IceCube provides real-time triggers for observatories around the world measuring γ-rays, x-rays, optical, radio, and gravitational waves, allowing for the potential identification of even rapidly fading sources.

    RESULTS

    A high-energy neutrino-induced muon track was detected on 22 September 2017, automatically generating an alert that was distributed worldwide within 1 min of detection and prompted follow-up searches by telescopes over a broad range of wavelengths. On 28 September 2017, the Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration reported that the direction of the neutrino was coincident with a cataloged γ-ray source, 0.1° from the neutrino direction. The source, a blazar known as TXS 0506+056 at a measured redshift of 0.34, was in a flaring state at the time with enhanced γ-ray activity in the GeV range. Follow-up observations by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, notably the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes, revealed periods where the detected γ-ray flux from the blazar reached energies up to 400 GeV. Measurements of the source have also been completed at x-ray, optical, and radio wavelengths. We have investigated models associating neutrino and γ-ray production and find that correlation of the neutrino with the flare of TXS 0506+056 is statistically significant at the level of 3 standard deviations (sigma). On the basis of the redshift of TXS 0506+056, we derive constraints for the muon-neutrino luminosity for this source and find them to be similar to the luminosity observed in γ-rays.

    CONCLUSION

    The energies of the γ-rays and the neutrino indicate that blazar jets may accelerate cosmic rays to at least several PeV. The observed association of a high-energy neutrino with a blazar during a period of enhanced γ-ray emission suggests that blazars may indeed be one of the long-sought sources of very-high-energy cosmic rays, and hence responsible for a sizable fraction of the cosmic neutrino flux observed by IceCube.

  • 5.
    Ahlberg, Per E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Evolutionär organismbiologi.
    The early evolution of the tetrapod humerus2004In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 305, no 5691, p. 1715-1715Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Anderson, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala. Univ Manchester, Tyndall Ctr, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Peters, Glen
    Ctr Int Climate & Environm Res Oslo CICERO, N-0318 Oslo, Norway..
    The promise of negative emissions Response2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 354, no 6313, p. 714-715Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Anderson, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala. Univ Manchester, Tyndall Ctr, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Peters, Glen
    CICERO, Pb 1129 Blindern, N-0318 Oslo, Norway..
    The trouble with negative emissions2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 354, no 6309, p. 182-183Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8. Anderson, Tovi M.
    et al.
    vonHoldt, Bridgett M.
    Candille, Sophie I.
    Musiani, Marco
    Greco, Claudia
    Stahler, Daniel R.
    Smith, Douglas W.
    Padhukasahasram, Badri
    Randi, Ettore
    Leonard, Jennifer A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Bustamante, Carlos D.
    Ostrander, Elaine A.
    Tang, Hua
    Wayne, Robert K.
    Barsh, Gregory S.
    Molecular and Evolutionary History of Melanism in North American Gray Wolves2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 323, no 5919, p. 1339-1343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morphological diversity within closely related species is an essential aspect of evolution and adaptation. Mutations in the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) gene contribute to pigmentary diversity in natural populations of fish, birds, and many mammals. However, melanism in the gray wolf, Canis lupus, is caused by a different melanocortin pathway component, the K locus, that encodes a beta-defensin protein that acts as an alternative ligand for Mc1r. We show that the melanistic K locus mutation in North American wolves derives from past hybridization with domestic dogs, has risen to high frequency in forested habitats, and exhibits a molecular signature of positive selection. The same mutation also causes melanism in the coyote, Canis latrans, and in Italian gray wolves, and hence our results demonstrate how traits selected in domesticated species can influence the morphological diversity of their wild relatives.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Banfield, Jillian F.
    Virus population dynamics and acquired virus resistance in natural microbial communities.2008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 320, no 5879, p. 1047-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viruses shape microbial community structure and function by altering the fitness of their hosts and by promoting genetic exchange. The complexity of most natural ecosystems has precluded detailed studies of virus-host interactions. We reconstructed virus and host bacterial and archaeal genome sequences from community genomic data from two natural acidophilic biofilms. Viruses were matched to their hosts by analyzing spacer sequences that occur among clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) that are a hallmark of virus resistance. Virus population genomic analyses provided evidence that extensive recombination shuffles sequence motifs sufficiently to evade CRISPR spacers. Only the most recently acquired spacers match coexisting viruses, which suggests that community stability is achieved by rapid but compensatory shifts in host resistance levels and virus population structure.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Jan O
    et al.
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4H7, Canada.
    Doolittle, W Ford
    Nesbø, Camilla L
    Genomics. Are there bugs in our genome?2001In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 292, no 5523, p. 1848-1850Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Andersson, L.
    et al.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Weber, T. D.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Malaspina, D.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Crary, F.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Delory, G. T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Fowler, C. M.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Morooka, M. W.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    McEnulty, T.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Eriksson, Anders. I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Andrews, David. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Horanyi, M.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Collette, A.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Yelle, R.
    Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    Jakosky, B. M.
    Univ Colorado, Atmospher & Space Phys Lab, Boulder, CO 80303 USA..
    Dust observations at orbital altitudes surrounding Mars2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 350, no 6261, article id aad0398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust is common close to the martian surface, but no known process can lift appreciable concentrations of particles to altitudes above similar to 150 kilometers. We present observations of dust at altitudes ranging from 150 to above 1000 kilometers by the Langmuir Probe and Wave instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft. Based on its distribution, we interpret this dust to be interplanetary in origin. A comparison with laboratory measurements indicates that the dust grain size ranges from 1 to 12 micrometers, assuming a typical grain velocity of similar to 18 kilometers per second. These direct observations of dust entering the martian atmosphere improve our understanding of the sources, sinks, and transport of interplanetary dust throughout the inner solar system and the associated impacts on Mars's atmosphere.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Molecular Evolution.
    The bacterial world gets smaller2006In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 314, no 5797, p. 259-260Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Comment on "Bateman in Nature: Predation on Offspring Reduces the Potential for Sexual Selection"2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 340, no 6132, p. 549-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Artursson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Knight, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structure and Molecular Biology.
    Breaking the intestinal barrier to deliver drugs2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 347, no 6223, p. 716-717Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Balzarotti, Francisco
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Biophys Chem, Dept NanoBiophoton, Gottingen, Germany..
    Eilers, Yvan
    Max Planck Inst Biophys Chem, Dept NanoBiophoton, Gottingen, Germany..
    Gwosch, Klaus C.
    Max Planck Inst Biophys Chem, Dept NanoBiophoton, Gottingen, Germany..
    Gynnå, Arvid H.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Systems Biology.
    Westphal, Volker
    Max Planck Inst Biophys Chem, Dept NanoBiophoton, Gottingen, Germany..
    Stefani, Fernando D.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, Ctr Invest Bionanociencias CIBION, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Buenos Aires, Fac Ciencias Exactas & Nat, Dept Fis, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Elf, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Systems Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hell, Stefan W.
    Max Planck Inst Biophys Chem, Dept NanoBiophoton, Gottingen, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Med Res, Dept Opt Nanoscopy, Heidelberg, Germany.;German Canc Res Ctr, Opt Nanoscopy Div, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Nanometer resolution imaging and tracking of fluorescent molecules with minimal photon fluxes2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 355, no 6325, p. 606-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce MINFLUX, a concept for localizing photon emitters in space. By probing the emitter with a local intensity minimum of excitation light, MINFLUX minimizes the fluorescence photons needed for high localization precision. In our experiments, 22 times fewer fluorescence photons are required as compared to popular centroid localization. In superresolutionmicroscopy, MINFLUXattained similar to 1-nanometer precision, resolving molecules only 6 nanometers apart. MINFLUX tracking of single fluorescent proteins increased the temporal resolution and the number of localizations per trace by a factor of 100, as demonstrated with diffusing 30S ribosomal subunits in living Escherichia coli. As conceptual limits have not been reached, we expect this localization modality to break new ground for observing the dynamics, distribution, and structure of macromolecules in living cells and beyond.

  • 16.
    Barsh, Gregory S.
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Anderson, Tovi M.
    Stanford University.
    Vonholdt, Bridgett M.
    University of California.
    Candille, Sophie I.
    Stanford University.
    Musiani, Marco
    University of Calgary.
    Stahler, Daniel R.
    University of California.
    Leonard, Jennifer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Padhukasahasram, Badri
    Cornell University.
    Randi, Ettore
    Instituto Nazionale per la Fauna Selvatica.
    Bustamante, Carlos D.
    Cornell University.
    Ostrander, Elaine A.
    National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda.
    Tang, Hua
    Stanford University.
    Wayne, Robert K.
    University of California.
    How the Gray Wolf Got Its Color - Response2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 325, no 5936, p. 34-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Bastviken, David
    et al.
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Downing, John A.
    Crill, Patrick M.
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Freshwater Methane Emissions Offset the Continental Carbon Sink2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 331, no 6013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inland waters (lakes, reservoirs, streams, and rivers) are often substantial methane (CH(4)) sources in the terrestrial landscape. They are, however, not yet well integrated in global greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets. Data from 474 freshwater ecosystems and the most recent global water area estimates indicate that freshwaters emit at least 103 teragrams of CH(4) year(-1), corresponding to 0.65 petagrams of C as carbon dioxide (CO(2)) equivalents year(-1), offsetting 25% of the estimated land carbon sink. Thus, the continental GHG sink may be considerably overestimated, and freshwaters need to be recognized as important in the global carbon cycle.

  • 18. Belonoshko, Anatoly B.
    et al.
    Skorodumova, Natalia V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Davis, Sergio
    Osiptsov, Alexander N.
    Rosengren, Anders
    Johansson, Börje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Origin of the low rigidity of the Earth's inner core2007In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 316, no 5831, p. 1603-1605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth's solid-iron inner core has a low rigidity that manifests itself in the anomalously low velocities of shear waves as compared to shear wave velocities measured in iron alloys. Normally, when estimating the elastic properties of a polycrystal, one calculates an average over different orientations of a single crystal. This approach does not take into account the grain boundaries and defects that are likely to be abundant at high temperatures relevant for the inner core conditions. By using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that, if defects are considered, the calculated shear modulus and shear wave velocity decrease dramatically as compared to those estimates obtained from the averaged single-crystal values. Thus, the low shear wave velocity in the inner core is explained.

  • 19. Belonoshko, Anatoly B.
    et al.
    Skorodumova, Natalia V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Rosengren, Anders
    Johansson, Börje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Elastic anisotropy of Earth's inner core2008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 319, no 5864, p. 797-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth's solid- iron inner core is elastically anisotropic. Sound waves propagate faster along Earth's spin axis than in the equatorial plane. This anisotropy has previously been explained by a preferred orientation of the iron alloy hexagonal crystals. However, hexagonal iron becomes increasingly isotropic on increasing temperature at pressures of the inner core and is therefore unlikely to cause the anisotropy. An alternative explanation, supported by diamond anvil cell experiments, is that iron adopts a body- centered cubic form in the inner core. We show, by molecular dynamics simulations, that the body- centered cubic iron phase is extremely anisotropic to sound waves despite its high symmetry. Direct simulations of seismic wave propagation reveal an anisotropy of 12%, a value adequate to explain the anisotropy of the inner core.

  • 20.
    Bennett, Keith D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Comment on "Sedimentary DNA from a submerged site reveals wheat in the British Isles 8000 years ago"2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 349, no 6245Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smith et al. (Reports, 27 February 2015, p. 998) identify wheat DNA from an 8000-calendar-years-before-the-present archaeological site in southern England and conclude that wheat was traded to Britain 2000 years before the arrival of agriculture. The DNA samples are not dated, either directly or from circumstantial evidence, so there is no chronological evidence to support the claim.

  • 21. Bertucci, C.
    et al.
    Achilleos, N.
    Dougherty, M. K.
    Modolo, R.
    Coates, A. J.
    Szego, K.
    Masters, A.
    Ma, Y.
    Neubauer, F. M.
    Garnier, P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Wahlund, Jan Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Young, D. T.
    The magnetic memory of Titan's ionized atmosphere2008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 321, no 5895, p. 1475-1478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After 3 years and 31 close flybys of Titan by the Cassini Orbiter, Titan was finally observed in the shocked solar wind, outside of Saturn's magnetosphere. These observations revealed that Titan's flow- induced magnetosphere was populated by "fossil" fields originating from Saturn, to which the satellite was exposed before its excursion through the magnetopause. In addition, strong magnetic shear observed at the edge of Titan's induced magnetosphere suggests that reconnection may have been involved in the replacement of the fossil fields by the interplanetary magnetic field.

  • 22.
    Bilde, Trine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Foged, Anne
    Schilling, Nadia
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Postmating Sexual Selection Favors Males That Sire Offspring with Low Fitness2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 324, no 5935, p. 1705-1706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the costs of mating, females of most taxa mate with multiple males. Polyandrous females are hypothesized to gain genetic benefits for their offspring, but this assumes paternity bias favoring male genotypes that enhance offspring viability. We determined net male genetic effects on female and offspring fitness in a seed beetle and then tested whether fertilization success was biased in favor of high-quality male genotypes in double mating experiments. Contrary to expectations, high-quality male genotypes consistently had a lower postmating fertilization success in two independent assays. Our results imply that sexually antagonistic adaptations have a major and unappreciated influence on male postmating fertilization success. Such genetic variation renders indirect genetic benefits an unlikely driver of the evolution of polyandry.

  • 23.
    Björkman, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Nagaev, I
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Berg, O G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Hughes, Diarmaid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Andersson, Dan I
    Effects of environment on compensatory mutations to ameliorate costs of antibiotic resistance2000In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 287, no 5457, p. 1479-1482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most types of antibiotic resistance impose a biological cost on bacterial fitness. These costs can be compensated, usually without loss of resistance, by second-site mutations during the evolution of the resistant bacteria in an experimental host or in a laboratory medium. Different fitness-compensating mutations were selected depending on whether the bacteria evolved through serial passage in mice or in a laboratory medium. This difference in mutation spectra was caused by either a growth condition-specific formation or selection of the compensated mutants. These results suggest that bacterial evolution to reduce the costs of antibiotic resistance can take different trajectories within and outside a host.

  • 24.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Smithers, Richard J.
    Ricardo Energy & Environm, Didcot OX11 0QR, Oxon, England..
    Bialowieza Forest: Political stands2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 359, no 6376, p. 646-646Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25. Bortnik, J.
    et al.
    Li, W.
    Thorne, R. M.
    Angelopoulos, V.
    Cully, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Bonnell, J.
    Le Contel, O.
    Roux, A.
    An Observation Linking the Origin of Plasmaspheric Hiss to Discrete Chorus Emissions2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 324, no 5928, p. 775-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long-standing problem in the field of space physics has been the origin of plasmaspheric hiss, a naturally occurring electromagnetic wave in the high-density plasmasphere (roughly within 20,000 kilometers of Earth) that is known to remove the high-energy Van Allen Belt electrons that pose a threat to satellites and astronauts. A recent theory tied the origin of plasmaspheric hiss to a seemingly different wave in the outer magnetosphere, but this theory was difficult to test because of a challenging set of observational requirements. Here we report on the experimental verification of the theory, made with a five-satellite NASA mission. This confirmation will allow modeling of plasmaspheric hiss and its effects on the high-energy radiation environment.

  • 26. Boutet, Sébastien
    et al.
    Lomb, Lukas
    Williams, Garth J
    Barends, Thomas R M
    Aquila, Andrew
    Doak, R Bruce
    Weierstall, Uwe
    DePonte, Daniel P
    Steinbrener, Jan
    Shoeman, Robert L
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Barty, Anton
    White, Thomas A
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Kirian, Richard A
    Seibert, M Marvin
    Montanez, Paul A
    Kenney, Chris
    Herbst, Ryan
    Hart, Philip
    Pines, Jack
    Haller, Gunther
    Gruner, Sol M
    Philipp, Hugh T
    Tate, Mark W
    Hromalik, Marianne
    Koerner, Lucas J
    van Bakel, Niels
    Morse, John
    Ghonsalves, Wilfred
    Arnlund, David
    Bogan, Michael J
    Caleman, Carl
    Fromme, Raimund
    Hampton, Christina Y
    Hunter, Mark S
    Johansson, Linda C
    Katona, Gergely
    Kupitz, Christopher
    Liang, Mengning
    Martin, Andrew V
    Nass, Karol
    Redecke, Lars
    Stellato, Francesco
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Wang, Dingjie
    Zatsepin, Nadia A
    Schafer, Donald
    Defever, James
    Neutze, Richard
    Fromme, Petra
    Spence, John C H
    Chapman, Henry N
    Schlichting, Ilme
    High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography2012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 337, no 6092, p. 362-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules.

  • 27. Brouns, Stan J
    et al.
    Jore, Matthijs M
    Lundgren, Magnus
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University.
    Westra, Edze R
    Slijkhuis, Rik J
    Snijders, Ambrosius P
    Dickman, Mark J
    Makarova, Kira S
    Koonin, Eugene V
    Van Der Oost, John
    Small CRISPR RNAs guide antiviral defense in prokaryotes2008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 321, no 5891, p. 960-964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prokaryotes acquire virus resistance by integrating short fragments of viral nucleic acid into clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs). Here we show how virus-derived sequences contained in CRISPRs are used by CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins from the host to mediate an antiviral response that counteracts infection. After transcription of the CRISPR, a complex of Cas proteins termed Cascade cleaves a CRISPR RNA precursor in each repeat and retains the cleavage products containing the virus-derived sequence. Assisted by the helicase Cas3, these mature CRISPR RNAs then serve as small guide RNAs that enable Cascade to interfere with virus proliferation. Our results demonstrate that the formation of mature guide RNAs by the CRISPR RNA endonuclease subunit of Cascade is a mechanistic requirement for antiviral defense.

  • 28.
    Bryhn, Andreas C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Håkanson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Eutrophication: Model Before Acting2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 324, no 5928, p. 723-723Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Burch, J. L.
    et al.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Torbert, R. B.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA.;Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Phan, T. D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Chen, L. -J
    Moore, T. E.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Ergun, R. E.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Eastwood, J. P.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Blackett Lab, London, England..
    Gershman, D. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Cassak, P. A.
    W Virginia Univ, Morgantown, WV 26506 USA..
    Argall, M. R.
    Univ New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Wang, S.
    Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hesse, M.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Pollock, C. J.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Giles, B. L.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Nakamura, R.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Mauk, B. H.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Fuselier, S. A.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Russell, C. T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Drake, J. F.
    Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Shay, M. A.
    Univ Delaware, Newark, DE USA..
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Lindqvist, P. -A
    Marklund, G.
    Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wilder, F. D.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Young, D. T.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Torkar, K.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Goldstein, J.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Dorelli, J. C.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Avanov, L. A.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA..
    Oka, M.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Baker, D. N.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Jaynes, A. N.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Goodrich, K. A.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Cohen, I. J.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Appl Phys Lab, Laurel, MD USA..
    Turner, D. L.
    Aerosp Corp, El Segundo, CA 90245 USA..
    Fennell, J. F.
    Aerosp Corp, El Segundo, CA 90245 USA..
    Blake, J. B.
    Aerosp Corp, El Segundo, CA 90245 USA..
    Clemmons, J.
    Aerosp Corp, El Segundo, CA 90245 USA..
    Goldman, M.
    Univ Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Newman, D.
    Univ Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Petrinec, S. M.
    Lockheed Martin Adv Technol Ctr, Palo Alto, CA USA..
    Trattner, K. J.
    Univ Colorado, LASP, Boulder, CO 80309 USA..
    Lavraud, B.
    Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, Toulouse, France..
    Reiff, P. H.
    Rice Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Houston, TX USA..
    Baumjohann, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Magnes, W.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Steller, M.
    Austrian Acad Sci, Space Res Inst, A-8010 Graz, Austria..
    Lewis, W.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio, TX USA..
    Saito, Y.
    Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229, Japan..
    Coffey, V.
    NASA, George C Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Huntsville, AL 35812 USA..
    Chandler, M.
    NASA, George C Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Huntsville, AL 35812 USA..
    Electron-scale measurements of magnetic reconnection in space2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 352, no 6290, p. 1189-+Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physical process in plasmas whereby stored magnetic energy is converted into heat and kinetic energy of charged particles. Reconnection occurs in many astrophysical plasma environments and in laboratory plasmas. Using measurements with very high time resolution, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has found direct evidence for electron demagnetization and acceleration at sites along the sunward boundary of Earth's magnetosphere where the interplanetary magnetic field reconnects with the terrestrial magnetic field. We have (i) observed the conversion of magnetic energy to particle energy; (ii) measured the electric field and current, which together cause the dissipation of magnetic energy; and (iii) identified the electron population that carries the current as a result of demagnetization and acceleration within the reconnection diffusion/dissipation region.

  • 30.
    Burt, Richard K.
    et al.
    Northwestern Univ, Div Immunotherapy, Chicago, IL 60611 USA..
    Snowden, John A.
    Sheffield Teaching Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Dept Haematol, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Burman, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Oliveira, Maria Carolina
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Sharrack, Basil
    Sheffield Teaching Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Dept Neurol, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England..
    Blogs cannot separate wheat from chaff2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 358, no 6363, p. 602-602Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31. Callier, Viviane
    et al.
    Clack, Jennifer A.
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology.
    Contrasting developmental trajectories in the earliest known tetrapod forelimbs2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 324, no 5925, p. 364-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ichthyostega and Acanthostega are the earliest tetrapods known from multiple near-complete skeletons, with Acanthostega generally considered the more primitive. New material indicates differing ontogenetic trajectories for their forelimbs: In Ichthyostega, the   pattern of muscle attachment processes on small humeri (upper armbones) resembles that in "fish" members of the tetrapod stem group such as Tiktaalik, whereas large humeri approach (but fail to attain) the tetrapod crown-group condition; in Acanthostega, both small and large humeri exhibit the crown-group pattern. We infer that Ichthyostega   underwent greater locomotory terrestrialization during ontogeny. The newly recognized primitive characteristics also suggest that Ichthyostega could be phylogenetically more basal than Acanthostega.

  • 32.
    Cao, Qing
    et al.
    IBM Watson Research.
    Han, Shu-Jen
    IBM Watson Research.
    Tersoff, Jerry
    IBM Watson Research.
    Franklin, Aaron
    IBM Watson Research.
    Zhu, Yu
    IBM Watson Research.
    Zhang, Zhen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics. IBM Watson Research.
    Tulevski, George
    IBM Watson Research.
    Tang, Jianshi
    Haensch, Wilfried
    End-Bonded Mo2C Contacts for Carbon Nanotube Transistors with Low, Size-Independent Resistance2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Carneiro, Miguel
    et al.
    Rubin, Carl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Di Palma, Federica
    Albert, Frank W.
    Alfoeldi, Jessica
    Barrio, Alvaro Martinez
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Pielberg, Gerli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rafati, Nima
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Sayyab, Shumaila
    Turner-Maier, Jason
    Younis, Shady
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Afonso, Sandra
    Aken, Bronwen
    Alves, Joel M.
    Barrell, Daniel
    Bolet, Gerard
    Boucher, Samuel
    Burbano, Hernan A.
    Campos, Rita
    Chang, Jean L.
    Duranthon, Veronique
    Fontanesi, Luca
    Garreau, Herve
    Heiman, David
    Johnson, Jeremy
    Mage, Rose G.
    Peng, Ze
    Queney, Guillaume
    Rogel-Gaillard, Claire
    Ruffier, Magali
    Searle, Steve
    Villafuerte, Rafael
    Xiong, Anqi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer and Vascular Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Young, Sarah
    Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Cancer and Vascular Biology.
    Good, Jeffrey M.
    Lander, Eric S.
    Ferrand, Nuno
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Rabbit genome analysis reveals a polygenic basis for phenotypic change during domestication2014In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 345, no 6200, p. 1074-1079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The genetic changes underlying the initial steps of animal domestication are still poorly understood. We generated a high-quality reference genome for the rabbit and compared it to resequencing data from populations of wild and domestic rabbits. We identified more than 100 selective sweeps specific to domestic rabbits but only a relatively small number of fixed (or nearly fixed) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for derived alleles. SNPs with marked allele frequency differences between wild and domestic rabbits were enriched for conserved noncoding sites. Enrichment analyses suggest that genes affecting brain and neuronal development have often been targeted during domestication. We propose that because of a truly complex genetic background, tame behavior in rabbits and other domestic animals evolved by shifts in allele frequencies at many loci, rather than by critical changes at only a few domestication loci.

  • 34.
    Chapman, Colin Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Benedict, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Sex matters: Report experimenter gender2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 356, no 6341, p. 916-917Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Choi, Murim
    et al.
    Scholl, Ute I.
    Yue, Peng
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Zhao, Bixiao
    Nelson-Williams, Carol
    Ji, Weizhen
    Cho, Yoonsang
    Patel, Aniruddh
    Men, Clara J.
    Lolis, Elias
    Wisgerhof, Max V.
    Geller, David S.
    Mane, Shrikant
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Åkerström, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Wang, Wenhui
    Carling, Tobias
    Lifton, Richard P.
    K+ Channel Mutations in Adrenal Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas and Hereditary Hypertension2011In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 331, no 6018, p. 768-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endocrine tumors such as aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas (APAs), a cause of severe hypertension, feature constitutive hormone production and unrestrained cell proliferation; the mechanisms linking these events are unknown. We identify two recurrent somatic mutations in and near the selectivity filter of the potassium (K+) channel KCNJ5 that are present in 8 of 22 human APAs studied. Both produce increased sodium (Na+) conductance and cell depolarization, which in adrenal glomerulosa cells produces calcium (Ca2+) entry, the signal for aldosterone production and cell proliferation. Similarly, we identify an inherited KCNJ5 mutation that produces increased Na+ conductance in a Mendelian form of severe aldosteronism and massive bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. These findings explain pathogenesis in a subset of patients with severe hypertension and implicate loss of K+ channel selectivity in constitutive cell proliferation and hormone production.

  • 36.
    Daley, Allison C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Budd, Graham E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology.
    Caron, Jean-Bernard
    Royal Ontario Museum.
    Edgecombe, Gregory D.
    Natural History Museum, London.
    Collins, Desmond
    The Burgess Shale Anomalocaridid Hurdia and Its Significance for Early Euarthropod Evolution2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 323, no 5921, p. 1597-1600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the largest predators of the Cambrian seas, the anomalocaridids had an important impact in structuring the first complex marine animal communities, but many aspects of anomalocaridid morphology, diversity, ecology, and affinity remain unclear owing to a paucity of specimens. Here we describe the anomalocaridid Hurdia, based on several hundred specimens from the Burgess Shale in Canada. Hurdia possesses a general body architecture similar to Anomalocaris and Laggania, including the presence of exceptionally well-preserved gills, but differs from those anomalocaridids by possessing a prominent anterior carapace structure. These features amplify and clarify the diversity of known anomalocaridid morphology and provide insight into the origins of important arthropod features, such as the head shield and respiratory exites.

  • 37.
    Dejana, Elisabetta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. FIRC Inst Mol Oncol, Milan, Italy; niv Milan, Dept Oncol & Hematooncol, Milan, Italy.
    Betsholtz, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oligodendrocytes follow blood vessel trails in the brain Brain microvasculature is a scaffold for neuroglial migration2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 351, no 6271, p. 341-342Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Diard, Mederic
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Microbiol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Bakkeren, Erik
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Microbiol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Cornuault, Jeffrey K.
    Univ Paris Saclay, AgroParisTech, INRA, Micalis Inst, F-78350 Jouy En Josas, France..
    Moor, Kathrin
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Microbiol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Hausmann, Annika
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Microbiol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Sellin, Mikael E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Microbiol, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Loverdo, Claude
    UPMC, CNRS, Lab Jean Perrin, UMR 8237, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Aertsen, Abram
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Microbial & Mol Syst, Leuven, Belgium..
    Ackermann, Martin
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Dept Environm Syst Sci, Zurich, Switzerland.;Eawag, Dept Environm Microbiol, Dubendorf, Switzerland..
    De Paepe, Marianne
    Univ Paris Saclay, AgroParisTech, INRA, Micalis Inst, F-78350 Jouy En Josas, France..
    Slack, Emma
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Microbiol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Microbiol, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Inflammation boosts bacteriophage transfer between Salmonella spp.2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 355, no 6330, p. 1211-1215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteriophage transfer (lysogenic conversion) promotes bacterial virulence evolution. There is limited understanding of the factors that determine lysogenic conversion dynamics within infected hosts. Amurine Salmonella Typhimurium (S.Tm) diarrhea model was used to study the transfer of SopEF, a prophage from S.Tm SL1344, to S.Tm ATCC14028S. Gut inflammation and enteric disease triggered >55% lysogenic conversion of ATCC14028S within 3 days. Without inflammation, SopEF transfer was reduced by up to 10(5)-fold. This was because inflammation (e.g., reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, hypochlorite) triggers the bacterial SOS response, boosts expression of the phage antirepressor Tum, and thereby promotes free phage production and subsequent transfer. Mucosal vaccination prevented a dense intestinal S.Tm population from inducing inflammation and consequently abolished SopEF transfer. Vaccination may be a general strategy for blocking pathogen evolution that requires disease-driven transfer of temperate bacteriophages.

  • 39. Drögemüller, Cord
    et al.
    Karlsson, Elinor K
    Hytönen, Marjo K
    Perloski, Michele
    Dolf, Gaudenz
    Sainio, Kirsi
    Lohi, Hannes
    Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Leeb, Tosso
    A mutation in hairless dogs implicates FOXI3 in ectodermal development2008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 321, no 5895, p. 1462-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mexican and Peruvian hairless dogs and Chinese crested dogs are characterized by missing hair and teeth, a phenotype termed canine ectodermal dysplasia (CED). CED is inherited as a monogenic autosomal semidominant trait. With genomewide association analysis we mapped the CED mutation to a 102-kilo-base pair interval on chromosome 17. The associated interval contains a previously uncharacterized member of the forkhead box transcription factor family (FOXI3), which is specifically expressed in developing hair and teeth. Mutation analysis revealed a frameshift mutation within the FOXI3 coding sequence in hairless dogs. Thus, we have identified FOXI3 as a regulator of ectodermal development.

  • 40. Dubrovinsky, L.
    et al.
    Dubrovinskaia, N.
    Narygina, O.
    Kantor, I.
    Kuznetzov, A.
    Prakapenka, V. B.
    Vitos, Levente
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Mikhaylushkin, A. S.
    Simak, S. I.
    Abrikosov, I. A.
    Body-centered cubic iron-nickel alloy in Earth's core2007In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 316, no 5833, p. 1880-1883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cosmochemical, geochemical, and geophysical studies provide evidence that Earth's core contains iron with substantial (5 to 15%) amounts of nickel. The iron-nickel alloy Fe0.9Ni0.1 has been studied in situ by means of angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction in internally heated diamond anvil cells (DACs), and its resistance has been measured as a function of pressure and temperature. At pressures above 225 gigapascals and temperatures over 3400 kelvin, Fe0.9Ni0.1 adopts a body-centered cubic structure. Our experimental and theoretical results not only support the interpretation of shockwave data on pure iron as showing a solid-solid phase transition above about 200 gigapascals but also suggest that iron alloys with geochemically reasonable compositions (that is, with substantial nickel, sulfur, or silicon content) adopt the bcc structure in Earth's inner core.

  • 41.
    Dumanski, Jan P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rasi, Chiara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Davies, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Magnusson, Patrik K. E.
    Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Cecilia M.
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK;Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK;Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Cesarini, David
    Center for Experimental Social Science, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA.
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tiensuu Janson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine oncology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Forsberg, Lars A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Mutagenesis: smoking is associated with mosaic loss of chromosome Y2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 347, no 6217, p. 81-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for numerous disorders, including cancers affecting organs outside the respiratory tract. Epidemiological data suggest that smoking is a greater risk factor for these cancers in males compared to females. This observation, together with the fact that males have a higher incidence of and mortality from most non-sex-specific cancers, remains unexplained. Loss of chromosome Y (LOY) in blood cells is associated with increased risk of nonhematological tumors. We demonstrate here that smoking is associated with LOY in blood cells in three independent cohorts [TwinGene: odds ratio (OR) = 4.3, 95% CI = 2.8-6.7; ULSAM: OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.6-3.6; and PIVUS: OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.4-8.4] encompassing a total of 6014 men. The data also suggest that smoking has a transient and dose-dependent mutagenic effect on LOY status. The finding that smoking induces LOY thus links a preventable risk factor with the most common acquired human mutation.

  • 42.
    Elf, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Li, Gene-Wei
    Xie, X Sunney
    Probing transcription factor dynamics at the single-molecule level in a living cell.2007In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 316, no 5828, p. 1191-1194Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcription factors regulate gene expression through their binding to DNA. In a living Escherichia coli cell, we directly observed specific binding of a lac repressor, labeled with a fluorescent protein, to a chromosomal lac operator. Using single-molecule detection techniques, we measured the kinetics of binding and dissociation of the repressor in response to metabolic signals. Furthermore, we characterized the nonspecific binding to DNA, one-dimensional (1D) diffusion along DNA segments, and 3D translocation among segments through cytoplasm at the single-molecule level. In searching for the operator, a lac repressor spends ~90% of time nonspecifically bound to and diffusing along DNA with a residence time of <5 milliseconds. The methods and findings can be generalized to other nucleic acid binding proteins.

  • 43.
    El-Maarry, M. Ramy
    et al.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.;Univ Colorado, Lab Atmospher & Space Phys, Boulder, CO 80301 USA..
    Groussin, O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, Lab Astrophys Marseille, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Thomas, N.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Pajola, M.
    NASA, Ames Res Ctr, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA..
    Auger, A. -T
    Davidsson, B.
    Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA..
    Hu, X.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Hviid, S. F.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Knollenberg, J.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Guettler, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Tubiana, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Fornasier, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ,CNRS,LESIA, UPMC Univ Paris 06,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Ci, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Feller, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ,CNRS,LESIA, UPMC Univ Paris 06,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Ci, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Hasselmann, P.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ,CNRS,LESIA, UPMC Univ Paris 06,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Ci, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Vincent, J. -B
    Sierks, H.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Barbieri, C.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lamy, P.
    CNRS, Lab Astrophys Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille 13, France.;Univ Aix Marseille, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    Rodrigo, R.
    Inst Nacl Tecn Aeroespacial, Ctr Astrobiol, Madrid 28850, Spain.;Int Space Sci Inst, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Koschny, D.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA, Operat Dept, POB 78, Madrid 28691, Spain..
    Keller, H. U.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterr Phys, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Polish Acad Sci, Space Res Ctr, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    A'Hearn, M. F.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Barucci, M. A.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ,CNRS,LESIA, UPMC Univ Paris 06,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Ci, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Bertaux, J. -L
    Bertini, I.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Besse, S.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA, Operat Dept, POB 78, Madrid 28691, Spain..
    Bodewits, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Cremonese, G.
    Osserv Astron Padova, Ist Nazl Astrofis, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Da Deppo, V.
    CNR, Ist Foton & Nanotecnol, Unita Org Supporto, Padova Luxor, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Debei, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Ind Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    De Cecco, M.
    Univ Trento, I-38123 Trento, Italy..
    Deller, J.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Deshapriya, J. D. P.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ,CNRS,LESIA, UPMC Univ Paris 06,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Ci, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Fulle, M.
    Osserv Astron Trieste, INAF, I-34014 Trieste, Italy..
    Gutierrez, P. J.
    Inst Astrofis Andalucia CSIC, C Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Hofmann, M.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Ip, W. -H
    Jorda, L.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, Lab Astrophys Marseille, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Kovacs, G.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Kramm, J. -R
    Kuehrt, E.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kueppers, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA, Operat Dept, POB 78, Madrid 28691, Spain..
    Lara, L. M.
    Inst Astrofis Andalucia CSIC, C Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Lazzarin, M.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lin, Z. -Yi
    Natl Cent Univ, Grad Inst Astron, Chungli 32054, Taiwan..
    Moreno, J. J. Lopez
    Inst Astrofis Andalucia CSIC, C Glorieta Astron S-N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Marchi, S.
    Southwest Res Inst, Virtual Inst, Solar Syst Explorat Res, Boulder, CO 80302 USA..
    Marzari, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Mottola, S.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Naletto, G.
    CNR, Ist Foton & Nanotecnol, Unita Org Supporto, Padova Luxor, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Dept Informat Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi & Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Col, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Oklay, N.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Pommerol, A.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Preusker, F.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Scholten, F.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Shi, X.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Surface changes on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko suggest a more active past2017In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 355, no 6332, p. 1392-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rosetta spacecraft spent similar to 2 years orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, most of it at distances that allowed surface characterization and monitoring at submeter scales. From December 2014 to June 2016, numerous localized changes were observed, which we attribute to cometary-specific weathering, erosion, and transient events driven by exposure to sunlight and other processes. While the localized changes suggest compositional or physical heterogeneity, their scale has not resulted in substantial alterations to the comet's landscape. This suggests that most of the major landforms were created early in the comet's current orbital configuration. They may even date from earlier if the comet had a larger volatile inventory, particularly of CO or CO2 ices, or contained amorphous ice, which could have triggered activity at greater distances from the Sun.

  • 44. Elsik, Christine G.
    et al.
    Tellam, Ross L.
    Worley, Kim C.
    Gibbs, Richard A.
    Abatepaulo, Antonio R. R.
    Abbey, Colette A.
    Adelson, David L.
    Aerts, Jan
    Ahola, Virpi
    Alexander, Lee
    Alioto, Tyler
    Almeida, Iassudara G.
    Amadio, Ariel F.
    Anatriello, Elen
    Antonarakis, Stylianos E.
    Anzola, Juan M.
    Astashyn, Alex
    Bahadue, Suria M.
    Baldwin, Cynthia L.
    Barris, Wes
    Baxter, Rebecca
    Bell, Stephanie Nicole
    Bennett, Anna K.
    Bennett, Gary L.
    Biase, Fernando H.
    Boldt, Clayton R.
    Bradley, Daniel G.
    Brinkman, Fiona S. L.
    Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.
    Brown, Wendy C.
    Brownstein, Michael J.
    Buhay, Christian
    Caetano, Alexandre R.
    Camara, Francisco
    Carroll, Jeffrey A.
    Carvalho, Wanessa A.
    Casey, Theresa
    Cervelatti, Elaine P.
    Chack, Joseph
    Chacko, Elsa
    Chandrabose, Mimi M.
    Chapin, Jennifer E.
    Chapple, Charles E.
    Chen, Hsiu-Chuan
    Chen, Lin
    Cheng, Ye
    Cheng, Ze
    Childers, Christopher P.
    Chitko-McKown, Carol G.
    Chiu, Readman
    Choi, Jungwoo
    Chrast, Jacqueline
    Colley, Adam J.
    Connelley, Tomothy
    Cree, Andy
    Curry, Stacey
    Dalrymple, Brian
    Diep Dao, Marvin
    Davis, Clay
    de Oliveira, Carlo J. F.
    de Miranda Santos, Isabel K. F.
    de Campos, Tatiana A.
    Deobald, Heather
    Devinoy, Eve
    Dickins, C. Michael
    Yan, Ding
    Dinh, Huyen H.
    De Donato, Marcos
    Donohue, Kaitlin E.
    Donthu, Ravikiran
    Dovc, Peter
    Dugan-Rocha, Shannon
    Durbin, K. James
    Eberlein, Annett
    Edgar, Robert C.
    Egan, Amy
    Eggen, Andre
    Eichler, Evan E.
    Elhaik, Eran
    Ellis, Shirley A.
    Elnitski, Laura
    Ermolaeva, Olga
    Eyras, Eduardo
    Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J.
    Fowler, Gerald R.
    Franzin, Alessandra M.
    Fritz, Krista
    Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha
    Garcia, Gustavo R.
    Garcia, Jose Fernando
    Genini, Sem
    Gerlach, Daniel
    German, J. Bruce
    Gilbert, James G. R.
    Gill, Clare A.
    Gladney, Cody J.
    Glass, Elizabeth J.
    Goodell, Jason
    Grant, Jason R.
    Graur, Dan
    Greaser, Marion L.
    Green, Jonathan A.
    Green, Ronnie D.
    Guan, Leluo
    Guigo, Roderic
    Hadsell, Darryl L.
    Hagen, Darren E.
    Hakimov, Hatam A.
    Halgren, Rob
    Hamernik, Debora L.
    Hamilton, Cerissa
    Harhay, Gregory P.
    Harrow, Jennifer L.
    Hart, Elizabeth A.
    Hastings, Nicola
    Havlak, Paul
    Henrichsen, Charlotte N.
    Hernandez, Judith
    Hernandez, Marta
    Herzig, Carolyn T. A.
    Hiendleder, Stefan G.
    Hines, Sandra
    Hitchens, Matthew Edward
    Hlavina, Wratko
    Hobbs, Matthew
    Holder, Michael
    Holt, Robert A.
    Hu, Zhi-Liang
    Hume, Jennifer
    Iivanainen, Antti
    Ingham, Aaron
    Iso-Touru, Terhi
    Jamis, Catherine
    Jann, Oliver
    Jensen, Kirsty
    Jhangiani, Shalini N.
    Jiang, Huaiyang
    Johnson, Angela Jolivet
    Jones, Steven J. M.
    Joshi, Vandita
    Junier, Thomas
    Kapetis, Dimos
    Kappes, Steve M.
    Kapustin, Yuri
    Keele, John W.
    Kent, Matthew P.
    Kerr, Tovah
    Khalil, Sari S.
    Khatib, Hasan
    Kiryutin, Boris
    Kitts, Paul
    Kokocinski, Felix
    Kolbehdari, Davood
    Kovar, Christie L.
    Kriventseva, Evgenia V.
    Kumar, Charu G.
    Kumar, Dinesh
    Lahmers, Kevin K.
    Landrum, Melissa
    Larkin, Denis M.
    Lau, Lilian P. L.
    Leach, Richard
    Lee, Justin C. M.
    Lee, Sandra
    Lemay, Danielle G.
    Lewin, Harris A.
    Lewis, Lora R.
    Li, Changxi
    Lien, Sigbjorn
    Liu, George E.
    Liu, Yih-shin
    Liu, Yue
    Logan, Krystin M.
    Lopez, John
    Lozado, Ryan J.
    Lutzow, Ylva Strandberg
    Lynn, David J.
    MacNeil, Michael D.
    Maglott, Donna
    Malinverni, Roberto
    Maqbool, Nauman J.
    Marques, Elisa
    Marra, Marco A.
    Martin, William F.
    Martins, Natalia F.
    Maruyama, Sandra R.
    Matukumalli, Lakshmi K.
    Mazza, Raffaele
    McEwan, John C.
    McKay, Stephanie D.
    McLean, Kim L.
    McWilliam, Sean
    Medrano, Juan F.
    Memili, Erdogan
    Moen, Charles
    Molenaar, Adrian J.
    Moore, Stephen S.
    Moore, Richard
    More, Daniela D.
    Moreno, Barbara T.
    Morgan, Margaret B.
    Muntean, Carl T.
    Muzny, Donna M.
    Nandakumar, Hari P.
    Nazareth, Lynne V.
    Nguyen, Ngoc Bich
    Nicholas, Frank W.
    Nogueira, Marcelo F. G.
    Okwuonu, Geoffrey O.
    Olsaker, Ingrid
    Pant, Sameer D.
    Panzitta, Francesca
    Pastor, Rosemeire C. P.
    Patel, Bella Mayurkumar
    Payne, Gemma M.
    Plass, Mireya
    Poli, Mario A.
    Poslusny, Nathan
    Pruitt, Kim
    Pu, Ling-Ling
    Qin, Xiang
    Rachagani, Satyanarayana
    Raison, Joy M.
    Ranganathan, Shoba
    Ratnakumar, Abhirami
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Razpet, Andrej
    Reecy, James
    Reese, Justin T.
    Ren, Yanru
    Reymond, Alexandre
    Riggs, Penny K.
    Rijnkels, Monique
    Rincon, Gonzalo
    Roberts, Andy
    Rodriguez-Osorio, Nelida
    Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.
    Romero, Natasha E.
    Rosenwald, Anne
    Ruiz, San Juana
    Sabo, Aniko
    Salih, Hanni
    Sando, Lillian
    Santibanez, Jireh
    Sapojnikov, Victor
    Schein, Jacqueline E.
    Schmutz, Sheila M.
    Schnabel, Robert D.
    Schook, Lawrence
    Searle, Stephen M.
    Seo, Seongwon
    Shen, Yufeng
    Shen, Libing
    Sherman, Laura
    Skow, Loren C.
    Smith, Timothy
    Snelling, Warren M.
    Sodergren, Erica
    Solovyev, Victor
    Song, Henry
    Song, Jiuzhou
    Sonstegard, Tad S.
    Southey, Bruce R.
    Souvorov, Alexandre
    Spurlock, Diane
    Steffen, David
    Stone, Roger T.
    Stothard, Paul
    Sugimoto, Yoshikazu
    Sweedler, Jonathan V.
    Takasuga, Akiko
    Tammen, Imke
    Taniguchi, Masaaki
    Taylor, Jeremy F.
    Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V. L.
    Ucla, Catherine
    Urbanski, Jennifer M.
    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.
    Van, Curtis P.
    Vattathil, Selina
    Verschoor, Chris P.
    Waardenberg, Ashley J.
    Walker, Angela
    Wang, Zhiquan
    Ward, Robert
    Warren, James T.
    Waterman, Richard C.
    Weikard, Rosemarie
    Weinstock, George M.
    Welsh, Thomas H., Jr.
    Wheeler, David A.
    Wheeler, Thomas T.
    White, Stephen N.
    Whiteside, Matthew D.
    Wilczek-Boney, Katarzyna
    Williams, John L.
    Williams, Rex Lee, Jr.
    Wilming, Laurens G.
    Womack, James
    Wright, Rita A.
    Wunderlich, Kris R.
    Wyss, Carine
    Yang, Mary Q.
    Yang, Jianqi
    Zdobnov, Evgeny M.
    Zhang, Jingkun
    Zhao, Feng-Qi
    Zhu, Bin
    The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle: A Window to Ruminant Biology and Evolution2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 324, no 5926, p. 522-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.

  • 45.
    Ettema, Thijs
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Andersson, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Comment on "A 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate autotrophic carbon dioxide assimilation pathway in Archaea"2008In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 321, no 5887, p. 342-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Berg et al. (Reports, 14 December 2007, p. 1782) reported the discovery of an autotrophic carbon dioxide-fixation pathway in Archaea and implicated a substantial role of this pathway in global carbon cycling based on sequence analysis of Global Ocean Sampling data. We question the validity of the latter claim.

  • 46.
    Fornasier, S.
    et al.
    Sorbonne Univ, UPMC Univ Paris 06,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris Diderot,PSL Res Univ, CNRS,Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92125 Meudon, France..
    Mottola, S.
    Inst Planetenforschung Asteroiden & Kometen, Deutsches Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Rutherfordstrafle 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Keller, H. U.
    Inst Planetenforschung Asteroiden & Kometen, Deutsches Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Rutherfordstrafle 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, IGEP, Mendelssohnstr 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Barucci, M. A.
    Sorbonne Univ, UPMC Univ Paris 06,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris Diderot,PSL Res Univ, CNRS,Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92125 Meudon, France..
    Davidsson, B.
    Jet Prop Lab, M-S 183-301,4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA..
    Feller, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, UPMC Univ Paris 06,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris Diderot,PSL Res Univ, CNRS,Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92125 Meudon, France..
    Deshapriya, J. D. P.
    Sorbonne Univ, UPMC Univ Paris 06,Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris Diderot,PSL Res Univ, CNRS,Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92125 Meudon, France..
    Sierks, H.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Barbieri, C.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lamy, P. L.
    CNRS, Lab Astrophys Marseille, UMR 7326, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille 13, France.;Univ Aix Marseille, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    Rodrigo, R.
    Inst Astrofis Andalucia CSIC, C Glorieta Astron S N, Granada 18008, Spain.;Int Space Sci Inst, Hallerstr 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Koschny, D.
    European Space Res & Technol Centre ESA, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1,Postbus 299, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Polish Acad Sci, Space Res Ctr, Bartycka 18A, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    A'Hearn, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys & Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Agarwal, J.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Bertaux, J. -L
    Bertini, I.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Besse, S.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA, Operat Dept, POB 78, F-28691 Madrid, Spain..
    Cremonese, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Via Venezia 1, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Da Deppo, V.
    CNR, IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, Via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Debei, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Mech Engn, Via Venezia 1, I-35131 Trento, Italy..
    De Cecco, M.
    Univ Trent, Via Mesiano 77, I-38100 Trento, Italy..
    Deller, J.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    El-Maarry, M. R.
    Univ Bern, Phys Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Fulle, M.
    Osserv Astron Trieste, INAF, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34014 Trieste, Italy..
    Groussin, O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, LAM, UMR 7326, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    Gutierrez, P. J.
    Inst Astrofis Andalucia CSIC, C Glorieta Astron S N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Guettler, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Hofmann, M.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Hviid, S. F.
    Inst Planetenforschung Asteroiden & Kometen, Deutsches Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Rutherfordstrafle 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Ip, W. -H
    Jorda, L.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, LAM, UMR 7326, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    Knollenberg, J.
    Kovacs, G.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany.;Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary..
    Kramm, R.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Kuehrt, E.
    Inst Planetenforschung Asteroiden & Kometen, Deutsches Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Rutherfordstrafle 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kuppers, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA, Operat Dept, POB 78, F-28691 Madrid, Spain..
    Lara, M. L.
    Inst Astrofis Andalucia CSIC, C Glorieta Astron S N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Lazzarin, M.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Moreno, J. J. Lopez
    Inst Astrofis Andalucia CSIC, C Glorieta Astron S N, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Marzari, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Massironi, M.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Geosci, Via G Gradenigo 6, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Ctr Studies & Act Space CISAS, Via Venezia 15, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Naletto, G.
    CNR, IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, Via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Ctr Studies & Act Space CISAS, Via Venezia 15, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Dept Informat Engn, Via Gradenigo 6-B, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Oklay, N.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Pajola, M.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Studies & Act Space CISAS, Via Venezia 15, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;NASA, Ames Res Ctr, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA..
    Pommerol, A.
    Univ Bern, Phys Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Preusker, F.
    Inst Planetenforschung Asteroiden & Kometen, Deutsches Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Rutherfordstrafle 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Scholten, F.
    Inst Planetenforschung Asteroiden & Kometen, Deutsches Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Rutherfordstrafle 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Shi, X.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Thomas, N.
    Univ Bern, Phys Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Toth, I.
    MTA CSFK Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege M Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Tubiana, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Vincent, J. -B
    Rosetta's comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko sheds its dusty mantle to reveal its icy nature2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 354, no 6319, p. 1566-1570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rosetta spacecraft has investigated comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from large heliocentric distances to its perihelion passage and beyond. We trace the seasonal and diurnal evolution of the colors of the 67P nucleus, finding changes driven by sublimation and recondensation of water ice. The whole nucleus became relatively bluer near perihelion, as increasing activity removed the surface dust, implying that water ice is widespread underneath the surface. We identified large (1500 square meters) ice-rich patches appearing and then vanishing in about 10 days, indicating small-scale heterogeneities on the nucleus. Thin frosts sublimating in a few minutes are observed close to receding shadows, and rapid variations in color are seen on extended areas close to the terminator. These cyclic processes are widespread and lead to continuously, slightly varying surface properties.

  • 47.
    Forsberg, Joanna Stjernschantz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Inoue, Yusuke
    Beware Side Effects of Research Ethics Revision2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 341, no 6152, p. 1341-1342Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48. Fritz, D. M.
    et al.
    Reis, D. A.
    Adams, B.
    Akre, R. A.
    Arthur, J.
    Blome, C.
    Bucksbaum, P. H.
    Cavalieri, A. L.
    Engemann, S.
    Fahy, S.
    Falcone, R. W.
    Fuoss, P. H.
    Gaffney, K. J.
    George, M. J.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Hertlein, M. P.
    Hillyard, P. B.
    Hoegen, M. Horn-von
    Kammler, M.
    Kaspar, J.
    Kienberger, R.
    Krejcik, P.
    Lee, S. H.
    Lindenberg, A. M.
    McFarland, B.
    Meyer, D.
    Montagne, T.
    Murray, E. D.
    Nelson, A. J.
    Nicoul, M.
    Pahl, R.
    Rudati, J.
    Schlarb, H.
    Siddons, D. P.
    Sokolowski-Tinten, K.
    Tschentscher, Th.
    von der Linde, D.
    Hastings, J. B.
    Ultrafast bond softening in bismuth: Mapping a solid's interatomic potential with X-rays2007In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 315, no 5812, p. 633-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intense femtosecond laser excitation can produce transient states of matter that would otherwise be inaccessible to laboratory investigation. At high excitation densities, the interatomic forces that bind solids and determine many of their properties can be substantially altered. Here, we present the detailed mapping of the carrier density-dependent interatomic potential of bismuth approaching a solid-solid phase transition. Our experiments combine stroboscopic techniques that use a high-brightness linear electron accelerator-based x-ray source with pulse-by-pulse timing reconstruction for femtosecond resolution, allowing quantitative characterization of the interatomic potential energy surface of the highly excited solid.

  • 49. Gao, YG
    et al.
    Selmer, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structural Molecular Biology.
    Dunham, CM
    Weixlbaumer, A
    Kelley, AC
    Ramakrishnan, V
    The structure of the ribosome with elongation factor G trapped in the posttranslocational state2009In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 326, no 5953, p. 694-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elongation factor G (EF-G) is a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that plays a crucial role in the translocation of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and messenger RNA (mRNA) during translation by the ribosome. We report a crystal structure refined to 3.6 angstrom resolution of the ribosome trapped with EF-G in the posttranslocational state using the antibiotic fusidic acid. Fusidic acid traps EF-G in a conformation intermediate between the guanosine triphosphate and guanosine diphosphate forms. The interaction of EF-G with ribosomal elements implicated in stimulating catalysis, such as the L10-L12 stalk and the L11 region, and of domain IV of EF-G with the tRNA at the peptidyl-tRNA binding site (P site) and with mRNA shed light on the role of these elements in EF-G function. The stabilization of the mobile stalks of the ribosome also results in a more complete description of its structure.

  • 50. Gardner, Alex S.
    et al.
    Moholdt, Geir
    Cogley, J. Graham
    Wouters, Bert
    Arendt, Anthony A.
    Wahr, John
    Berthier, Etienne
    Hock, Regine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pfeffer, W. Tad
    Kaser, Georg
    Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.
    Bolch, Tobias
    Sharp, Martin J.
    Hagen, Jon Ove
    van den Broeke, Michiel R.
    Paul, Frank
    A Reconciled Estimate of Glacier Contributions to Sea Level Rise: 2003 to 20092013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 340, no 6134, p. 852-857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glaciers distinct from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets are losing large amounts of water to the world's oceans. However, estimates of their contribution to sea level rise disagree. We provide a consensus estimate by standardizing existing, and creating new, mass-budget estimates from satellite gravimetry and altimetry and from local glaciological records. In many regions, local measurements are more negative than satellite-based estimates. All regions lost mass during 2003-2009, with the largest losses from Arctic Canada, Alaska, coastal Greenland, the southern Andes, and high-mountain Asia, but there was little loss from glaciers in Antarctica. Over this period, the global mass budget was -259 +/- 28 gigatons per year, equivalent to the combined loss from both ice sheets and accounting for 29 +/- 13% of the observed sea level rise.

123 1 - 50 of 149
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