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  • 1.
    Nilsson, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Gothenburg Universtiy.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Nordvall, Anna-Carin
    Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Importance ratings of grocery store attributes2015In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 63-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive set of grocery store attributes that can be standardized and used in empirical research aiming at increasing retailers´ understanding of determinants of grocery store choice, and assessing how the relative importance of the attributes is affected by consumer socio-demographic characteristics and shopping behaviour.

    Design/methodology/approach: An Internet survey of 1,575 Swedish consumers was conducted. A large set of attributes was rated by the participants on seven-point scales with respect to their importance for choice of grocery store. Principal component analysis resulted in a reduced set of reliably measured aggregated attributes. This set included the attractiveness attributes price level, supply range, supply quality, service quality, storescape quality, facilities for childcare, and closeness to other stores, and the accessibility attributes easy access by car, easy access by other travel modes, and availability (closeness to store and opening hours).

    Findings: The results showed that accessibility by car is the most important grocery store attribute, storescape quality and availability the next most important and facilities for childcare the least important. It was also found that socio-demographic factors and shopping behaviour have an impact on the importance of the store attributes.

    Originality/value: A comprehensive set of attractiveness and accessibility attributes of grocery stores that can be standardized and used in empirical research is established. The results are valid for the Swedish-European conditions that differ from the conditions in North America where most previous research has been conducted. The results reveal the relative importance grocery-shopping consumers place on controllable attractiveness attributes compared to uncontrollable accessibility attributes as well as the relative importance of the attributes within each category.

  • 2.
    Veflen Olsen, Nina
    et al.
    Nofima.
    Sallis, James
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Processes and Outcomes of Distributor Brand New Product Development: An Exploratory Examination2010In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 379-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Most new product development (NPD) studies focus on manufacturer brands; few consider distributor brands. This paper investigates whether NPD processes and outcomes differ between manufacturers and distributors. 

    Design/methodology/approach - Interviews within the grocery industry in Norway and analysis of sales numbers from an AC Nielsen ScanTrack database illustrate that through different NPD processes manufacturers and distributors reach different outcomes.

    Findings – Distributors differ from manufacturers in the NPD process in several ways: more in-store interaction resulting in very market-driven products. They usually outsource technical development, and launch brands with substantially less market communication through fewer marketing channels. Distributors, who mostly develop copycat products of large volume manufacturer brands, have lower failure rates. More surprising, the study reveals that distributor brands achieve faster growth in market share than manufacturer brands when brand concentration is low, and some low volume distributor brands have a higher average retail price than manufacturer brands, indicating that different private label categories exist.

    Research limitations/implications –The sample had only three product categories (pizza, juice, and jam). Replication with other categories in other industries would help validate the results. The distributor NPD process and outcomes are still not well understood, and as distributors move into more value-added products it will evolve, requiring further research.

    Originality/value – This is one of the first empirical investigations of differences in NPD processes and outcomes between manufacturer and distributer brands. It also shows the effect of brand concentration on distributor brand growth.

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