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  • 1.
    Blomkvist, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Kappen, Philip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Zander, Ivo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Gone are the creatures of yesteryear? On the diffusion of technological capabilities in the ‘modern’ MNC2017In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper probes the extent to which the rise of the ‘modern’ multinational corporation (MNC) has come with significantly altered patterns in the emergence and diffusion of technological capabilities across units of the MNC network. It draws upon a database containing the complete U.S. patenting history of 24 Swedish multinationals over the 1946–2008 period, which allows us to trace both the emergence and subsequent intra-firm diffusion of technological capabilities throughout the post-war period. The findings show that, over time, foreign subsidiaries have become an increasingly important source of new technological capabilities within the MNC network, and also indicate that the overall pace of capability diffusion has become faster over the observed time period. Notably, however, the results reveal substantial heterogeneity of individual firms’ approaches to organizing and managing technological capabilities within the MNC network. The relationship between evolutionary change and strategic choice emerges as a continually relevant issue in the organization and management of technology in the modern MNC.

  • 2.
    Chetty, Sylvie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Johanson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Martín, Oscar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Speed of internationalization: Conceptualization, measurement and validation2014In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 633-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To better manage and understand the speed at which firms internationalize, managers and scholars need an appropriate conceptualization and a reliable and valid measure of speed of internationalization. The literature, however, adopts a limited temporal perspective and usually conceptualizes and measures it as the time it takes the firm to start to internationalize. This unidimensional view neglects the central aspects of internationalization that create speed. Our purpose is, therefore, to propose a new, theory-driven - embedded in the main concepts of the original Uppsala model - and multidimensional conceptualization and operationalization. The main contribution is that we develop this conceptualization and measure.

  • 3.
    Ciabuschi, Francesco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Dellestrand, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Kappen, Philip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The good, the bad, and the ugly: technology transfer competence, rent-seeking, and bargaining power2012In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 664-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the relationships between subsidiary technology transfer competence, bargaining power and rent-seeking. In the multinational corporation, technology transfer competence is generally perceived as something desirable. We connect this bright side of subsidiary-level processes to a potentially uglier and darker side of the organization, namely that subsidiaries gain bargaining power that is exercised for bad ends, i.e., rent-seeking. Using an empirical analysis that comprises intrafirm technology transfers, this paper finds that technology transfer competence leads to greater subsidiary bargaining power that in turn increases rent-seeking behavior; but this competence does not directly affect rent-seeking. We suggest that bargaining power offers a key explanation for rent-seeking. This paper advances the understanding of subsidiary sources of power within the multinational corporation and the organizational determinants of rent-seeking, which is relevant to theory development as well as to managers.

  • 4.
    Figueira de Lemos, Francisco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hadjikhani, Amjad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Internationalization Processes in Stable and Unstable Market Conditions: Towards a model of commitment decisions in dynamic environments2014In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 332-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a managerial decision framework to deal with internationalization whether in stable or dynamic environments. While displaying the effects of unstable and stable environmental settings on commitment decisions, the framework is the result of an inferential abductive approach that merges the risk management model with empirical data collected from a 32-year longitudinal case study on nine Swedish MNCs. The longitudinal analysis shows that when environmental changes are perceived as detrimental, firms tend to decrease their tangible assets and commit in a more intangible way. On the opposite, when changes to the environment are perceived as beneficial, firms follow an incremental path of commitment, preferably in tangible kind. The findings contribute new knowledge to understand such diversities in commitment decisions as divestment, wait-and-see, market-exit and re-entry.

  • 5.
    Figueira-de-Lemos, Francisco
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Johanson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Vahlne, Jan-Erik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Risk Management in the internationalization process of the firm: A note on the Uppsala model2011In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 143-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analytically and graphically examines the Uppsala model's risk formula (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977) in its two variables: commitment and uncertainty. The graphical treatment of the variables demonstrates the internationalization mechanism's consistency with the risk formula. In particular, commitment manipulation develops a risk management perspective to the model, wherein contingent uncertainty is a central concept. The main contribution consists in the composition of a set of hypotheses on the effects of risk contingencies on a firm's commitment behavior in different internationalization phases. A pertinent remark that emerges from this analytical exercise is the Uppsala model's contingent nature, which explains the differences in the pattern and pace of the internationalization process, as well as potential leapfrogging and market-exit moves.

  • 6.
    Morgulis-Yakushev, Sergey
    et al.
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Box 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Yildiz, H. Emre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. Stockholm Sch Econ, Box 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fey, Carl. F.
    Aalto Univ, Sch Business, POB 21210, Aalto 00076, Finland.;Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    When same is (not) the aim: A treatise on organizational cultural fit and knowledge transfer2018In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 151-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multinationals (MNCs) need to find the balance between developing a globally standardized organizational culture and having multiple locally- adapted organizational cultures. Past literature embodies the bias that differences between MNC units, unless managed, would lead to adverse consequences. To counter this negative bias, we focus on cultural fit, which is the amount of difference yielding maximum benefit. We argue that depending on comparison criterion and desired outcome, fit could be achieved by establishing similarities or maintaining differences. Using evolutionary economics, we explore knowledge transfer within MNCs and test our hypotheses on fit using a unique dyadic dataset from 186 MNCs.

  • 7.
    Papageorgiadis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Cross, Adam R.
    Alexiou, Constantinos
    International patent systems strength 1998-20112014In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 586-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on a composite index of international patent systems strength for 48 developing and industrialized countries annually from 1998 to 2011. Building upon earlier indices we develop a conceptual framework informed by transaction cost theory and derive measures which emphasize the importance of enforcement-related aspects of the patent system of countries. Findings reveal harmonization of the regulative aspects of patent protection internationally in the post-TRIPs era but not of overall national patent systems. The index should inform studies on the relationship between national patent systems and a range of international business and other phenomena.

  • 8. Sigfusson, Thor
    et al.
    Chetty, Sylvie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Building international entrepreneurial virtual networks in cyberspace2013In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 260-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how software international entrepreneurs in Iceland use online social network sites to develop and harness their network relationships. To study these relationships, we use a combination of participant observation on LinkedIn and open ended face-to-face interviews. The framework for this study is based on resource-based view, networks and international entrepreneurship theories. We found that entrepreneurs with the largest networks use the online social network to demonstrate their network strength and to identify opportunities to bridge relationships. Our contribution illustrates how entrepreneurs acquire resources to internationalize through online social capital formation.

  • 9.
    ul Haq, Hammad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Drogendijk, Rian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies. conomics and Business, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Blankenburg Holm, Desirée
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Attention in words, not in deeds: Effects of attention dissonance on headquarters-subsidiary communication in multinational corporations2017In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 111-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the notion of attention dissonance, where the subsidiary within a headquarter-subsidiary relationship feels that headquarters’ attention at the cognitive level, reflected in its strategic intentions (attention perspective), is not aligned with the routine actions the headquarters performs vis-à-vis the specific subsidiary (attention engagement). Using a comparative case study design, we investigate a European organization with subsidiaries located in both emerging and advanced markets. We show how subsidiaries in the emerging markets face attention dissonance, which impedes their ability to get business opportunities across to headquarters, thereby compromising a necessary condition for realizing economic potential in these emerging markets.

  • 10.
    Yamin, Mo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Sinkovics, Rudolf
    Manchester Business School, UK.
    Infrastructure of foreign direct investment? An examination of the implications of MNE strategy for economic development2009In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 144-157Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Yildiz, H. Emre
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Fey, Carl F.
    Zhou, Abby Jingzi
    Fostering integration through HRM practices: An empirical examination of absorptive capacity and knowledge transfer in cross-border M&AsIn: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transfer of knowledge-based resources from acquirers to the acquired units has been ubiquitously emphasized as an important driver of post-acquisition integration. Equally emphasized is the importance of recipient unit’s absorptive capacity for the success of knowledge transfer and the facilitating role of HRM practices in developing absorptive capacity. In this paper, we integrate different streams of research on post-acquisition integration, knowledge transfer, absorptive capacity and HRM practices. Different from most past research, we pay attention theoretically and empirically to the multi-dimensional nature of both knowledge transfer and absorptive capa- city. We test our hypotheses on a sample of acquired Chinese subsidiaries of 181 multinational corporations from seven countries. We find that successful inflow and implementation of knowledge require the acquired unit to have distinct types of capabilities each of which can be developed by a specific HRM practice. These results contribute literature by recognizing absorptive capacity as a manageable capability and identifying how dif- ferent components of this capability could be developed by specific HRM practices. Furthermore, our results shed light on human side of M&As by examining how companies can foster post-acquisition integration by fine- tuning the absorptive capacity of acquired units. 

  • 12.
    Zander, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Mockaitis, Audra
    Monash University, Australia.
    Butler, Christina
    Kingston University.
    Leading global teams2012In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 592-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global teams that are characterized by national, cultural and linguistic heterogeneity and operate in a globally dispersed virtual environment are becoming an established form of organizing work in multinational organizations. As global team leadership research is rather limited, we review the literature on leading multicultural and virtual teams in a global context, focusing on leadership competencies, styles, strategies and modes. We also examine the emergent concepts of biculturalism, global mindsets and cultural intelligence with respect to team leaders. Our aim is to add to our knowledge of leading global teams, highlight recent trends and suggest directions for future research. Three themes for global team leadership emerged: leaders as boundary spanners, bridge makers and blenders, people-oriented leadership, and leveraging diversity. We discuss implications for research and practice.

  • 13.
    Zander, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Mockaitis, Audra
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Harzing, Anne-Wil
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Baldueza, Joyce
    Worldbank, Philippines.
    Barner-Rasmussen, Wilhelm
    Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Barzantny, Cordula
    Groupe ESC Toulouse Business School, France.
    Canabal, Anne
    University of Maine, USA .
    Davila, Anabella
    Tecnologico de Monterrey, Mexico.
    Espejo, Alvaro
    Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Chile.
    Fernandes Ferreira, Rita
    Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Portugal and IESE Business School, Spain .
    Giroud, Axéle
    Manchester Business School, UK.
    Koester, Kathrin
    University of Heilbronn, Germany.
    Liang, Yung-Kuei
    Tatung University, Taiwan.
    Morley, Michael
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Myloni, Barbara
    University of Patras, Greece.
    Odusanya, Joseph
    HayGroup SA, South Africa.
    O'Sullivan, Sharon Leiba
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Palaniappan, Ananda Kumar
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Prochno, Paulo
    University of Maryland, USA.
    Roy Choudhury, Srabani
    Jawaharlal Nehru University, India.
    Saka-Helmout, Ayse
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Siengthai, Sununta
    Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand.
    Uzuncarsili Soydas, Ayda
    Marmara University, Turkey.
    Viswat, Linda
    Otemon Gakuin University, Japan.
    Standardization versus Contextualization: A study of language and leadership across 17 countries2011In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 296-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With multinational corporations increasingly adopting English as a corporate language, the issue of language management and the pros and cons of language standardization have been widely debated in the literature. Our 17-country study considers whether the use of English as a common corporate language causes difficulties. We empirically examine whether managerial reactions to specific leadership scenario-based situations change as a consequence of the language they use. Our results show that the choice of language (native or English) does not matter much for the studied leadership scenarios. Instead, leadership decisions and reactions depend more on cultural and situational context.

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