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  • 1. Koposov, Roman
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Exposure to community violence, psychopathology, and personality traits in Russian youth.2011Inngår i: Depression Research and Treatment, ISSN 2090-1321, E-ISSN 2090-133X, Vol. 2011, s. 909076-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research with the US inner-city youth demonstrated the hazardous effects of community violence exposure. It remains unclear, however, whether these findings are generalizable to other cultures and populations. Furthermore, the role of factors influencing the processing of traumatic events such as personality has not been investigated. Two groups of Russian adolescents (community youth (N = 546) and male delinquents (N = 352)) completed questionnaires assessing their exposure to community violence, conduct problems, internalizing psychopathology and personality. The study demonstrates that the relationships between exposure to violence and psychopathology are similar across different populations within the same culture (community youth and juvenile delinquents), suggesting similar mechanisms behind this phenomenon. The patterns of these relationships were also similar for boys and girls, suggesting similarities in the mechanisms across gender. Hence, the effects of community violence exposure are generalizable to other cultures outside the US. The associations between personality traits and specific types of behaviors also tend to be similar across different populations. Higher levels of novelty seeking were related to more severe problem behaviors and to higher levels of witnessing and victimization, whereas higher levels of harm avoidance were related to higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress.

  • 2. Nordenskjöld, Axel
    et al.
    von Knorring, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Psykiatri, Akademiska sjukhuset.
    Engström, Ingemar
    Predictors of time to relapse/recurrence after electroconvulsive therapy in patients with major depressive disorder: a population-based cohort study2011Inngår i: Depression Research and Treatment, ISSN 2090-1321, E-ISSN 2090-133X, Vol. 2011, s. Art. id:470985-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of the study is to define predictors of relapse/recurrence after electroconvulsive therapy, ECT, for patients with major depressive disorder.

    Methods

    A study of all patients (n = 486) treated by means of ECT for major depressive disorder was performed. The data were derived from a regional quality register in Sweden. Psychiatric hospitalisation or suicide was used as a marker for relapse/recurrence.

    Results

    The relapse/recurrence rate within one year after ECT was 34%. Factors associated with increased risk of relapse/recurrence included comorbid substance dependence and treatment with benzodiazepines or antipsychotics during the follow-up period.

    Conclusions

    Within the first years after ECT, relapses/recurrences leading to hospitalisation or suicide are common. Treatment with lithium might be beneficial, while benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, or continuation ECT does not seem to significantly reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence.

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