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  • 1. Augusti, Else-Marie
    et al.
    Melinder, Annika
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Look who's talking: Pre-verbal infants' perception of face-to-face and back-to-back social interactions2010In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, no 1, article id 161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four-, 6-, and 11-month old infants were presented with movies in which two adult actors conversed about everyday events, either by facing each other or looking in opposite directions. Infants from 6 months of age made more gaze shifts between the actors, in accordance with the flow of conversation, when the actors were facing each other. A second experiment demonstrated that gaze following alone did not cause this difference. Instead the results are consistent with a social cognitive interpretation, suggesting that infants perceive the difference between face-to-face and back-to-back conversations and that they prefer to attend to a typical pattern of social interaction from 6 months of age.

  • 2. Augusti, Else-Marie
    et al.
    Melinder, Annika
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Look who's talking: pre-verbal infants perception of pointing comprehension2010In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 161, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Axelsson, Emma L.
    et al.
    Churchley, Kirsten
    Horst, Jessica S.
    The Right Thing at the Right Time: Why Ostensive Naming Facilitates Word Learning2012In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examines how focusing children’s attention immediately after fast mapping improves their ability to retain novel names. Previous research suggests that young children can only retain novel names presented via referent selection if ostensive naming is provided and that such explicit naming works by increasing children’s attention to the target and decreasing their attention to the competitor objects (Horst and Samuelson, 2008). This explanation of the function of ostensive naming after referent selection trials was tested by drawing 24-month-old children’s attention to the target either by illuminating the target, covering the competitors, or both. A control group was given a social pragmatic cue (pointing). Children given social pragmatic cue support did not demonstrate retention. However, children demonstrated retention if the target object was illuminated, and also when it was illuminated and the competitors simultaneously dampened. This suggests that drawing children’s attention to the target object in a manner that helps focus children’s attention is critical for word learning via referent selection. Directing attention away from competitors while also directing attention toward a target also aids in the retention of novel words.

  • 4.
    Axelsson, Emma L
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dawson, Rachelle L
    Research School of Psychology, ANU College of Health & Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Yim, Sharon Y
    Research School of Psychology, ANU College of Health & Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Quddus, Tashfia
    Research School of Psychology, ANU College of Health & Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Mine, Mine, Mine: Self-Reference and Children’s Retention of Novel Words2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adults demonstrate enhanced memory for words encoded as belonging to themselves compared to those belonging to another. Known as the self-reference effect, there is evidence for the effect in children as young as three. Toddlers are efficient in linking novel words to novel objects, but have difficulties retaining multiple word-object associations. The aim here was to investigate the self-reference ownership paradigm on 3-year-old children’s retention of novel words. Following exposure to each of four novel word-object pairings, children were told that objects either belonged to them or another character. Children demonstrated significantly higher immediate retention of self-referenced compared to other-referenced items. Retention was also tested 4 h later and the following morning. Retention for self- and other-referenced words was significantly higher than chance at both delayed time points, but the difference between the self- and other-referenced words was no longer significant. The findings suggest that when it comes to toddlers’ retention of multiple novel words there is an initial memory enhancing effect for self- compared to other-referenced items, but the difference diminishes over time. Children’s looking times during the self-reference presentations were positively associated with retention of self-referenced words 4 h later. Looking times during the other-reference presentations were positively associated with proportional looking at other-referenced items during immediate retention testing. The findings have implications for children’s memory for novel words and future studies could test children’s explicit memories for the ownership manipulation itself and whether the effect is superior to other forms of memory supports such as ostensive naming.

  • 5. Axelsson, Emma L.
    et al.
    Williams, Sophie E.
    Horst, Jessica S.
    The Effect of Sleep on Children’s Word Retention and Generalization2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first few years of life children spend a good proportion of time sleeping as well as acquiring the meanings of hundreds of words. There is now ample evidence of the effects of sleep on memory in adults and the number of studies demonstrating the effects of napping and nocturnal sleep in children is also mounting. In particular, sleep appears to benefit children’s memory for recently-encountered novel words. The effect of sleep on children’s generalization of novel words across multiple items, however, is less clear. Given that sleep is polyphasic in the early years, made up of multiple episodes, and children’s word learning is gradual and strengthened slowly over time, it is highly plausible that sleep is a strong candidate in supporting children’s memory for novel words. Importantly, it appears that when children sleep shortly after exposure to novel word-object pairs retention is better than if sleep is delayed, suggesting that napping plays a vital role in long-term word retention for young children. Word learning is a complex, challenging, and important part of development, thus the role that sleep plays in children’s retention of novel words is worthy of attention. As such, ensuring children get sufficient good quality sleep and regular opportunities to nap may be critical for language acquisition.

  • 6.
    Bakker, Marta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kaduk, Katharina
    Elsner, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juvrud, Joshua
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The neural basis of non-verbal communication - enhanced processing of perceived give-me gestures in 9-month-old girls2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, p. 59-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the neural basis of non-verbal communication. Event-related potentials were recorded while 29 nine-month-old infants were presented with a give me gesture (experimental condition) and the same hand shape but rotated 90 degrees, resulting in a non-communicative hand configuration (control condition). We found different responses in amplitude between the two conditions, captured in the P400 ERR component. Moreover, the size of this effect was modulated by participants' sex, with girls generally demonstrating a larger relative difference between the two conditions than boys.

  • 7.
    Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin
    Theorell, Töres P. G.
    Ullen, Fredrik
    Engagement in dance is associated with emotional competence in interplay with others2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has explored the relation between dance achievement and alexithymia in a larger Swedish population sample (Swedish Twin Registry) with a study sample of 5431 individuals. Dance achievement (CAQ) was assessed in relation to Alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20) including the three subscales: Difficulty Identifying Feelings (DIF), Difficulty Describing Feelings (DDF), and Externally Oriented Thinking (EOT). The results show a significant negative association between the TAS subscale (EOT) and creative achievement in dance. A high EOT score corresponds to poor ability to communicate feelings to the environment. There was no consistent association between the other factors DIF and DDF and dance achievement. Dance activity and training seem to be involved in the body's emotional interplay with others. Embodied cognition, emotional perception, and action are discussed as factors relevant to measuring the skill of a dancer.

  • 8.
    Brooks, Samantha J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Funk, Sabina G
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Young, Susanne Y
    Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Bellville, South Africa.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    The Role of Working Memory for Cognitive Control in Anorexia Nervosa versus Substance Use Disorder2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1651Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prefrontal cortex executive functions, such as working memory (WM) interact with limbic processes to foster impulse control. Such an interaction is referred to in a growing body of publications by terms such as cognitive control, cognitive inhibition, affect regulation, self-regulation, top-down control, and cognitive–emotion interaction. The rising trend of research into cognitive control of impulsivity, using various related terms reflects the importance of research into impulse control, as failure to employ cognitions optimally may eventually result in mental disorder. Against this background, we take a novel approach using an impulse control spectrum model – where anorexia nervosa (AN) and substance use disorder (SUD) are at opposite extremes – to examine the role of WM for cognitive control. With this aim, we first summarize WM processes in the healthy brain in order to frame a systematic review of the neuropsychological, neural and genetic findings of AN and SUD. In our systematic review of WM/cognitive control, we found n = 15 studies of AN with a total of n = 582 AN and n = 365 HC participants; and n = 93 studies of SUD with n = 9106 SUD and n = 3028 HC participants. In particular, we consider how WM load/capacity may support the neural process of excessive epistemic foraging (cognitive sampling of the environment to test predictions about the world) in AN that reduces distraction from salient stimuli. We also consider the link between WM and cognitive control in people with SUD who are prone to ‘jumping to conclusions’ and reduced epistemic foraging. Finally, in light of our review, we consider WM training as a novel research tool and an adjunct to enhance treatment that improves cognitive control of impulsivity.

  • 9. Daum, M.
    et al.
    Attig, M.
    Gunawan, R.
    Prinz, W.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Actions seen through the babies' eyes: A dissociation between looking and predictive gaze2012In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 3, article id 370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explored the relation of two different measures used to investigate infants' expectations about goal-directed actions. In previous studies, expectations about action outcomes have been either measured after the action has been terminated, that is posthoc (e.g., via looking time) or during the action is being performed, that is online (e.g., via predictive gaze). Here, we directly compared both types of measures. Experiment 1 demonstrated a dissociation between looking time and predictive gaze for 9-month-olds. Looking time reflected identity-related expectations whereas predictive gaze did not. If at all, predictive gaze reflected location-related expectations. Experiment 2, including a wider age range, showed that the two measures remain dissociated over the first 3 years of life. It is only after the third birthday that the dissociation turns into an association, with both measures then reflecting identity-related expectations. We discuss these findings in terms of an early dissociation between two mechanisms for action expectation. We speculate that while post-hoc measures primarily tap ventral mechanisms for processing identity-related information (at least at a younger age), online measures primarily tap dorsal mechanisms for processing location-related information.

  • 10.
    Elsner, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Humans anticipate the goal of other people’s point-light actions2012In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 3, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This eye tracking study investigated the degree to which biological motion information from manual point-light displays provides sufficient information to elicit anticipatory eye movements. We compared gaze performance of adults observing a biological motion point-light display of a hand reaching fora goal object or a non-biological version of the same event. Participants anticipated the goal of the point-light action in the biological motion condition but not in a non-biological control condition. The present study demonstrates that kinematic information from biological motion can be used to anticipate the goal of other people's point-light actions and that the presence of biological motion is sufficient for anticipation to occur.

  • 11.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Science and Society Unit, Biogem Genetic Research Centre, Ariano Irpino (AV), Italy.
    Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette
    Science for Life Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Communication, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Large-scale brain simulation and disorders of consciousness: Mapping technical and conceptual issues2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness (DOCs), e.g. Coma, Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome, Minimally Conscious State.Notwithstanding their technical limitations, we suggest that simulation technologies may offer new solutions to old practical problems, particularly in clinical contexts. We take DOCs as an illustrative case, arguing that the simulation of neural correlates of consciousness is potentially useful for improving treatments of patients with DOCs.

  • 12.
    Gottwald, Janna M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elsner, Birgit
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Potsdam, Germany..
    Pollatos, Olga
    Univ Ulm, Dept Hlth Psychol, D-89069 Ulm, Germany..
    Good is up-spatial metaphors in action observation2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive objects or actions are associated with physical highness, whereas negative objects or actions are related to physical lowness. Previous research suggests that metaphorical connection ("good is up" or "bad is down") between spatial experience and evaluation of objects is grounded in actual experience with the body. Prior studies investigated effects of spatial metaphors with respect to verticality of either static objects or self-performed actions. By presenting videos of object placements, the current three experiments combined vertically-located stimuli with observation of vertically-directed actions. As expected, participants' ratings of emotionally-neutral objects were systematically influenced by the observed vertical positioning, that is, ratings were more positive for objects that were observed being placed up as compared to down. Moreover, effects were slightly more pronounced for "bad is down," because only the observed downward, but not the upward, action led to different ratings as compared to a medium-positioned action. Last, some ratings were even affected by observing only the upward/downward action, without seeing the final vertical placement of the object. Thus, both, a combination of observing a vertically-directed action and seeing a vertically-located object, and observing a vertically-directed action alone, affected participants' evaluation of emotional valence of the involved object. The present findings expand the relevance of spatial metaphors to action observation, thereby giving new impetus to embodied-cognition research.

  • 13.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juvrud, Joshua C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Green, Dorota
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Action Prediction Allows Hypothesis Testing via Internal Forward Models at 6 Months of Age2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose that action prediction provides a cornerstone in a learning process known as internal forward models. According to this suggestion infants' predictions (looking to the mouth of someone moving a spoon upward) will moments later be validated or proven false (spoon was in fact directed toward a bowl), information that is directly perceived as the distance between the predicted and actual goal. Using an individual difference approach we demonstrate that action prediction correlates with the tendency to react with surprise when social interactions are not acted out as expected (action evaluation). This association is demonstrated across tasks and in a large sample (n = 118) at 6 months of age. These results provide the first indication that infants might rely on internal forward models to structure their social world. Additional analysis, consistent with prior work and assumptions from embodied cognition, demonstrates that the latency of infants' action predictions correlate with the infant's own manual proficiency.

  • 14. Henrichs, I.
    et al.
    Elsner, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elsner, B.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Goal salience affects infants´ goal-directed gaze shifts2012In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 3, article id 391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Around their first year of life, infants are able to anticipate the goal of others’ ongoing actions. For instance, 12-month-olds anticipate the goal of everyday feeding actions and manual actions such as reaching and grasping. However, little is known whether the salience of the goal influences infants’ online assessment of others’ actions. The aim of the current eye-tracking study was to elucidate infants’ ability to anticipate reaching actions depending on the visual salience of the goal object. In Experiment 1, 12-month-old infants’ goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed a hand reaching for and grasping either a large (high-salience condition) or a small (low-salience condition) goal object. Infants exhibited predictive gaze shifts significantly earlier when the observed hand reached for the large goal object compared to when it reached for the small goal object. In addition, findings revealed rapid learning over the course of trials in the high-salience condition and no learning in the low-salience condition. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the results could not be simply attributed to the different grip aperture of the hand used when reaching for small and large objects. Together, our data indicate that by the end of their first year of life, infants rely on information about the goal salience to make inferences about the action goal.

  • 15.
    Herziger, Atar
    et al.
    Univ Cologne, Cologne Grad Sch Management Econ & Social Sci, Cologne, Germany..
    Benzerga, Amel
    UCL, Div Psychol & Language Sci, London, England..
    Berkessel, Jana
    Univ Cologne, Dept Psychol, Cologne, Germany..
    Dinartika, Niken L.
    Maastricht Univ, Dept Psychol, Maastricht, Netherlands..
    Franklin, Matija
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Psychol, Cambridge, England..
    Steinnes, Kamilla K.
    Univ Oslo, Dept Psychol, Oslo, Norway..
    Sundström, Felicia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A Study Protocol for Testing the Effectiveness of User-Generated Content in Reducing Excessive Consumption2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive consumption is on the rise, as is apparent in growing financial debt and global greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary simplicity, a lifestyle choice of reduced consumption and sustainable consumer behavior, provides a potential solution for excessive consumers. However, voluntary simplicity is unpopular, difficult to adopt, and under researched. The outlined research project will test a method of promoting voluntary simplicity via user-generated content, thus mimicking an existing social media trend (Minimalism) in an empirical research design. The project will test (a) whether the Minimalism trend could benefit consumers interested in reducing their consumption, and (b) whether self-transcendence (i.e., biospheric) and self-enhancement (i.e., egoistic and hedonic) values and goals have a similar impact in promoting voluntary simplicity. A one-week intervention program will test the efficacy of watching user-generated voluntary simplicity videos in reducing non-essential consumption. Each of the two intervention conditions will present participants with similar tutorial videos on consumption reduction (e.g., decluttering, donating), while priming the relevant values and goals (self-transcendence or self-enhancement). These interventions will be compared to a control condition, involving no user-generated content. Participants will undergo baseline and post intervention evaluations of: voluntary simplicity attitudes and behaviors, buying and shopping behaviors, values and goals in reducing consumption, and life satisfaction. Experience sampling will monitor affective state during the intervention. We provide a detailed stepwise procedure, materials, and equipment necessary for executing this intervention. The outlined research design is expected to contribute to the limited literature on voluntary simplicity, online behavioral change interventions, and the use of social marketing principles in consumer interventions.

  • 16.
    Hoehl, Stefanie
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.; Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Hellmer, Kahl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Itsy Bitsy Spider...: Infants React with Increased Arousal to Spiders and Snakes2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention biases have been reported for ancestral threats like spiders and snakes in infants, children, and adults. However, it is currently unclear whether these stimuli induce increased physiological arousal in infants. Here, 6-month-old infants were presented with pictures of spiders and flowers (Study 1, within-subjects), or snakes and fish (Study 1, within-subjects; Study 2, between-subjects). Infants'€™ pupillary responses linked to activation of the noradrenergic system were measured. Infants reacted with increased pupillary dilation indicating arousal to spiders and snakes compared with flowers and fish. Results support the notion of an evolved preparedness for developing fear of these ancestral threats.

  • 17.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    What does music express?: Basic emotions and beyond2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, p. 596-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have investigated whether music can reliably convey emotions to listeners, and if so what musical parameters might carry this information. Far less attention has been devoted to the actual contents of the communicative process. The goal of this article is thus to consider what types of emotional content are possible to convey in music. I will argue that the content is mainly constrained by the type of coding involved, and that distinct types of content are related to different types of coding. Based on these premises, I suggest a conceptualization in terms of "multiple layers" of musical expression of emotions. The "core" layer is constituted by iconically-coded basic emotions. I attempt to clarify the meaning of this concept, dispel the myths that surround it, and provide examples of how it can be heuristic in explaining findings in this domain. However, I also propose that this "core" layer may be extended, qualified, and even modified by additional layers of expression that involve intrinsic and associative coding. These layers enable listeners to perceive more complex emotions though the expressions are less cross-culturally invariant and more dependent on the social context and/or the individual listener. This multiple-layer conceptualization of expression in music can help to explain both similarities and differences between vocal and musical expression of emotions.

  • 18.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Controlled information integration and bayesian inference2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 70Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19. Kallioinen, Petter
    et al.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia
    Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lyxell, Björn
    Engström, Elisabet
    Uhlén, Inger
    Semantic Processing in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children: Large N400 Mismatch Effects in Brain Responses, Despite Poor Semantic Ability2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1146Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Kenward, Ben
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Östh, T
    Enactment of third-party punishment by 4-year-olds2012In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 3, article id 373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When prompted, preschoolers advocate punishment for moral transgressions against third parties, but little is known about whether and how they might act out such punishment. In this study, adult demonstrators enacted doll stories in which a perpetrator child doll made an unprovoked attack on a victim child doll, after which an adult doll punished either the perpetrator (consistent punishment) or victim (inconsistent punishment). When asked to help retell the story, given free choice of their own preferred actions for the adult doll, 4-year-olds (N = 32) were influenced by the demonstrated choice of target when selecting a target for punishment or admonishment. This influence was weak following inconsistent punishment, however, because the participants tended to change the story by punishing or admonishing the perpetrator when the demonstrator had punished the victim. Four-year-olds’ tendency to select a moral rule violator as a target for punishment is therefore stronger than their tendency to copy the specific actions of adults, which itself is known to be very strong. The evidence suggests that 4-year-olds’ enactment of punishment is at least partially based on a belief that antisocial actions deserve to be punished.

  • 21.
    Korpela, Kalevi M.
    et al.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Psychol, Tampere, Finland.
    Pasanen, Tytti
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Psychol, Tampere, Finland.
    Repo, Veera
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci, Psychol, Tampere, Finland.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Staats, Henk
    Leiden Univ, Inst Psychol, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Mason, Michael
    Univ Tennessee, Coll Social Work, Ctr Behav Hlth Res, Knoxville, TN USA.
    Alves, Susana
    Cankaya Univ, Dept Architecture, Ankara, Turkey.
    Fornara, Ferdinando
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Psychol, Cagliari, Italy.
    Marks, Tony
    Univ New England, Sch Behav Cognit & Social Sci, Armidale, NSW, Australia.
    Saini, Sunil
    Indian Assoc Hlth Res & Welf, Hisar, Haryana, India.
    Scopelliti, Massimiliano
    Libera Univ Maria Ss Assunta, Dept Human Studies, Rome, Italy.
    Soares, Ana L.
    Univ Tecn Lisboa, Inst Super Agron, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Thompson, Catharine Ward
    Univ Edinburgh, OPENspace Res Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507) evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS). The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM). Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation.

  • 22.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rogell, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kenward, Ben
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, Health and Professional Development, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Discrimination of Small Forms in a Deviant-Detection Paradigm by 10-month-old Infants2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using eye tracking, we investigated if 10-month-old infants could discriminate between members of a set of small forms based on geometric properties in a deviant-detection paradigm, as suggested by the idea of a core cognitive system for Euclidian geometry. We also investigated the precision of infants’ ability to discriminate as well as how the discrimination process unfolds over time. Our results show that infants can discriminate between small forms based on geometrical properties, but only when the difference is sufficiently large. Furthermore, our results also show that it takes infants, on average, <3.5 s to detect a deviant form. Our findings extend previous research in three ways: by showing that infants can make similar discriminative judgments as children and adults with respect to geometric properties; by providing a first crude estimate on the limit of the discriminative abilities in infants, and finally; by providing a first demonstration of how the discrimination process unfolds over time.

  • 23.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The association between higher education and approximate number system acuity2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, p. 462-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are equipped with an approximate number system (ANS) supporting non-symbolic numerosity representation. Studies indicate a relationship between ANS-precision (acuity) and math achievement. Whether the ANS is a prerequisite for learning mathematics or if mathematics education enhances the ANS remains an open question. We investigated the association between higher education and ANS acuity with university students majoring in subjects with varying amounts of mathematics (mathematics, business, and humanities), measured either early (First year) or late (Third year) in their studies. The results suggested a non-significant trend where students taking more mathematics had better ANS acuity and a significant improvement in ANS acuity as a function of study length that was mainly confined to the business students. The results provide partial support for the hypothesis that education in mathematics can enhance the ANS acuity.

  • 24.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Poom, Leo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Measuring acuity of the approximate number system reliably and validly: the evaluation of an adaptive test procedure2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, p. 510-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies investigated the reliability and predictive validity of commonly used measures and models of Approximate Number System acuity (ANS). Study 1 investigated reliability by both an empirical approach and a simulation of maximum obtainable reliability under ideal conditions. Results showed that common measures of the Weber fraction (w) are reliable only when using a substantial number of trials, even under ideal conditions. Study 2 compared different purported measures of ANS acuity as for convergent and predictive validity in a within-subjects design and evaluated an adaptive test using the ZEST algorithm. Results showed that the adaptive measure can reduce the number of trials needed to reach acceptable reliability. Only direct tests with non-symbolic numerosity discriminations of stimuli presented simultaneously were related to arithmetic fluency. This correlation remained when controlling for general cognitive ability and perceptual speed. Further, the purported indirect measure of ANS acuity in terms of the Numeric Distance Effect (NDE) was not reliable and showed no sign of predictive validity. The non-symbolic NDE for reaction time was significantly related to direct w estimates in a direction contrary to the expected. Easier stimuli were found to be more reliable, but only harder (7:8 ratio) stimuli contributed to predictive validity.

  • 25.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winman, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Poom, Leo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arithmetic Training Does Not Improve Approximate Number System Acuity2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The approximate number system (ANS) is thought to support non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitudes in humans. Recently much debate has focused on the causal direction for an observed relation between ANS acuity and arithmetic fluency. Here we investigate if arithmetic training can improve ANS acuity. We show with an experimental training study consisting of six 45-min training sessions that although feedback during arithmetic training improves arithmetic performance substantially, it does not influence ANS acuity. Hence, we find no support for a causal link where symbolic arithmetic training influences ANS acuity. Further, although short-term number memory is likely involved in arithmetic tasks we did not find that short-term memory capacity for numbers, measured by a digit-span test, was effected by arithmetic training. This suggests that the improvement in arithmetic fluency may have occurred independent of short-term memory efficiency, but rather due to long-term memory processes and/or mental calculation strategy development. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  • 26.
    Lipina, Sebastián
    et al.
    Unidad de Neurobiología Aplicada, Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas “Norberto Quirno”-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Neuroscience of Childhood Poverty: Evidence of Impacts and Mechanisms as Vehicles of Dialog With Ethics2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have identified associations between poverty and development of self-regulation during childhood, which is broadly defined as those skills involved in cognitive, emotional, and stress self-regulation. These skills are influenced by different individual and contextual factors at multiple levels of analysis (i.e., individual, family, social, and cultural). Available evidence suggests that the influences of those biological, psychosocial, and sociocultural factors on emotional and cognitive development can vary according to the type, number, accumulation of risks, and co-occurrence of adverse circumstances that are related to poverty, the time in which these factors exert their influences, and the individual susceptibility to them. Complementary, during the past three decades, several experimental interventions that were aimed at optimizing development of self-regulation of children who live in poverty have been designed, implemented, and evaluated. Their results suggest that it is possible to optimize different aspects of cognitive performance and that it would be possible to transfer some aspects of these gains to other cognitive domains and academic achievement.We suggest that it is an important task for ethics, notably but not exclusively neuroethics, to engage in this interdisciplinary research domain to contribute analyses of key concepts, arguments, and interpretations. The specific evidence that neuroscience brings to the analyses of poverty and its implications needs to be spelled out in detail and clarified conceptually, notably in terms of causes of and attitudes toward poverty, implications of poverty for brain development, and for the possibilities to reduce and reverse these effects.

  • 27.
    Lymeus, Freddie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ahrling, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Apelman, Josef
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    de Mander Florin, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vincenti, Janina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Zetterberg, Agnes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hartig, Terry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mindfulnesss-based restoration skills training (ReST) in a natural setting compared to conventional mindfulness training: A randomized trial with six-month follow-upIn: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Restoration skills training (ReST) is a mindfulness-based course that draws on restorative nature experience to facilitate the meditation practice and teach widely applicable adaptation skills. Previous studies comparing ReST against conventional mindfulness training (CMT) show that ReST has several important advantages: ReST supports beginning meditators with stress and concentration problems in effortless meditation practice and in connecting with restorative environmental qualities, restores their attention regulation capabilities, and helps them complete the course and establish a regular meditation habit. However, mindfulness theory indicates that effortful training is central to achieving the well-established health benefits of beginning mindfulness training. Therefore, this study tests whether the more effortless and acceptable ReST approach is attended by any meaningful disadvantage compared to CMT in terms of health benefits. Over four rounds of parallel courses, participants (total initial N = 152) provided ratings of dispositional mindfulness, cognitive functioning, and chronic stress before, directly after, and (in rounds 2 – 4) six months after the course. Round 4 also included a separately recruited passive control condition. ReST and CMT were attended by similar average improvements in the three outcomes, which for dispositional mindfulness and cognitive functioning were sustained at the follow-up. For those who completed the course, over one third enjoyed reliably improved psychological functioning directly after the course and six months later. The risk of experiencing deteriorated functioning was no greater with either ReST or CMT than for passive control group participants. We conclude that ReST is a promising alternative for people with stress or concentration problems who would be less likely to complete more effortful CMT. Theoretically, we indicate how meditation science can inform restorative environments research regarding learning processes involved in repeated restorative encounters. Environmental approaches to health have the advantage over individual, skill-based approaches that they mitigate fatigue and reinstate lost capacities without imposing further demands. Skill-based approaches have the advantage that they can train adaptive capabilities that then can be deployed even in unsupportive contexts. ReST integrates those advantages.

  • 28.
    Myhr, Peter
    et al.
    MCT Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Emanuelsson, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Löfgren, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hjemdal, Odin
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Psychol, Trondheim, Norway;Nidaros DPS, Div Psychiat, St Clays Hosp, Trondheim, Norway.
    Can the Attention Training Technique Reduce Stress in Students?: A Controlled Study of Stress Appraisals and Meta-Worry2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study tested the impact of attention training on cognition; secondary appraisal of perceived stress, and on metacognition; meta-worry in stressed students. Theoretically derived from the Self-Regulatory Executive Function model (S-REF model; Wells and Matthews, 1994a, 1996), the attention training technique (ATT; Wells, 1990) is intended to promote flexible, voluntary external attention and has been shown to reduce symptoms of psychological distress. The present experimental study explored the effects of ATT on cognitive and metacognitive levels of appraisal, namely perceived stress (primary outcome) and meta-worry (secondary outcome). Stressed students were randomized to an experimental ATT group (n = 23) or a control group (n = 23). The ATT group attended an initial training session followed by 4 weeks of individual (12 min) daily ATT practice. The control group waited for 4 weeks before receiving the intervention. The outcomes were scores on the Perceived Stress Scale 14 (PSS-14) and the Meta-Worry Questionnaire (MWQ) frequency and belief subscales at post study. Both measures decreased significantly following ATT with large pre- to post-effect sizes but there were minimal changes in the control group. The between-group differences were statistically significant. The results add to the literature on the potential effects of ATT by demonstrating effects on the content of cognitive stress appraisals and on meta-worry in an academic setting in a stressed student sample.

  • 29.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rieskamp, Jörg
    Department of Psychology, University of Basel.
    Jenny, Mirjam
    Department of Psychology, University of Basel.
    Exploring theoverestimation of conjunctive probabilities2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, p. 101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People often overestimate probabilities of conjunctive events. The authors explored whether the accuracy of conjunctive probability estimates can be improved by increased experience with relevant constituent events and by using memory aids. The first experiment showed that increased experience with constituent events increased the correlation between the estimated and the objective conjunctive probabilities, but it did not reduce overestimation of conjunctive probabilities. The second experiment showed that reducing cognitive load with memory aids for the constituent probabilities led to improved estimates of the conjunctive probabilities and to decreased overestimation of conjunctive probabilities. To explain the cognitive process underlying people’s probability estimates, the configural weighted average model was tested against the normative multiplicative model. The configural weighted average model generates conjunctive probabilities that systematically overestimate objective probabilities although the generated probabilities still correlate strongly with the objective probabilities. For the majority of participants the model was better than the multiplicative model in predicting the probability estimates. However, when memory aids were provided, the predictive accuracy of the multiplicative model increased. In sum, memory tools can improve people's conjunctive probability estimates.

  • 30. Rodriguez, Cristelle
    et al.
    Jagadish, Akshay Kumar
    Meskaldji, Djalel-Eddine
    Haller, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Herrmann, Francois
    Van De Ville, Dimitri
    Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon
    Structural Correlates of Personality Dimensions in Healthy Aging and MCI.2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEOPI-R), popularly known as the five-factor model, defines five personality factors: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. The structural correlates of these personality factors are still a matter of debate. In this work, we examine the impact of subtle cognitive deficits on structural substrates of personality in the elderly using DTI derived white matter (WM) integrity measure, Fractional Anisotropy (FA). We employed canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to study the relationship between personality factors of the NEOPI-R and FA measures in two population groups: healthy controls and MCI. Agreeableness was the only personality factor to be associated with FA patterns in both groups. Openness was significantly related to FA data in the MCI group and the inverse was true for Conscientiousness. Furthermore, we generated saliency maps using bootstrapping strategy which revealed a larger number of positive correlations in healthy aging in contrast to the MCI status. The MCI group was found to be associated with a predominance of negative correlations indicating that higher Agreeableness and Openness scores were mostly related to lower FA values in interhemispheric and cortico-spinal tracts and a limited number of higher FA values in cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connection. Altogether these findings support the idea that WM microstructure may represent a valid correlate of personality dimensions and also indicate that the presence of early cognitive deficits led to substantial changes in the associations between WM integrity and personality factors.

  • 31.
    Serino, Silvia
    et al.
    IRCCS Ist Auxol ltaliano, Appl Technol Neuropsychol Lab, Milan, Italy.;Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Dept Psychol, I-20123 Milan, Italy..
    Scarpina, Federica
    Univ Turin, Rita Levi Montalcini Dept Neurosci, Turin, Italy.;Osped San Giuseppe, IRCCS Ist Auxol Italano, Psychol Res Lab, Oggebbio, Italy..
    Keizer, Anouk
    Univ Utrecht, Dept Expt Psychol, Fac Social & Behav Sci, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Pedroli, Elisa
    IRCCS Ist Auxol ltaliano, Appl Technol Neuropsychol Lab, Milan, Italy..
    Dakanalis, Antonios
    Univ Pavia, Dept Brain & Behav Sci, Via Palestro 3, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.;Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Surg & Interdisciplinary Med, Milan, Italy..
    Castelnuovo, Gianluca
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Dept Psychol, I-20123 Milan, Italy.;Osped San Giuseppe, IRCCS Ist Auxol Italano, Psychol Res Lab, Oggebbio, Italy..
    Chirico, Alice
    Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Dept Psychol, I-20123 Milan, Italy..
    Novelli, Margherita
    Osped San Giuseppe, IRCCS Ist Auxol Italano, Psychol Res Lab, Oggebbio, Italy..
    Gaudio, Santino
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology. Univ Campus Biomed, Area Diagnost imaging, Ctr Integrated Res, Rome, Italy..
    Riva, Giuseppe
    IRCCS Ist Auxol ltaliano, Appl Technol Neuropsychol Lab, Milan, Italy.;Univ Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Dept Psychol, I-20123 Milan, Italy..
    A Novel Technique for Improving Bodily Experience in a Non-operable Super-Super Obesity Case2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The available clinical guidelines for super-super obese patients (i.e., with body mass index (BMI) 60 kg/m(2)) that are not suitable for bariatric surgery mandate a palliative multidisciplinary treatment (i.e., production and maintenance of weight loss) provided in a center of excellence. However, the modality and the impact of this approach are still controversial. Moreover, it is not able to address the high level of body dissatisfaction and body distortions that are common among these patients. Clinical Presentation: We report the case of a non-operable super-super obesity - a 37 year old woman with a BMI of 62 kg/m(2) - receiving a specialized treatment for her obstructive sleep apnea. She entered a multidisciplinary program that promoted healthy behaviors, including physical activities and psychological intervention. To improve body dissatisfaction, which was linked to a significant multisensory impairment of body perception, she also entered a virtual reality (VR) body-swapping illusion protocol. At the end of the current investigation, the patient continued her multidisciplinary program, reporting an increase in the motivation for undertaking healthy behavior and a decrease in the anxiety feelings associated with her clinical condition. Conclusion: This case provides preliminary evidence that both body dissatisfaction and body-size distortions of non-operable super-super obesity patients could be addressed by a VR body-swapping protocol, which is important because the palliative multidisciplinary treatment recommended for these patients is not able to address them. Interestingly, the use of a VR body-swapping illusion protocol seems to be able to improve not only the experience of the body in these patients but their motivation for change, too.

  • 32.
    Sundström Poromaa, Inger
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive Health.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci Obstet & Gynecol, Umea, Sweden.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci Obstet & Gynecol, Umea, Sweden.
    Jensen, Peter
    Rigshosp, Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Neurobiol Res Unit, Copenhagen, Denmark;Rigshosp, Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Ctr Integrated Mol Brain Imaging, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Frokjaer, Vibe G.
    Rigshosp, Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Neurobiol Res Unit, Copenhagen, Denmark;Rigshosp, Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Ctr Integrated Mol Brain Imaging, Copenhagen, Denmark;Rigshosp, Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Mental Hlth Serv Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Negative Association Between Allopregnanolone and Cerebral Serotonin Transporter Binding in Healthy Women of Fertile Age2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allopregnanolone is a metabolite of the sex hormone progesterone, with suggested relevance for female mood disorders. While allopregnanolone and serotonin are known to influence psychological well-being, the molecular and psychological specifics of their relationship are to date poorly understood, especially in women of fertile age who experience regular fluctuations of progesterone across the menstrual cycle. Availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft is regulated by the serotonin transporter (SERT), which can be imaged in the living human brain by use of positron emission tomography (PET) and the radiotracer [C-11]DASB. To evaluate sex-specific allopregnanolone-SERT interactions, the present study investigated the relationship between cerebral SERT availability, serum allopregnanolone levels and psychological well-being in women of fertile age. Brain imaging data, self-reported symptoms of mental distress and emotion regulation, and biobank material from ninety healthy women were available from the Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (CIMBI) database. Age, BMI, and daylight minutes were included as covariates in the analyses and SERT genotype (5-HTTLPR) was considered a potential confounder. Lower serum allopregnanolone levels were associated with higher SERT binding in the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, allopregnanolone levels were negatively associated with measures of alertness, although this finding was not mediated by prefrontal cortex SERT binding. These findings suggest a link between the typical psychological well-being experienced in the follicular phase when allopregnanolone levels are low and higher SERT in the prefrontal cortex, a region for higher cognitive functions and top-down regulation of emotions.

  • 33. Thorgrimsson, Gudmundur B.
    et al.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Liszkowski, Ulf
    Infants' expectations about gestures and actions in third-party interactions2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, p. 321-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated 14-month-old infants' expectations toward a third party addressee of communicative gestures and an instrumental action. Infants' eye movements were tracked as they observed a person (the Gesturer) point, direct a palm-up request gesture, or reach toward an object, and another person (the Addressee) respond by grasping it. Infants' looking patterns indicate that when the Gesturer pointed or used the palm-up request, infants anticipated that the Addressee would give the object to the Gesturer, suggesting that they ascribed a motive of request to the gestures. In contrast, when the Gesturer reached for the object, and in a control condition where no action took place, the infants did not anticipate the Addressee's response. The results demonstrate that infants' recognition of communicative gestures extends to others' interactions, and that infants can anticipate how third-party addressees will respond to others' gestures.

  • 34.
    Truedsson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wesevich, Victoria
    Yale Sch Med, Dept Obstet Gynecol & Reprod Sci, New Haven, CT USA.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wåhlstedt, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Callous-Unemotional Traits on Adolescent Positive and Negative Emotional Reactivity: A Longitudinal Community-Based Study2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with lower emotional reactivity in adolescents. However, since previous studies have focused mainly on reactivity to negative stimuli, it is unclear whether reactivity to positive stimuli is also affected. Further, few studies have addressed the link between CU traits and emotional reactivity in longitudinal community samples, which is important for determining its generalizability and developmental course. In the current study, pupil dilation and self-ratings of arousal and valence were assessed in 100 adolescents (15-17 years) from a community sample, while viewing images with negative and positive valence from the International Affective Pictures System (ZAPS). Behavioral traits (CU) were assessed concurrently, as well as at ages 12-15, and 8-9 (subsample, n = 68, low levels of prosocial behavior were used as a proxy for CU traits). The results demonstrate that CU traits assessed at ages 12-15 and 8-9 predicted less pupil dilation to both positive and negative images at ages 15-17. Further, CU traits at ages 12-15 and concurrently were associated with less negative valence ratings for negative images and concurrently to less positive valence ratings for positive images. The current findings demonstrate that CU traits are related to lower emotional reactivity to both negative and positive stimuli in adolescents from a community sample.

  • 35.
    Winman, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kerimi, Neda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The role of ANS acuity and numeracy for the calibration and the coherence of subjective probability judgments2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, p. 851-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how numeracy and acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) relate to the calibration and coherence of probability judgments. Based on the literature on number cognition, a first hypothesis was that those with lower numeracy would maintain a less linear use of the probability scale, contributing to overconfidence and nonlinear calibration curves. A second hypothesis was that also poorer acuity of the ANS would be associated with overconfidence and non-linearity. A third hypothesis, in line with dual-systems theory (e.g., Kahnernan and Frederick, 2002) was that people higher in numeracy should have better access to the normative probability rules, allowing them to decrease the rate of conjunction fallacies. Data from 213 participants sampled from the Swedish population showed that: (i) in line with the first hypothesis, overconfidence and the linearity of the calibration curves were related to numeracy, where people higher in numeracy were well calibrated with zero overconfidence. (ii) ANS was not associated with overconfidence and non-linearity, disconfirming the second hypothesis. (iii) The rate of conjunction fallacies was slightly, but to a statistically significant degree decreased by numeracy, but still high at all numeracy levels. An unexpected finding was that participants with better ANS acuity gave more realistic estimates of their performance relative to others.

1 - 35 of 35
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