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  • 1.
    Abdelhamid, Hani Nasser
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden;Assiut Univ, Dept Chem, Adv Multifunct Mat Lab, Assiut 71515, Egypt.
    El-Zohry, Ahmed M.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström.
    Cong, Jiayan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Appl Phys Chem, Tekn Ringen 30, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thersleff, Thomas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Martin
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Appl Phys Chem, Tekn Ringen 30, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kloo, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem, Appl Phys Chem, Tekn Ringen 30, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Towards implementing hierarchical porous zeolitic imidazolate frameworks in dye-sensitized solar cells2019Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 7, artikel-id 190723Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A one-pot method for encapsulation of dye, which can be applied for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and synthesis of hierarchical porous zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-8), is reported. The size of the encapsulated dye tunes the mesoporosity and surface area of ZIF-8. The mesopore size, Langmuir surface area and pore volume are 15 nm, 960-1500 m(2). g(-1) and 0.36-0.61 cm(3). g(-1), respectively. After encapsulation into ZIF-8, the dyes show longer emission lifetimes (greater than 4-8-fold) as compared to the corresponding non-encapsulated dyes, due to suppression of aggregation, and torsional motions.

  • 2.
    Alström, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, POB 7007, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden; Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.
    Jonsson, Knud A
    Jon, Fjeldså
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Dramatic niche shifts and morphological change in two insular bird species2015Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 2, nr 3, artikel-id 140364Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Colonizations of islands are often associated with rapid morphological divergence. We present two previously unrecognized cases of dramatic morphological change and niche shifts in connection with colonization of tropical forest-covered islands. These evolutionary changes have concealed the fact that the passerine birds madanga, Madanga ruficollis, from Buru, Indonesia, and São Tomé shorttail, Amaurocichla bocagii, from São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea, are forest-adapted members of the family Motacillidae (pipits and wagtails). We show that Madanga has diverged mainly in plumage, which may be the result of selection for improved camouflage in its new arboreal niche, while selection pressures for other morphological changes have probably been weak owing to preadaptations for the novel niche. By contrast, we suggest thatAmaurocichla's niche change has led to divergence in both structure and plumage.

  • 3.
    Brodka, Piotr
    et al.
    Wroclaw Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Comp Sci & Management, Dept Computat Intelligence, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Chmiel, Anna
    Warsaw Univ Technol, Fac Phys, Warsaw, Poland.
    Magnani, Matteo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Datalogi.
    Ragozini, Giancarlo
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Polit Sci, Naples, Campania, Italy.
    Quantifying layer similarity in multiplex networks: a systematic study2018Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, nr 8, artikel-id 171747Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Computing layer similarities is an important way of characterizing multiplex networks because various static properties and dynamic processes depend on the relationships between layers. We provide a taxonomy and experimental evaluation of approaches to compare layers in multiplex networks. Our taxonomy includes, systematizes and extends existing approaches, and is complemented by a set of practical guidelines on how to apply them.

  • 4.
    Chen, Dong Lei
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Sanchez, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Tafforeau, Paul
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu.
    Märss, Tiiu
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu.
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Development of cyclic shedding teeth from semi-shedding teeth: the inner dental arcade of the stem osteichthyan Lophosteus 2017Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, nr 5, artikel-id 161084Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The numerous cushion-shaped tooth-bearing plates attributed to the stem-group osteichthyan Lophosteus superbus, which are argued here to represent the ancient form of inner dental arcade, display a unique and presumably primitive way of tooth shedding by basal hard tissue resorption. They carry regularly spaced, recumbent, gently recurved teeth arranged in transverse tooth files that diverge towards the lingual margin of the cushion. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction from propagation phase contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRμCT) reveals remnants of the first-generation teeth embedded in the basal plate that have never been discerned in any taxa. These teeth were shed by semi-basal resorption with the periphery of their bases retained as dentine rings. The rings are highly overlapped, which evidences tooth shedding prior to adding the next first-generation tooth. Later teeth at the same sites underwent cyclical replacing and shedding through basal resorption, producing stacks of buried resorption surfaces separated by bone of attachment. The number and spatial arrangement of resorption surfaces elucidates that basal resorption of replacement teeth had taken place at the older tooth sites before the addition of the youngest first-generation teeth at the lingual margin. Thus the replacement tooth buds cannot have been generated by a single permanent dental lamina, but must have arisen either from successional dental laminae associated with the predecessor teeth, or directly from the dental epithelium of these teeth. The virtual histological dissection of these Late Silurian microfossils broadens our understanding of the development of the gnathostome dental systems and the acquisition of the osteichthyan-type of tooth replacement. 

  • 5.
    Clement, Alice M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Strand, Robin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Nysjö, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för visuell information och interaktion. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Bildanalys och människa-datorinteraktion.
    Long, John A.
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    A new method for reconstructing brain morphology: Applying the brain-neurocranial spatial relationship in an extant lungfish to a fossil endocast2016Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, nr 7, artikel-id 160307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Den Boer, Wendy
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Paleobiologi. Swedish Nat Hist Museum, Dept Palaeobiol, S-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campione, Nicolás E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Paleobiologi. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi. Univ New England, Palaeosci Res Ctr, Sch Environm & Rural Sci, Armidale, NSW 2531, Australia.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheten för musik och museer, Evolutionsmuseet.
    Climbing adaptations, locomotory disparity and ecological convergence in ancient stem 'kangaroos'2019Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 2, artikel-id 181617Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Living kangaroos, wallabies and rat-kangaroos (Macropodoidea) constitute the most ecologically diverse radiation of Australasian marsupials. Indeed, even their hallmark bipedal hopping gait has been variously modified for bounding, walking and climbing. However, the origins of this locomotory adaptability are uncertain because skeletons of the most ancient macropodoids are exceptionally rare. Some of the stratigraphically oldest fossils have been attributed to Balbaridae-a clade of potentially quadrupedal stem macropodoids that became extinct during the late Miocene. Here we undertake the first assessment of balbarid locomotion using two-dimensional geometric morphometrics and a correlative multivariate analysis of linear measurements. We selected the astragalus and pedal digit IV ungual as proxies for primary gait because these elements are preserved in the only articulated balbarid skeleton, as well as some unusual early Miocene balbarid-like remains that resemble the bones of modern tree-kangaroos. Our results show that these fossils manifest character states indicative of contrasting locomotory capabilities. Furthermore, predictive modelling reveals similarities with extant macropodoids that employ either bipedal saltation and/or climbing. We interpret this as evidence for archetypal gait versatility, which probably integrated higher-speed hopping with slower-speed quadrupedal progression and varying degrees of scansoriality as independent specializations for life in forest and woodland settings.

  • 7.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Optical quantum confinement and photocatalytic properties in two-, one- and zero-dimensional nanostructures2018Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, nr 9, artikel-id 180387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-dimensional nanomaterials have been explored extensively in the last decades, partly fuelled by the new possibilities for tuning and controlling their electronic properties. In a broader perspective within catalysis, two-, one- and zero-dimensional (2D, 1D and 0D) inorganic nanomaterials represent a bridge between the selectivity of molecular catalysts and the high performance and stability of inorganic catalysts. As a consequence of the low dimensions, higher surface areas are obtained but also introduce new physics and increased tuneability of the electronic states in the nanostructured system. Herein, we derive the commonly used equations for optical transitions and carrier confinement in semiconductors and discuss their effect on the optical and photocatalytic properties of direct band and indirect band gap materials. In particular, the physical properties of the optical and photocatalytic properties of Fe2O3 and ZnO will be used to exemplify the effects of the low dimensionality. Carrier confinement effects with changes in the density of states, band gap/shift of band edges will be outlined together with their effects on the tuneability of the material and their wider application as photocatalytic materials.

  • 8.
    Engblom, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Avdelningen för beräkningsvetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för informationsteknologi, Tillämpad beräkningsvetenskap.
    Wilson, Daniel B.
    Baker, Ruth E.
    Scalable population-level modelling of biological cells incorporating mechanics and kinetics in continuous time2018Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, s. 180379:1-17, artikel-id 180379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Johanson, Zerina
    et al.
    Nat Hist Museum, Dept Earth Sci, London, England..
    Smith, Moya
    Nat Hist Museum, Dept Earth Sci, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Dent Inst, Tissue Engn & Biophoton, London, England..
    Sanchez, Sophie
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi. European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, Grenoble, France..
    Senden, Tim
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Phys & Engn, Dept Appl Math, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Trinajstic, Kate
    Curtin Univ, Environm & Agr, Kent St, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Pfaff, Cathrin
    Univ Vienna, Dept Palaeontol, Vienna, Austria..
    Questioning hagfish affinities of the enigmatic Devonian vertebrate Palaeospondylus2017Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, nr 7, artikel-id 170214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Palaeospondylus gunni Traquair, 1890 is an enigmatic Devonian vertebrate whose taxonomic affinities have been debated since it was first described. Most recently, Palaeospondylus has been identified as a stem-group hagfish (Myxinoidea). However, one character questioning this assignment is the presence of three semicircular canals in the otic region of the cartilaginous skull, a feature of jawed vertebrates. Additionally, new tomographic data reveal that the following characters of crown-group gnathostomes (chondrichthyans + osteichthyans) are present in Palaeospondylus: a longer telencephalic region of the braincase, separation of otic and occipital regions by the otico-occipital fissure, and vertebral centra. As well, a precerebral fontanelle and postorbital articulation of the palatoquadrate are characteristic of certain chondrichthyans. Similarities in the structure of the postorbital process to taxa such as Pucapampella, and possible presence of the ventral cranial fissure, both support a resolution of Pa. gunni as a stem chondrichthyan. The internally mineralized cartilaginous skeleton in Palaeospondylus may represent a stage in the loss of bone characteristic of the Chondrichthyes.

  • 10.
    Kolipakam, Vishnupriya
    et al.
    Wildlife Inst India, Post Box 18, Dehra Dun 248001, Uttar Pradesh, India.;Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Evolutionary Proc Language & Culture, Wundtlaan 1, NL-6525 XD Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Jordan, Fiona M.
    Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Evolutionary Proc Language & Culture, Wundtlaan 1, NL-6525 XD Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Univ Bristol, Dept Anthropol & Archaeol, 43 Woodland Rd, Bristol BS8 1UU, Avon, England.;Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Linguist & Cultural Evolut, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany..
    Dunn, Michael
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik och filologi. Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Evolutionary Proc Language & Culture, Wundtlaan 1, NL-6525 XD Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Greenhill, Simon J.
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Linguist & Cultural Evolut, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany.;Australian Natl Univ, ARC Ctr Excellence Dynam Language, Bldg 9,HC Coombs Bld, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia..
    Bouckaert, Remco
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Linguist & Cultural Evolut, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany.;Univ Auckland, Dept Comp Sci, 303-38 Princes St, Auckland 1010, New Zealand..
    Gray, Russell D.
    Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Linguist & Cultural Evolut, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany..
    Verkerk, Annemarie
    Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Evolutionary Proc Language & Culture, Wundtlaan 1, NL-6525 XD Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Max Planck Inst Sci Human Hist, Dept Linguist & Cultural Evolut, Kahlaische Str 10, D-07745 Jena, Germany..
    A Bayesian phylogenetic study of the Dravidian language family2018Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, nr 3, artikel-id 171504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dravidian language family consists of about 80 varieties (Hammarstrom H. 2016 Glottolog 2.7) spoken by 220 million people across southern and central India and surrounding countries (Steever SB. 1998 Tn The Dravidian languages (ed. SB Steever), pp. 1-39: 1). Neither the geographical origin of the Dravidian language homeland nor its exact dispersal through time are known. The history of these languages is crucial for understanding prehistory in Eurasia, because despite their current restricted range, these languages played a significant role in influencing other language groups including IndoAryan (Indo-European) and Munda (Austroasiatic) speakers. Here, we report the results of a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of cognate -coded lexical data, elicited first hand from native speakers, to investigate the subgrouping of the Dravidian language family, and provide dates for the major points of diversification. Our results indicate that the Dravidian language family is approximately 4500 years old, a finding that corresponds well with earlier linguistic and archaeological studies. The main branches of the Dravidian language family (North, Central, South I, South II) are recovered, although the placement of languages within these main branches diverges from previous classifications. We find considerable uncertainty with regard to the relationships between the main branches.

  • 11.
    Linderholm, Anna
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Res Lab Archaeol, Palaeogen & Bioarchaeol Res Network, Dyson Perrins Bldg,South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QY, England.;Texas A&M Univ, Bioarchaeol & Genom Lab, Dept Anthropol, MS 4352 TAMU, College Stn, TX 77843 USA..
    Spencer, Daisy
    Univ Oxford, Res Lab Archaeol, Palaeogen & Bioarchaeol Res Network, Dyson Perrins Bldg,South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QY, England.;Natl Univ Ireland, Discipline Archaeol, Univ Rd, Galway, Ireland..
    Battista, Vincent
    Univ Oxford, Res Lab Archaeol, Palaeogen & Bioarchaeol Res Network, Dyson Perrins Bldg,South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QY, England..
    Frantz, Laurent
    Univ Oxford, Res Lab Archaeol, Palaeogen & Bioarchaeol Res Network, Dyson Perrins Bldg,South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QY, England..
    Barnett, Ross
    Univ Oxford, Res Lab Archaeol, Palaeogen & Bioarchaeol Res Network, Dyson Perrins Bldg,South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QY, England..
    Fleischer, Robert C.
    Smithsonian Conservat Biol Inst, Ctr Conservat Genom, Natl Zool Pk,MRC 5508, Washington, DC 20013 USA..
    James, Helen F.
    Smithsonian Inst, Natl Museum Nat Hist, Dept Vertebrate Zool, POB 37012, Washington, DC 20013 USA..
    Duffy, Dave
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Dept Bot, 3190 MaileWay,Room 101, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Sparks, Jed P.
    Cornell Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Ithaca, NY USA..
    Clements, David R.
    Trinity Western Univ, Dept Biol, Langley, BC V2Y 1Y1, Canada..
    Andersson, Leif
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Dobney, Keith
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Archaeol Class & Egyptol, 12-14 Abercromby Sq, Liverpool L69 7WZ, Merseyside, England..
    Leonard, Jennifer A.
    Estn Biol Donana EBD CSIC, Conservat & Evolutionary Genet Grp, Ave Amer Vespucio S-N, Seville 41092, Spain..
    Larson, Greger
    Univ Oxford, Res Lab Archaeol, Palaeogen & Bioarchaeol Res Network, Dyson Perrins Bldg,South Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3QY, England..
    A novel MC1R allele for black coat colour reveals the Polynesian ancestry and hybridization patterns of Hawaiian feral pigs2016Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, nr 9, artikel-id 160304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pigs (Sus scrofa) have played an important cultural role in Hawaii since Polynesians first introduced them in approximately AD 1200. Additional varieties of pigs were introduced following Captain Cook's arrival in Hawaii in 1778 and it has been suggested that the current pig population may descend primarily, or even exclusively, from European pigs. Although populations of feral pigs today are an important source of recreational hunting on all of the major islands, they also negatively impact native plants and animals. As a result, understanding the origins of these feral pig populations has significant ramifications for discussions concerning conservation management, identity and cultural continuity on the islands. Here, we analysed a neutral mitochondrial marker and a functional nuclear coat colour marker in 57 feral Hawaiian pigs. Through the identification of a new mutation in the MC1R gene that results in black coloration, we demonstrate that Hawaiian feral pigs are mostly the descendants of those originally introduced during Polynesian settlement, though there is evidence for some admixture. As such, extant Hawaiian pigs represent a unique historical lineage that is not exclusively descended from feral pigs of European origin.

  • 12.
    Marthin, Otte
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Gamstedt, E. Kristofer
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Damage shielding mechanisms in hierarchical composites in nature with potential for design of tougher structural materials2019Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 3, artikel-id 181733Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Load-carrying materials in nature, such as wood and bone, consist of relatively simple building blocks assembled into a hierarchical structure, ranging from the molecular scale up to the macroscopic level. This results in composites with a combination of high strength and high toughness, showing very large fracture surfaces indicating energy dissipation by cracking on multiple length scales. Man-made composites instead consist typically of fibres embedded in a uniform matrix, and frequently show brittle failure through the growth of critical clusters of broken fibres. In this paper, a hierarchical structure inspired by wood is presented. It is designed to incapacitate cluster growth, with the aim of retaining high strength. This is done by introducing new structural levels of successively weaker interfaces with the purpose of reducing the stress concentrations if large clusters appear. To test this hypothesis, a probability density field of further damage growth has been calculated for different microstructures and initial crack sizes. The results indicate that the hierarchical structure should maintain its strength by localization of damage, yet rendering large clusters less harmful by weakening the resulting stress concentration to its surroundings, which would lead to an increase in strain to failure. In this context, the potential of using the biomimetic hierarchical structure in design of composite materials is discussed.

  • 13.
    Ollivier, Morgane
    et al.
    Ecole Normale Super Lyon, PALGENE, French Natl Platform Paleogenet, CNRS ENS Lyon, 46 Allee Italie, F-69364 Lyon 07, France.;Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Ecol Alpine LECA, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Tresset, Anne
    CNRS MNHN SUs UMR 7209, Archeozool Archeobot Soc Prat & Environm, 55 Rue Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Bastian, Fabiola
    Ecole Normale Super Lyon, PALGENE, French Natl Platform Paleogenet, CNRS ENS Lyon, 46 Allee Italie, F-69364 Lyon 07, France.;Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Ecol Alpine LECA, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Lagoutte, Laetitia
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS UMR6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, F-35000 Rennes, France..
    Axelsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Arendt, Maja Louise
    Uppsala universitet, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Balasescu, Adrian
    Natl Museum Romanian Hist, 12 Calea Victoriei, Bucharest 030026, Romania..
    Marshour, Marjan
    CNRS MNHN SUs UMR 7209, Archeozool Archeobot Soc Prat & Environm, 55 Rue Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Sablin, Mikhail V.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Zool, St Petersburg, Russia..
    Salanova, Laure
    CNRS ENS, Aoroc, 45 Rue Ulm, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Vigne, Jean-Denis
    Hitte, Christophe
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS UMR6290, Inst Genet & Dev Rennes, F-35000 Rennes, France..
    Hanni, Catherine
    Ecole Normale Super Lyon, PALGENE, French Natl Platform Paleogenet, CNRS ENS Lyon, 46 Allee Italie, F-69364 Lyon 07, France.;Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Ecol Alpine LECA, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Amy2B copy number variation reveals starch diet adaptations in ancient European dogs2016Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, nr 11, artikel-id 160449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extant dog and wolf DNA indicates that dog domestication was accompanied by the selection of a series of duplications on the Amy2B gene coding for pancreatic amylase. In this study, we used a palaeogenetic approach to investigate the timing and expansion of the Amy2B gene in the ancient dog populations of Western and Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to estimate the copy numbers of this gene for 13 ancient dog samples, dated to between 15 000 and 4000 years before present (cal. BP). This evidenced an increase of Amy2B copies in ancient dogs from as early as the 7th millennium cal. BP in Southeastern Europe. We found that the gene expansion was not fixed across all dogs within this early farming context, with ancient dogs bearing between 2 and 20 diploid copies of the gene. The results also suggested that selection for the increased Amy2B copy number started 7000 years cal. BP, at the latest. This expansion reflects a local adaptation that allowed dogs to thrive on a starch rich diet, especially within early farming societies, and suggests a biocultural coevolution of dog genes and human culture.

  • 14.
    Pardo-Perez, Judith M.
    et al.
    Staatliches Museum Nat Kunde, Stuttgart, Germany;Univ Magallanes, Direcc Invest & Postgrad, Punta Arenas, Chile.
    Kear, Benjamin P.
    Uppsala universitet, Enheten för musik och museer, Evolutionsmuseet. Uppsala Univ, Museum Evolut, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Maxwell, Erin E.
    Staatliches Museum Nat Kunde, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Palaeoepidemiology in extinct vertebrate populations: factors influencing skeletal health in Jurassic marine reptiles2019Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 7, artikel-id 190264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Palaeoepidemiological studies related to palaeoecology are rare, but have the potential to provide information regarding ecosystem-level characteristics by measuring individual health. In order to assess factors underlying the prevalence of pathologies in large marine vertebrates, we surveyed ichthyosaurs (Mesozoic marine reptiles) from the Posidonienschiefer Formation (Early Jurassic: Toarcian) of southwestern Germany. This Formation provides a relatively large sample from a geologically and geographically restricted interval, making it ideal for generating baseline data for a palaeoepidemiological survey. We examined the influence of taxon, anatomical region, body size, ontogeny and environmental change, as represented by the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event, on the prevalence of pathologies, based on a priori ideas of factors influencing population skeletal health. Our results show that the incidence of pathologies is dependent on taxon, with the small-bodied genus Stenopterygius exhibiting fewer skeletal pathologies than other genera. Within Stenopterygius, we detected more pathologies in large adults than in smaller size classes. Stratigraphic horizon, a proxy for palaeoenvironmental change, did not influence the incidence of pathologies in Stenopterygius. The quantification of the occurrence of pathologies within taxa and across guilds is critical to constructing more detailed hypotheses regarding changes in the prevalence of skeletal injury and disease through Earth history.

  • 15.
    Qvarnström, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Vikberg Wernström, Joel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi.
    Piechowski, Rafal
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Paleobiol, Twarda 51-55, PL-00818 Warsaw, Poland;Univ Warsaw, Dept Palaeobiol & Evolut, Fac Biol, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Zwirki & Wigury 101, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland.
    Talanda, Mateusz
    Univ Warsaw, Dept Palaeobiol & Evolut, Fac Biol, Biol & Chem Res Ctr, Zwirki & Wigury 101, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland.
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Niedzwiedzki, Grzegorz
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för organismbiologi, Evolution och utvecklingsbiologi.
    Beetle-bearing coprolites possibly reveal the diet of a Late Triassic dinosauriform2019Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 3, artikel-id 181042Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Diets of extinct animals can be difficult to analyse if no direct evidence, such as gut contents, is preserved in association with body fossils. Inclusions from coprolites (fossil faeces), however, may also reflect the diet of the host animal and become especially informative if the coprolite producer link can be established. Here we describe, based on propagation phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SRμCT), the contents of five morphologically similar coprolites collected from two fossil-bearing intervals from the highly fossiliferous Upper Triassic locality at Krasiejow in Silesia, Poland. Beetle remains, mostly elytra, and unidentified exoskeleton fragments of arthropods are the most conspicuous inclusions found in the coprolites. The abundance of these inclusions suggests that the coprolite producer deliberately targeted beetles and similar small terrestrial invertebrates as prey, but the relatively large size of the coprolites shows that it was not itself a small animal. The best candidate from the body fossil record of the locality is the dinosauriform Silesaurus opolensis Dzik, 2003, which had an anatomy in several ways similar to those of bird-like neotheropod dinosaurs and modern birds. We hypothesize that the beak-like jaws of S. opolensis were used to efficiently peck small insects off the ground, a feeding behaviour analogous to some extant birds.

  • 16.
    Romenskyy, Maksym
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik.
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik.
    Ward, Ashley J. W.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik.
    Body size affects the strength of social interactions and spatial organization of a schooling fish (Pseudomugil signifer)2017Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, nr 4, artikel-id 161056Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While a rich variety of self-propelled particle models propose to explain the collective motion of fish and other animals, rigorous statistical comparison between models and data remains a challenge. Plausible models should be flexible enough to capture changes in the collective behaviour of animal groups at their different developmental stages and group sizes. Here, we analyse the statistical properties of schooling fish (Pseudomugil signifer) through a combination of experiments and simulations. We make novel use of a Boltzmann inversion method, usually applied in molecular dynamics, to identify the effective potential of the mean force of fish interactions. Specifically, we show that larger fish have a larger repulsion zone, but stronger attraction, resulting in greater alignment in their collective motion. We model the collective dynamics of schools using a self-propelled particle model, modified to include varying particle speed and a local repulsion rule. We demonstrate that the statistical properties of the fish schools are reproduced by our model, thereby capturing a number of features of the behaviour and development of schooling fish.

  • 17.
    Romenskyy, Maksym
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik. Imperial Coll London, Dept Life Sci, London SW7 2AZ, England.
    Spaiser, Viktoria
    Univ Leeds, Sch Polit & Int Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England.
    Ihle, Thomas
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Phys, Felix Hausdorff Str 6, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany.
    Lobaskin, Vladimir
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Polarized Ukraine 2014: opinion and territorial split demonstrated with the bounded confidence by model, parametrized XY Twitter data2018Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, nr 8, artikel-id 171935Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple countries have recently experienced extreme political polarization, which, in some cases, led to escalation of hate crime, violence and political instability. Besides the much discussed presidential elections in the USA and France, Britain's Brexit vote and Turkish constitutional referendum showed signs of extreme polarization. Among the countries affected, Ukraine faced some of the gravest consequences. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms of these phenomena, we here combine social media analysis with agent-based modelling of opinion dynamics, targeting Ukraine's crisis of 2014. We use Twitter data to quantify changes in the opinion divide and parametrize an extended bounded confidence XY model, which provides a spatio-temporal description of the polarization dynamics. We demonstrate that the level of emotional intensity is a major driving force for polarization that can lead to a spontaneous onset of collective behaviour at a certain degree of homophily and conformity. We find that the critical level of emotional intensity corresponds to a polarization transition, marked by a sudden increase in the degree of involvement and in the opinion bimodality.

  • 18.
    Saunders, Manu E.
    et al.
    Univ New England, UNE Business Sch, Sch Environm & Rural Sci, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia..
    Duffy, Meghan A.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Heard, Stephen B.
    Univ New Brunswick, Dept Biol, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3, Canada..
    Kosmala, Margaret
    Harvard Univ, Dept Organism & Evolutionary Biol, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Leather, Simon R.
    Harper Adams Univ, Crop & Environm Sci, Newport TF10 8NB, Shrops, England..
    McGlynn, Terrence P.
    Calif State Univ Dominguez Hills, Dept Biol, Carson, CA 90747 USA.;Nat Hist Museum Los Angeles Cty, Dept Entomol, Los Angeles, CA 90007 USA..
    Ollerton, Jeff
    Univ Northampton, Fac Arts Sci & Technol, Ave Campus, Northampton NN2 6JD, England..
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Bringing ecology blogging into the scientific fold: measuring reach and impact of science community blogs2017Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, nr 10, artikel-id 170957Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The popularity of science blogging has increased in recent years, but the number of academic scientists who maintain regular blogs is limited. The role and impact of science communication blogs aimed at general audiences is often discussed, but the value of science community blogs aimed at the academic community has largely been overlooked. Here, we focus on our own experiences as bloggers to argue that science community blogs are valuable to the academic community. We use data fromour own blogs (n=7) to illustrate some of the factors influencing reach and impact of science community blogs. We then discuss the value of blogs as a standalone medium, where rapid communication of scholarly ideas, opinions and short observational notes can enhance scientific discourse, and discussion of personal experiences can provide indirect mentorship for junior researchers and scientists from underrepresented groups. Finally, we argue that science community blogs can be treated as a primary source and provide some key points to consider when citing blogs in peer-reviewed literature.

  • 19.
    Smolla, Marco
    et al.
    Univ Penn, Dept Biol, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA;Univ Manchester, Fac Sci & Engn, Sch Earth & Environm Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Rosher, Charlotte
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik. Univ Manchester, Fac Sci & Engn, Sch Earth & Environm Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England;Uppsala Univ, Dept Ecol & Genet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gilman, R. Tucker
    Univ Manchester, Fac Sci & Engn, Sch Earth & Environm Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Shultz, Susanne
    Univ Manchester, Fac Sci & Engn, Sch Earth & Environm Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Reproductive skew affects social information use2019Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 7, artikel-id 182084Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals vary in their propensity to use social learning, the engine of cultural evolution, to acquire information about their environment. The causes of those differences, however, remain largely unclear. Using an agent-based model, we tested the hypothesis that as a result of reproductive skew differences in energetic requirements for reproduction affect the value of social information. We found that social learning is associated with lower variance in yield and is more likely to evolve in risk-averse low-skew populations than in high-skew populations. Reproductive skew may also result in sex differences in social information use, as empirical data suggest that females are often more risk-averse than males. To explore how risk may affect sex differences in learning strategies, we simulated learning in sexually reproducing populations where one sex experiences more reproductive skew than the other. When both sexes compete for the same resources, they tend to adopt extreme strategies: the sex with greater reproductive skew approaches pure individual learning and the other approaches pure social learning. These results provide insight into the conditions that promote individual and species level variation in social learning and so may affect cultural evolution.

  • 20.
    Strömbom, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik. Lafayette Coll, Dept Biol, Easton, PA 18042 USA;Swansea Univ, Coll Sci, Dept Biosci, Swansea SA2 6PP, W Glam, Wales.
    Hassan, Tasnia
    Lafayette Coll, Dept Biol, Easton, PA 18042 USA.
    Greis, W. Hunter
    Lafayette Coll, Dept Biol, Easton, PA 18042 USA.
    Antia, Alice
    Carleton Coll, Dept Math & Stat, Northfield, MN 55057 USA.
    Asynchrony induces polarization in attraction-based models of collective motion2019Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 4, artikel-id 190381Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal groups frequently move in a highly organized manner, as represented by flocks of birds and schools of fish. Despite being an everyday occurrence, we do not fully understand how this works. In particular, what social interactions between animals give rise to the flock structures we observe? This question is often investigated using self-propelled particle models where particles represent the individual animals. These models differ in the social interactions used, individual particle properties, and various technical assumptions. One particular technical assumption relates to whether all particles update their headings and positions at exactly the same time (synchronous update) or not (asynchronous update). Here, we investigate the causal effects of this assumption in an attraction-only model and find that it has a dramatic impact. Polarized groups do not form when synchronous update is used, but are produced with asynchronous update, and this phenomenon is robust with respect to variation in particle displacements and inclusion of noise. Given that many important models have been implemented with synchronous update only, we speculate that our understanding of the social interactions on which they are based may be incomplete. Perhaps previously unobserved phenomena will emerge if other potentially more realistic update schemes are used.

  • 21.
    Sundin, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Fysiologi. Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Jutfelt, Fredrik
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Biol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on male and female behavioural lateralization in a temperate goby2018Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, nr 3, artikel-id 171550Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioural abnormality in fishes has been proposed as a significant consequence of the increasing levels of carbon dioxide occurring in the oceans. Negative effects of elevated CO2 have been reported for behaviours such as predator-prey interactions, foraging, hearing and behavioural lateralization. Importantly, the effects vary greatly both within and between species, and some recent studies have shown minimal effects of CO2 on behaviour. Whether the effect of CO2 also varies between males and females is, however, virtually unexplored. According to resource allocation theory; females are expected to be more sensitive to elevated CO2, meaning that non-sex-specific studies may overlook ecologically important differences between the sexes. In this study, we investigated the possible differences between males and females in their response to elevated CO2 by performing behavioural lateralization tests in adult temperate two-spotted gobies, Gobiusculus flavescens. We found that the strength of the side bias (absolute lateralization) was unaffected by the CO2 treatment, and there was no difference between males and females. The control fish were slightly right-biased in their behavioural asymmetry (mean relative lateralization of 14). Exposure to high CO2 affected this pattern, such that treated fish were slightly left-biased (mean relative lateralization of -10), regardless of their sex. The same results were obtained yet again when the study was repeated during a second year. We discuss our results in light of the great variation in lateralization that has been reported to depend on variables such as species, ecological settings and environmental factors.

  • 22.
    Ward, Ashley J. W.
    et al.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Schaerf, Timothy M.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ New England, Sch Sci & Technol, Armidale, NSW, Australia..
    Herbert-Read, James E.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik. Stockholm Univ, Dept Biol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Morrell, Lesley
    Univ Hull, Sch Biol Biomed & Environm Sci, Kingston Upon Hull, N Humberside, England..
    Sumpter, David J. T.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Matematisk-datavetenskapliga sektionen, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik och statistik.
    Webster, Mike M.
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Biol, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland..
    Local interactions and global properties of wild, free-ranging stickleback shoals2017Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, nr 7, artikel-id 170043Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Collective motion describes the global properties of moving groups of animals and the self-organized, coordinated patterns of individual behaviour that produce them. We examined the group-level patterns and local interactions between individuals in wild, free-ranging shoals of three-spine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Our data reveal that the highest frequencies of near-neighbour encounters occur at between one and two body lengths from a focal fish, with the peak frequency alongside a focal individual. Fish also show the highest alignment with these laterally placed individuals, and generally with animals in front of themselves. Furthermore, fish are more closely matched in size, speed and orientation to their near neighbours than to more distant neighbours, indicating local organization within groups. Among the group-level properties reported here, we find that polarization is strongly influenced by group speed, but also the variation in speed among individuals and the nearest neighbour distances of group members. While we find no relationship between group order and group size, we do find that larger groups tend to have lower nearest neighbour distances, which in turn may be important in maintaining group order.

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