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  • 1.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, IKE, Div Child & Adolescent Psychiat, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linkoping Univ, Div Obstet & Gynecol IKE, Fac Hlth Sci, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linkoping Univ, Div Obstet & Gynecol IKE, Fac Hlth Sci, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Dekeyser, Linda
    Linkoping Univ, Div Obstet & Gynecol IKE, Fac Hlth Sci, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Svedin, Carl-Göran
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, IKE, Div Child & Adolescent Psychiat, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Effect of gene, environment and maternal depressive symptoms on pre-adolescence behavior problems: a longitudinal study2013In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Depression is a common and disabling condition with a high relapse frequency. Maternal mental health problems and experience of traumatic life events are known to increase the risk of behavior problems in children. Recently, genetic factors, in particular gene-by-environment interaction models, have been implicated to explain depressive etiology. However, results are inconclusive.

    METHODS:

    Study participants were members of the SESBiC-study. A total of 889 mothers and their children were followed during the child's age of 3 months to 12 years. Information on maternal depressive symptoms was gathered postpartum and at a 12 year follow-up. Mothers reported on child behavior and traumatic life events experienced by the child at age 12. Saliva samples were obtained from children for analysis of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms.

    RESULTS:

    Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, and internalizing problems in 12-year-old children (OR 5.72, 95% CI 3.30-9.91). Furthermore, carriers of two short alleles (s/s) of the 5-HTTLPR showed a more than 4-fold increased risk of internalizing problems at age 12 compared to l/l carriers (OR 4.73, 95% CI 2.14-10.48). No gene-by-environment interaction was found and neither depressive symptoms postpartum or traumatic experiences during childhood stayed significant in the final model.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Concurrent maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety are significant risk factors for behavior problems in children, which need to be taken into account in clinical practice. Furthermore, we found a main effect of 5-HTTLPR on internalizing symptoms in 12-year-old children, a finding that needs to be confirmed in future studies.

  • 2.
    Annerbäck, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Barnafrid, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Child physical abuse: factors influencing the associations between self-reported exposure and self-reported health problems2018In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 12, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Child physical abuse (CPA) is an extensive public health problem because of its associations with poor health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine which of the background factors of CPA committed by a parent or other caregiver relates to self-reported poor health among girls and boys (13; 15 and 17 years old): perpetrator, last year exposure; severity and frequency; socioeconomic load and foreign background.

    Methods: In a cross-sectional study in a Swedish county (n = 8024) a path analysis was performed to evaluate a model where all background variables were put as predictors of three health-status variables: mental; physical and general health problems. In a second step a log linear analysis was performed to examine how the distribution over the health-status categories was different for different combinations of background factors.

    Results: Children exposed to CPA reported poor health to a much higher extent than those who were not exposed. In the path analysis it was found that frequency and severity of abuse (boys only) and having experienced CPA during the last year, was significantly associated with poor health as well as socioeconomic load in the families. Foreign background was significantly negatively associated with all three health indicators especially for girls. Neither mother nor father as perpetrator remained significant in the path analysis, while the results from the log linear analyses showed that mother-abuse did in fact relate to poor general health and mental as well as physical health problems among boys and girls. Father-abuse was associated with poor mental health if severe abuse was reported. Poor mental health was also associated with mild father-abuse if exposure during the last year was reported.

    Conclusion: Despite the limitations that cross-sectional studies imply, this study provides new knowledge about factors associated with poor health among physically abused children. It describes details of CPA that have significant associations to different aspects of poor health and thus what needs to be addressed by professionals within mental health providers and social services. Understanding how different factors may contribute to different health outcomes for exposed children is important in future research and needs further studies.

  • 3.
    Björnsdotter, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Enebrink, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Inst, Div Psychol, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of online administered parental Strengths and Difficulties Questionnarie (SDQ), and normative data based on combined online and paper-and-pencil administration2013In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To examine the psychometric properties of the online administered parental version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and to provide parental norms from a nationwide Swedish sample.

    Methods

    A total of 1443 parents from of a national probability sample of 2800 children aged 10-13 years completed the SDQ online or as usual (i.e., using paper-and-pencil).

    Results

    The SDQ subscales obtained from the online administration showed high internal consistency (polychoric ordinal alpha), and confirmatory factor analysis of the SDQ five factor model resulted in excellent fit. The Total Difficulties score of the SDQ and its other subscales were significantly related to the Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) rating scale. Norms for the parent version of SDQ obtained from the Internet were identical to those collected using paper-and-pencil. They were thus combined and are presented sorted by child gender and age.

    Conclusions

    The SDQ seems to be a reliable and valid instrument given its high internal consistency, clear factor structure and high correlation with other instruments capturing the intended constructs. Findings in the present study support its use for online data collection, as well as using norms obtained through paper-and-pencil-administration even when SDQ has been administrated online.

  • 4.
    Bohman, Hannes
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Låftman, Sara B
    Cleland, Neil
    Lundberg, Mathias
    Päären, Aivar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Somatic symptoms in adolescence as a predictor of severe mental illness in adulthood: a long-term community-based follow-up study.2018In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 12, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Somatic symptoms are common and costly for society and correlate with suffering and low functioning. Nevertheless, little is known about the long-term implications of somatic symptoms. The objective of this study was to assess if somatic symptoms in adolescents with depression and in their matched controls predict severe mental illness in adulthood by investigating the use of hospital-based care consequent to different mental disorders.

    Methods: The entire school population of 16-17-year-olds in the city of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991-1993 (n = 2300). Adolescents with positive screenings (n = 307) and matched non-depressed controls (n = 302) participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview for mental disorders. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. The adolescents with depression and the matched non-depressed controls were engaged in follow-up through the National Patient Register 17-19 years after the baseline study (n = 375). The outcome measures covered hospital-based mental health care for different mental disorders according to ICD-10 criteria between the participants' ages of 18 and 35 years.

    Results: Somatic symptoms were associated with an increased risk of later hospital-based mental health care in general in a dose-response relationship when adjusting for sex, adolescent depression, and adolescent anxiety (1 symptom: OR = 1.63, CI 0.55-4.85; 2-4 symptoms: OR = 2.77, 95% CI 1.04-7.39; ≥ 5 symptoms: OR = 5.75, 95% CI 1.98-16.72). With regards to specific diagnoses, somatic symptoms predicted hospital-based care for mood disorders when adjusting for sex, adolescent depression, and adolescent anxiety (p < 0.05). In adolescents with depression, somatic symptoms predicted later hospital-based mental health care in a dose-response relationship (p < 0.01). In adolescents without depression, reporting at least one somatic symptom predicted later hospital-based mental health care (p < 0.05).

    Conclusions: Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted severe adult mental illness as measured by hospital-based care also when controlled for important confounders. The results suggest that adolescents with somatic symptoms need early treatment and extended follow-up to treat these specific symptoms, regardless of co-occurring depression and anxiety.

  • 5.
    Skokauskas, Norbert
    et al.
    Word Psychiat Assoc, Child & Adolescent Psychiat Sect, Trondheim, Norway;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Fung, Daniel
    Int Assoc Child & Adolescent Psychiat & Allied Pr, Singapore, Singapore;Inst Mental Hlth, Singapore, Singapore.
    Flaherty, Lois T.
    Int Soc Adolescent Psychiat & Psychol, Cambridge, MA USA;Harvard Univ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    von Klitzing, Kai
    World Assoc Infant Mental Hlth, Leipzig, Germany;Univ Hosp Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
    Puras, Dainius
    United Nations & Univ Vilnius, Standard Hlth, Special Rapporteur Right Everyone Enjoyment Highe, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Servili, Chiara
    WHO, Dept Mental Hlth & Subst Abuse, WHO Focal Point Child & Adolescent Mental Hlth, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Dua, Tarun
    WHO, Dept Mental Hlth & Subst Abuse, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Falissard, Bruno
    Univ Paris Sub, Paris, France.
    Vostanis, Panos
    Univ Leicester, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Beatriz Moyano, Maria
    Hosp Frances Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Feldman, Inna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Clark, Ciaran
    Hlth Serv Execut, Dublin, Ireland.
    Boricevic, Vlatka
    Psychiat Hosp Children & Youth, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Patton, George
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Leventhal, Bennett
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Psychiat, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Guerrero, Anthony
    Univ Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
    Shaping the future of child and adolescent psychiatry2019In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 13, article id 19Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Child and adolescent psychiatry is in a unique position to respond to the growing public health challenges associated with the large number of mental disorders arising early in life, but some changes may be necessary to meet these challenges. In this context, the future of child and adolescent psychiatry was considered by the Section on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA CAP), the International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP), the World Association for Infant Mental Health (WAIMH), the International Society for Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology (ISAPP), the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, representatives of the WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, and other experts. We take this opportunity to outline four consensus priorities for child and adolescent psychiatry over the next decade: increase the workforce necessary for providing care for children, adolescents and families facing mental disorders; reorienting child and adolescent mental health services to be more responsive to broader public health needs; increasing research and research training while also integrating new research finding promptly and efficiently into clinical practice and research training; Increasing efforts in advocacy.

  • 6.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Sodertorn Univ, Stockholm Ctr Hlth Soc Transit Scohost, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Sodertorn Univ, Stockholm Ctr Hlth Soc Transit Scohost, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Koposov, Roman
    Univ Tromso, Inst Clin Med, Ctr Child & Adolescent Mental Hlth & Child Welf, Tromso, Norway.
    McKee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, European Ctr Hlth Soc Transit, London WC1, England.
    Roberts, Bayard
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, European Ctr Hlth Soc Transit, London WC1, England.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Peer victimisation and its association with psychological and somatic health problems among adolescents in northern Russia2013In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence from countries around the world suggests that school-based peer victimisation is associated with worse health outcomes among adolescents. So far, however, there has been little systematic research on this phenomenon in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between peer victimisation at school and a range of different psychological and somatic health problems among Russian adolescents.

    METHODS: This study used data from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) - a cross-sectional survey undertaken in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was collected from 2892 adolescents aged 12-17 about their experiences of school-based peer victimisation and on a variety of psychological and somatic health conditions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between victimisation and health.

    RESULTS: Peer victimisation in school was commonplace: 22.1% of the students reported that they had experienced frequent victimisation in the current school year (girls - 17.6%; boys - 28.5%). There was a strong relationship between experiencing victimisation and reporting worse health among both boys and girls with more victimisation associated with an increased risk of experiencing worse health. Girls in the highest victimisation category had odds ratios ranging between 1.90 (problems with eyes) and 5.26 (aches/pains) for experiencing somatic complaints when compared to their non-victimised counterparts, while the corresponding figures for boys were 2.04 (headaches) and 4.36 (aches/pains). Girls and boys who had the highest victimisation scores were also 2.42 (girls) and 3.33 (boys) times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety, over 5 times more likely to suffer from posttraumatic stress and over 6 times more likely to experience depressive symptoms.

    CONCLUSION: Peer victimisation at school has a strong association with poor health outcomes among Russian adolescents. Effective school-based interventions are now urgently needed to counter the negative effects of victimisation on adolescents' health in Russia.

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