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  • 1. De Luca, Maria Antonietta
    et al.
    Valentini, Valentina
    Bimpisidis, Zisis
    Cacciapaglia, Fabio
    Caboni, Pierluigi
    Di Chiara, Gaetano
    Endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol self-administration by Sprague-Dawley rats and stimulation of in vivo dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens shell2014In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Science and Society Unit, Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Institute, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Changeux, Jean-Pierre
    Drug addiction: from neuroscience to ethics2018In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, article id 595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we suggest a potential new ethical analysis of addiction focusing on the relationship between aware and unaware processings in the brain, i.e. on what is consciously and what is non-consciously perceived by the individual. We take the case of the opioids epidemics to argue that a consideration of both aware and unaware processings provides a more comprehensive ethical framework to discuss the ethical issues raised by addiction.Finally, our hypothesis is that in addition to identified Central Nervous System’s neuronal/neurochemical factors contributing to addictive dynamics, the socio-economic status, i.e. the individual background, plays a causal role through epigenetic processes, originating the need for additional reward in the brain. This provides a strong base for a socio-political form of responsibility for preventing and managing addiction crisis.

  • 3.
    Granholm, Linnea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Segerström, Lova
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Episodic Ethanol Exposure in Adolescent Rats Causes Residual Alterations in Endogenous Opioid Peptides2018In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 9, article id 425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent binge drinking is associated with an increased risk of substance use disorder, but how ethanol affects the central levels of endogenous opioid peptides is still not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of repeated episodic ethanol exposure during adolescence on the tissue levels of three different endogenous opioid peptides in rats. OutbredWistar rats received orogastric (i.e., gavage) ethanol for three consecutive days per week between 4 and 9 weeks of age. At 2 h and 3 weeks, respectively, after the last exposure, beta-endorphin, dynorphin B and Met-enkephalin-Arg(6)Phe(7) (MEAP) were analyzed with radioimmunoassay. Beta-endorphin levels were low in the nucleus accumbens during ethanol intoxication. Remaining effects of adolescent ethanol exposure were found especially for MEAP, with low levels in the amygdala, and high in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area three weeks after the last exposure. In the hypothalamus and pituitary, the effects of ethanol on beta-endorphin were dependent on time from the last exposure. An interaction effect was also found in the accumbal levels of MEAP and nigral dynorphin B. These results demonstrate that repeated episodic exposure to ethanol during adolescence affected opioid peptide levels in regions involved in reward and reinforcement as well as stress response. These alterations in opioid networks after adolescent ethanol exposure could explain, in part, the increased risk for high ethanol consumption later in life.

  • 4.
    Zanchi, Davide
    et al.
    Univ Basel, Dept Psychiat UPK, Basel, Switzerland..
    Brody, Arthur
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Psychiat, Los Angeles, CA USA.;VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare Syst, Dept Res, Los Angeles, CA USA..
    Borgwardt, Stefan
    Univ Basel, Dept Psychiat UPK, Basel, Switzerland..
    Haller, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. Affidea Ctr Diagnost Radiol Carouge CDRC, Geneva, Switzerland.;Univ Geneva, Fac Med, Geneva, Switzerland.;Univ Hosp Freiburg, Dept Neuroradiol, Freiburg, Germany..
    Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study2016In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, ISSN 1664-0640, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 7, article id 187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction, In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. Methods: First, we compared 29 females (28.6 +/- 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 +/- 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 7 males). Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry of gray matter (GM), and tract-based spatial statistics of white matter (WM). Results: First, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activationi in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and ACC. No structural differences were found in GM or WM. Conclusion: The current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues

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