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  • 1.
    Axelsdóttir, Katrín
    University of Iceland.
    All the King’s Runes2020Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 9-10, s. 231-260Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The so-called Third Grammatical Treatise by the Icelandic poet and scholar Óláfr Þórðarson hvítaskáld (c. 1210–59) contains a section in which runes are compared to letters of other alphabets. Óláfr quotes a runic sentence that he attributes to King Valdemar II of Denmark, at whose court Óláfr stayed in the winter of 1240–41. The meaning of this sentence, which is said to contain all the runes of the futhark, has been considered obscure by many scholars. However, some attempts towards its elucidation have been made. It has for example been proposed that the sentence alludes to a hawk (perhaps referring to fal­conry) since one of the words might correspond to Old Icelandic haukr, Old Danish høk. Here, a different interpretation is proposed, according to which the sen­tence is a reference to King Valdemar and Óláfr’s special interest, the runes, more specifically the b-rune, and its derivate, a variant of the p-rune, i.e. ᛕ.

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  • 2.
    Barnes, Michael P.
    University College London.
    Corpus Editions of Scandinavian Runic Inscriptions in Britain and Ireland2022Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 12, s. 99-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article begins with brief mention of two significant early attempts at edit­ing Scandinavian runic inscriptions from the British Isles. It goes on to explain how the modern scholarly corpus editions of these inscriptions came about. It describes the genesis and content of the four works that together present and elu­ci­date the total corpus: The Runic Inscriptions of Maeshowe, Orkney (1994), The Runic Inscriptions of Viking Age Dublin (1997), The Scandi­navian Runic Inscrip­tions of Britain (2006) and The Runic Inscriptions of the Isle of Man (2019). The circumstances in which each of these editions was conceived and brought to fruition are discussed, and the way they are structured and set out is examined in some detail. The advantages and drawbacks of different ways of presenting the runic material are considered, though no overall conclusions on these questions are offered. 

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  • 3.
    Barnes, Michael P.
    University College London.
    Review of Henrik Williams. Rökstenen och världens undergång, and Bo Ralph. Fadern, sonen och världsalltet: En nytolkning av runinskriften på Rök-stenen2024Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 13, s. 159-171Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 4.
    Barnes, Michael P.
    Department of Scandinavian Studies, University College London.
    The Manx Runes and the Supposed Jæren Connection2013Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 3, s. 59-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that there is a connection between the Scandinavian runic inscriptions of the Isle of Man and a group from the district of Jæren in southwestern Norway. The Manx inscriptions are dated on art-historical grounds to c. 930–1020, the Jæren group to around the year 1000 — partly because they seem to span the period of the conversion of Norway to Christianity, partly on the basis of their rune forms and language. There are problems with these datings, not least for those who have considered Manx runic tradition influenced by that of Jæren. There is also a mismatch between the 930–1020 period assigned to the Manx inscriptions on art-historical grounds and the testimony of their rune forms and language, which suggests that many of them at least may come closer in time to the Jæren group. This article examines previous contributions to the debate and analyses the data from both Man and Jæren. It has two main aims: to inject clarity into the discussion and to distinguish fact from assertion and uncertain hypothesis.

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  • 5.
    Barnes, Michael P.
    University College London.
    Two Recent Runic Finds from Orkney2015Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 6, s. 143-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides accounts of OR 22 Quoys and OR 23 Naversdale, two runic inscriptions recently found in Orkney. There is discussion of the find circum­stances, followed by a description of the object bearing the runes (the former a folded lead plaque, the latter an irregular stone fragment), a trans­runi­fication, transliteration, and commentary on the reading. Thereafter comes an inter­pretation of the text. In the case of OR 23 this is straightforward enough since the text consists of a sequence from the Pater Noster, the first instance of a Latin-language runic inscription from Orkney. OR 22 provides more of a chal­lenge, and various suggestions are offered.

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  • 6.
    Barnes, Michael P.
    Department of Scandinavian Studies, University College London.
    What Is Runology, and Where Does It Stand Today?2013Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 4, s. 7-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this contribution is to offer a critical appraisal of runology as currently practised. The article begins by asking what runology is, and possible ways of defining the subject are discussed. Theory and methodology are then considered. While there is much to be learnt from analysis of the methods runologists employ, the search for runological theories turns out to be an unrewarding exercise. Theories from other disciplines have on occasion informed and guided runological procedures, however, and this is exemplified through an examination of the role graphemics has played in recent discussion of rune forms and how they may best be transliterated into the roman alphabet. The article concludes with brief consideration of problems that have arisen in the reading and interpretation of runic inscriptions, and a plea is entered for a critical and dispassionate approach to runological endeavour.

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  • 7.
    Beck, Wolfgang
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena.
    Die Runeninschrift auf der Gürtelschnalle von Pforzen als Zeugnis der germanischen Heldensage?2016Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 7, s. 29-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pair Aigil and Aïlrun of the runic inscription on the Pforzen silver buckle (A.D. 570–600) is usually compared to the heroic couple Egill and Ǫlrún of Vǫlundar­kviða and Þiðreks saga, although there is no etymological reason for this. The collocation seems to be justified by the well-known phenomenon that he­ro­ic names often do not correspond exactly to their equivalents in a differ­ent lan­guage. The identification of aigil with Egill and a͡ïlrun with Ǫlrún has led to conclusions that go far beyond the basic evidence of the find and (the literal inter­pretation of) its inscription; its text is considered to be one of the oldest testimonies of Germanic heroic poetry taking its way from Conti­nental Ale­mannia to the Scandinavian North (or the other way round?). Attempts have been made to link the Pforzen inscription with the pictorial programme of the rune-inscribed Auzon (Franks) whalebone casket as well as with the Old English epic Beowulf. Prior to acceptance of the Pforzen inscription as a testi­mony of Germanic heroic legend, further investigation is necessary. It must be considered how the inscription fits into the system, the development, the trans­mission and the mediality of Germanic heroic legend.

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  • 8.
    Beck, Wolfgang
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena.
    Entgegnung zu Bernard Mees’ „Egill and Ǫlrún in Early High German“2019Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 8, s. 157-161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 9.
    Beck, Wolfgang
    et al.
    Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    Schuhmann, Roland
    Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig.
    Die ältesten Runeninschriften im Kontext (sprach)wissenschaftlicher Editionen2015Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 5, s. 7-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive editions of the oldest runic inscriptions are few and largely outdated;even the more recent ones do not meet modern critical standards. Other runic publications that treat this material tend to concentrate on selected data only. An up-to-date scholarly edition of the oldest runic inscriptions is thus currently lacking. The question is: what criteria must a new edition fulfil? Of course, information has to be provided concerning the rune-bearing object, such as (1) a description of the artifact, including the present place of keeping, (2) the find circumstances and (3) an archaeological dating. The description of the inscription itself has to be thorough, and must include (1) a plausible reading of the runes with remarks on runic forms and the textual composition, and (2) a transliteration, which constitutes the basis for a transcription. The transcription is the starting point for the internal, viz. linguistic interpretation that has to contain etymological as well as syntactic information (where necessary). In the etymological component, all important proposals have to be reconsidered. The linguistic interpretation must be the starting point for any broader analyses, which of necessity will require an interdisciplinary approach. The paper shows how such an edition can be laid out by means of one selected example.

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  • 10.
    Bianchi, Marco
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Vielseitige Runentexte: Multilinearität in Runensteininschriften2015Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 5, s. 115-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses how segmentation, both visual and linguistic, is used to structure runic inscriptions. The questions are (1) if there is any correlation in the chosen examples between the visual and the linguistic design, and, if so, (2) how a particular layout adds meaning to the verbal message. Studies are conducted on two small sets of Upplandic and Södermanlandic runestones. The first part of the paper deals with runestones with more than one rune-carved surface and demonstrates that there is indeed a strong correlation between the verbal message and the layout. In most cases, the use of a new carving surface can be seen as a means to underline thematic aspects of the inscription. In the second part of the paper, inscriptions with signatures with a dedication are dealt with. Almost all such signatures are placed in a new visual unit. They repeat, complement and accentuate the message of the memorial formulas and offer additional starting points for a reading.

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  • 11.
    Birkett, Tom
    University College Cork.
    Unlocking Runes? Reading Anglo-Saxon Runic Abbreviations in Their Immediate Literary Context2015Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 5, s. 91-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Runic abbreviations appear sporadically in a number of Old English manuscripts, including three of the four major poetic codices. A convincing rational for the apparently erratic deployment of these unusual abbreviations has yet to be proposed.

    In this article I identify the immediate literary context as an important factor influencing the distribution of Anglo-Saxon runic abbreviations, noting in particular that the runic brevigraphs often appear in passages which deal with unlocking. To illuminate this association, I turn to Bede’s story of the prisoner Imma, whose chains become unlocked each time he is bound. His credulous captors believe this miracle to be the work of litteras solutorias, or ‘releasing letters’, the Old English translation of Bede’s work referring explicitly to the alysendlic, or ‘unlocking’, rune. This episode may help to explain why runes appear in a riddle about a lock and key, in the context of Elene’s prayer to open a hoard, and in a passage in which Saturn asks how he may unlock the doors of heaven. If such an association indeed exists, it has implications for our understanding of the perception of the runic script in late Anglo-Saxon England, and it also suggests that the rationale for the use of runes in the Exeter Book riddles may be connected with revealing rather than concealing information.

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  • 12.
    Boje Andersen, Charlotte
    et al.
    Museum Thy.
    Imer, Lisbeth M.
    National Museum of Denmark.
    Ydby-stenen (DR 149) genfundet2016Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 7, s. 131-136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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  • 13.
    Bollaert, Johan
    University of Oslo.
    Review of Giacomo Bernobi. Extemporierte Schriftlichkeit — Runische Graffiti. Münchner Nordistische Studien, 38. München: Utzverlag, 2020. 332 pp. ISBN 978-3-8316-4825-22022Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 12, s. 198-203Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 14.
    Bäckvall, Maja
    Harvard University.
    Dvärgstenen U 359 Skepptuna kyrka2015Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 5, s. 171-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this article is the runestone U 359, an unassuming monument with a previously largely uninterpreted inscription. The runic text seems to be lexical, but the inscription does not follow the standard formulae of Swedish Viking Age runestones. A possible explanation for this is suggested, namely that U 359 represents the last part of an inscription covering more than one stone, and the article attempts an interpretation of the inscription based on this assumption. The possible function of multiple inscription monuments is also discussed, as well as the connection between diminutive runestones and church environments.

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  • 15.
    Carlquist, Jonas
    Umeå universitet.
    Runskrift på fibulor: Ett tidigt germanskt skriftbruk2024Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 13, s. 5-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the use of runic inscriptions on fibulas from the period 0–700, exploring how they enhance the jewellery, investigating them as sources of information on Germanic literacy and viewing them from a social semiotic per­spective. First the inscriptions which contain a verb are dis­cussed and then those lack­ing a verb are fitted into the same patterns. For this Martin H. Graf’s concept of Kleinst­schriftlichkeit ‘minimal literacy’ is em­ployed whereby isolated words, such as names, can imply more complex mes­sages. The article discusses sixty-four runic fibulas from Germanic regions and identifies three different uses: (1) reveal­ing the name of the maker of the fibula or the inscription (usually a man, the donor?), (2) invoking prosperity (usually a woman wishing happi­ness or love for a man), and (3) indicating the owner (always a female name and no verb). Chronological differences are evident. The oldest ones usually contain a male name (maker or donor). Owner in­scrip­tions and prosperity inscriptions are found, in addition to maker inscrip­tions, on fibulas from the period after the year 500 and from this point, female participants become more prominent. The earliest inscriptions are mostly from Scandinavia while those from the southern area become more numerous from the 500s. In the southern area, there are many non-lexical inscrip­tions, whereas those from the northern area are more linguistically advanced. The significance of a fibula bearing a runic inscription, whether legible or not, was probably greater than that of a non-runic one.

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  • 16.
    Cucina, Carla
    University of Macerata.
    A Runic Calendar in the Vatican Library2020Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 9-10, s. 261-274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, the present author came across a runic calendar — that is a perpetual calendar in which golden numbers and Sunday letters are represented by runes – stored in the repository of the Vatican Latin Collection as item no. 14613. It was known previously to scholars only through a set of photo­graphic repro­ductions dating back to the mid-1800s now in the Royal Library in Stock­holm. This paper is a short and corrected summary of the author’s detailed ac­count of the Vatican runic item, which was published in the Miscellanea Biblio­thecae Vati­canae 22 (2016). This well-preserved artifact, dated 1684 and belonging to the Swedish “rune-book” type, consists of eight small wooden boards carved on both sides, bound together by a cord passing through two holes near one end. Both the contents of the calendar and its structure and over­all style allow an identi­fication of its origin as belonging to the post-medi­eval Swedish pro­duc­tion in the Baltic area, more specifically in the Swedish settle­ments in present-day Estonia. Interesting analytic cues derive from the first account of the calendar as being stored in Bibliotheca Barberina in Rome, while a compar­ative investigation of the few rune-book calendars from Estonia that we know of shows that the Vatican item is original in some formal aspects and very atten­tive in responding to calendar issues and Swedish models. The feasts recorded with symbols in the calendar conform to the Åbo diocese; the holi­­day marks agree with the Swedish popular tradition, but are occasionally re-inter­preted; various onomastic initials, owner’s or identification marks (bo­märke) and the so-called Saint Peter’s game are cut on the cover pages of the rune-book.

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  • 17.
    Damsma, Levi
    et al.
    University of Amsterdam.
    Versloot, Arjen
    University of Amsterdam.
    Vowel Epenthesis in Early Germanic Runic Inscriptions2015Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 6, s. 21-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of runic inscriptions from the entire Germanic area from between A.D. 200 and 800 exhibit non-etymological, epenthetic vowels, such as worahto for *worhto ‘did’. An analysis of all (likely) instances of epen­thesis in early Ger­manic languages shows that epenthesis developed only in clusters involv­ing /r/, /l/ or /n/.

    Epenthesis was an optional feature of nearly every early Germanic dialect, being most abundantly attested in southern Sweden. There is no statis­ti­cally sig­nif­icant evidence of an increase or decrease in the amount of epenthesis dur­ing the period. A detailed analysis reveals two different phonological en­vi­ron­ments for epenthesis. Scandinavian attestations of epenthesis oc­cur most­ly in heterorganic consonant clusters, irrespective of their sonority se­quence, where epenthesis is a result of a transition in articulatory gestures. The epenthetic vowels appear as a (or ) in Scandinavia. In inscriptions from south­ern Germany, however, epenthetic vowels are concentrated in clusters with a marked sonority sequence, irrespective of their place of artic­u­la­tion. While the epen­thetic vowels in the inscriptions from Germany are either a or u, the few po­tential instances of epenthesis in marked sonority se­quences in Scan­di­navia are rendered by vowels other than a. The epenthetic vowels in Anglo-Frisian in­scrip­tions resemble the Scandinavian type, but only partially.

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  • 18. Düwel, Klaus
    Helmut Arntz’ Zeitschrift Runenberichte2012Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 2, s. 201-205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 19.
    Düwel, Klaus
    Ge­org-August-Universität Gottingen.
    „Keine Denkmäler werden größer sein …“: Was ist ein Runendenkmal?2013Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 4, s. 31-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘What is a runic monument?’ is the main question discussed in this contribution. Reflections are offered on the relationship between the German word Denkmal and Latin monumentum. An overview is then provided of the terms used in the inscriptions themselves to denote a runic monument, be it inscribed with the older or younger futhark. References in the runic texts to the aesthetic appearance of Viking Age memorials are examined, and the various characteristics mentioned are categorized under the following headings: beauty and stateliness, magnitude and monumentality, publicity and renown, insurpassability and uniqueness, colour and multicolouredness, poeticism and alliteration (verse design). Additional features are identified as characterizing such memorials, in particular impressive outer or physical appearance including artistic decoration. Runic monuments are comparable to Horace’s monumentum aere perennius ‘a monument more lasting than bronze’.

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  • 20.
    Eythórsson, Thorhallur
    Institute of Linguistics, University of Iceland, Reykjavík.
    Three Daughters and a Funeral: Re-reading the Tune Inscription2013Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 3, s. 7-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains a new analysis of the runic inscription on the Tune stone, made on the basis of autopsies and various earlier proposals. While I agree with the view that there is a word missing at the top of side A (contra Grønvik 1981 and others), probably r<unoz>, I depart from the current communis opinio in proposing that side B consists of two independent subject-initial clauses. I argue that the first word in B1 is likely to be a personal name ending in -z and the subject of a verb meaning something like ‘erect’, of which staina ‘stone’ is the object. Moreover, I reject the analysis of dalidun in B2 as ‘made (nice), prepared’ (Seip 1929), presenting arguments supporting the emendation da<i>lidun (Bugge1891, in NIæR), thus giving þrijoz dohtriz da<i>lidun arbija ‘three daughters shared the inheritance’. Finally, I resuscitate the old idea of Läffler (1892, 1896a, 1896b) concerning sijostez, taking it at face value and considering the phrase sijostez arbijano to reflect an archaic legal term meaning ‘the closest family heirs’. Following Läffler I assume that the form is derived from a reflexive (rather than a root meaning ‘bind’, Bjorvand 2008), an analysis supported by a parallel in archaic Latin (suus heres ‘family heir, self-successor’). I conclude that the three daughters of Wōdurīdaz shared the inheritance as the closest family heirs, while some other person (perhaps Wīwaz) erected the stone.

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  • 21.
    Eythórsson, Thórhallur
    Institute of Linguistics, University of Iceland, Reykjavík.
    On Tune’s sijostez Once Again: A Reply to Bernard Mees2013Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 4, s. 191-194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
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  • 22. Eythórsson, Thórhallur
    Variation in the Syntax of the Older Runic Inscriptions2012Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 2, s. 27-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is evidence for the so-called displacement verb second in the language of the runic inscriptions, which most previous scholarship has failed to recognize. This evidence consists of clauses in which the finite verb immediately precedes a subject pronoun (or a subject agreement marker). There is, however, variation with respect to the position of the verb, as it does not appear in second position in all cases. Contrary to common assumptions, however, there are only two reasonably clear examples of verb last order. The finite verb also occurs in absolute initial position in the clause, providing an example of verb first. Moreover, it can be argued that in the early runic language both object–verb and verb–object orders occur in the verb phrase. Furthermore, while determiners either precede or follow the head noun in the noun phrase, the adnominal genitive usually precedes it. On the other hand, only prepositions are attested in the runic corpus, no postpositions. These results shed light on the development of word order at the earliest stage of Germanic.

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  • 23.
    Findell, Martin
    University of Nottingham.
    Corpus Editions of English and Frisian Runic Inscriptions2022Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 12, s. 81-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The inscriptions of England and Frisia attest to the expansion of the older rune-row, chiefly with a set of additional vowel runes. Further developments in Eng­land from the later 600s suggest a systematic reform of the writing system. The extant corpus of English epigraphical inscriptions contains over 100 objects, although the large number of coins with runic legends raises problems for any attempt to collate all the material. While a number of handlists or catalogues have been produced over the years, there has been no fully detailed corpus edition until the forthcoming volumes produced by Gaby Waxenberger. The corpus of inscriptions associated with Frisia or (Pre-)Old Frisian language is much smaller, comprising up to twenty-four objects. The status of this material as a distinctly “Frisian” corpus in contrast to the English one has been chal­lenged. Like the English inscriptions, the Frisian ones have been described and studied as a group in many publications, but a dedicated corpus edition has only recently been published by Livia Kaiser. The present article includes a his­tor­ical overview of the published work on these corpora leading up to the recent corpus editions, and discusses some of the methodological difficulties in defining the corpus. It concludes with a summary of the arguments for studying them as a single corpus defined at least in part by innovations in writ­ing practice around the North Sea.

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  • 24.
    Findell, Martin
    The University of Nottingham.
    Review of Florian Busch. Runenschrift in der Black-Metal-Szene: Skripturale Praktiken aus soziolinguistischer Perspektive. Sprache – Kommunikation – Kultur: Soziolinguistische Beiträge, 18. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2014. 179 pp. ISBN 978-3-653-96226-0.2016Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 7, s. 186-192Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 25.
    Findell, Martin
    University of Leicester.
    The Germanic Diphthongs in the Continental Runic Inscriptions2013Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 3, s. 45-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Runic inscriptions on the Continent, excluding Frisia, are commonly treated as representing the precursors of Old High German and Old Saxon, which are attested in manuscripts of the eighth‒eleventh centuries. If these literary languages are the result of regular sound change from a relatively homogeneous Northwest Germanic, then close study of the runic inscriptions might enable us to see some of those sound changes in progress. This paper examines the runic evidence for specific sound changes affecting the Germanic diphthongs */ai au eu/, and argues that the dialects of the inscriptions do not fit easily into a linear progression from Northwest Germanic to literary Old High German and Old Saxon.

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  • 26.
    Findell, Martin
    The University of Nottingham.
    The Portormin (Dunbeath) Runestone2015Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 6, s. 153-170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A stone with a short runic inscription was discovered on the beach at Portormin Harbour in Dunbeath, Caithness, in 1996. The find attracted some press attention at the time, but has been largely ignored by the runological com­mu­nity amid doubts over its authenticity. There has, however, been no detailed dis­cussion of the stone in a public arena. A description of the inscription is followed by discussion of several interpretations. There are good reasons for suspecting that the carvings are of modern origin, but the matter cannot be settled with certainty; the case invites comparison with the controversies sur­rounding runic inscriptions in North America.

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  • 27.
    Fischer, Svante
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia, Arkeologi.
    Finsta i Skederid (U ATA3916/47)2013Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 3, s. 125-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 28.
    Freund, Andrea
    et al.
    University of the Highlands and Islands, Scotland, UK.
    Ljosland, Ragnhild
    University of the Highlands and Islands, Scotland, UK.
    Modern Rune Carving in Northern Scotland2019Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 8, s. 127-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses modern runic inscriptions from Orkney and Caithness. It presents various examples, some of which were previously considered “genuine”, and reveals that OR 13 Skara Brae is of modern provenance. Other examples from the region can be found both on boulders or in bedrock and in particular on ancient monuments ranging in date from the Neolithic to the Iron Age. The terminology applied to modern rune carving, in particular the term “forgery”, is examined, and the phenomenon is considered in relation to the Ken­sington runestone. Comparisons with modern rune carving in Sweden are made and suggestions are presented as to why there is such an abundance of recently carved inscriptions in Northern Scotland.

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  • 29.
    Fridell, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Den stungna m-runan2015Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 5, s. 195-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 30.
    Fridell, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Ortnamnet Hassmyra på Vs 242013Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 4, s. 177-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 31.
    Fridell, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Review of Epigraphic Literacy and Christian Identity: Modes of Written Discourse in the Newly Christian European North. Ed. Kristel Zilmer and Judith Jesch. Utrecht Studies in Medieval Literacy 4. Turnhout: Brepols, 2012. 272 pp. ISBN 978-2-503-54294-2.2013Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 4, s. 207-208Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 32.
    Fridell, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Review of Lena Peterson. “En brisi vas lina sunn, en lini vas unaR sunn … En þa barlaf…”: Etymologiska studier över fyra personnamn på Malsta- och Sunnåstenarna iHälsingland. Runica et Mediævalia, Opuscula 15. Stockholm: Sällskapet Runica etMediævalia, 2012. 93 pp. ISBN 978-91-88568-53-3. ISSN 1103-7970.2013Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 3, s. 219-221Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 33.
    Fridell, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Tendenser i skrifttecknens utveckling: Alfabet och runor2015Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 6, s. 7-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two scholars in semiotics, William C. Watt and Herbert E. Brekle, have each made significant contributions to the history of alphabets by systematizing and generalizing empirical observations on the historical development of the writ­ten characters of Western alphabets. Watt made an important distinction between visual lines and other segments of the characters (phanemes) on the one hand, and the movements made with the writing tool to form the char­acters (kinemes) on the other. He stressed the importance of the latter aspect of writ­ing for the change and development of the alphabet signs. When applied to runology this means, according to the present author, that the process of carving runes, particularly into wood with a knife, was vital in determining the development of their shapes over time. Watt distinguishes three important tendencies or trends in the development of written characters, i.e. facilitation: reducing the effort and thereby increasing the speed of writing, homogenization: making the characters more like each other, and heterogenization: making the char­acters more different from each other. Brekle supplements this with three principles, vectoriality: the tendency of written characters to have a direction, most often following the direction of writing, symmetry: their tendency to be symmetrically formed, and the hasta + coda principle: the tendency of alpha­betic characters to be formed by one vertical line and one or two other lines attached to the main vertical. In this article, the author presents these principles and suggests some of their applications to the history of the runes.

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  • 34.
    Fridell, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Tidiga inskrifter med dalrunor2022Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 12, s. 177-182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In inscriptions with Dalecarlian runes from the early 1500s, the same ortho­graphic principles are applied that were used widely during the Viking Age in Scandi­navia, where a voiced and a voiceless consonant with the same manner and place of articulation could be represented by the same rune. It is highly un­likely that the Viking Age type orthographic system of consonants so con­sequently applied could have been derived from a contemporary learned runic tradition. It simply seems to be an archaic feature preserved from the Viking Age, throughout the medieval period and into the early 1500s in Dalecarlia. 

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  • 35.
    Fridell, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Till tolkningen av den försvunna runinskriften vid Draggeröset i Dalarna2024Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 13, s. 79-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1615 while inspecting the border between three parishes in Dalacarlia, the district judge noticed a runic inscription on a pine tree and thereafter docu­mented the runes in his district court records. He seems not to have understood the Dalacarlian runes himself, and only the word tulf ‘twelve’ has previously been interpreted. Based on the reading suggested in the presentation here, the first part should probably be interpreted as “here were twelve men”. Since a jury typically consisted of twelve persons, it seems reasonable to assume that the runes were carved during an earlier inspection of the border, perhaps the one in 1581.

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  • 36.
    Fridell, Staffan
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Vad betyder Bautil ?2013Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 4, s. 181-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 37.
    Fridell, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Larsson, Mats G.
    Om Kensingtonrunornas ursprung2021Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 11, s. 155-165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Runes of the same type as those on the Kensington stone are now known from five other source groups in Sweden, from the provinces of Dalarna, Hälsing­land and Medelpad, and with datings from 1870 to 1911. The relative uniformity of the runes in the different sources and the fact that there are no known inscrip­tions before 1870 indicates that the Kensington runes were created not long before, probably around the middle of the 1800s. The Kensington runes can be divided into three categories: (1) long-branch runes of a Viking Age type, which probably are derived from popular literature on runes in the 1800s — most likely from the widespread book Den kunskapsrike skolmästaren by Carl Rosander, first published in 1857; (2) runes modelled after Dalecarlian runes; and (3) newly created runes. Those who designed the Kensington rune row must have had knowledge of Dalecarlian runes, which indicates a probable provenance in the parish of Älvdalen in Dalarna.

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  • 38.
    Fridell, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Larsson, Mats G.
    The Dialect of the Kensington Stone2019Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 8, s. 163-166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 39.
    Fridell, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Williams, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    De äldre runorna på Rökstenen2021Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 11, s. 167-171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A short section of the runic inscription on the Rök stone (Ög 136) is written mainly in runes from the older, 24-type futhark. This use has for a long time been considered a form of cryptography, one of several in the inscription. The older runes are used to represent their corresponding runes from the younger, 16-type futhark, but in a reversed, “mirrored” manner; for example, whereas the younger futhark’s t rune is used for [t] and [d], the rune has that same function in this part of the Rök inscription. There are in addition two unique runes in the section, corresponding to a and i respectively, which are prob­ably variants of the old jāra- and ihwaʀ-runes, both of which adhere to the acrophonic principle of orthography.

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  • 40.
    Fridell, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    Williams, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Språkvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nordiska språk.
    sakum i Rökstenens inskrift2022Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 12, s. 151-155Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Bo Ralph’s recent book on the Rök rune-stone he interprets the sequence sakum (sᴀɢwᴍ) as sāgum ‘we saw’ (Ralph 2021, 907–13), a lexico-morpho­logically unobjectionable solution. He rejects (pp. 148–54, 899) the previous and almost universally accepted interpretation sagum ‘we say’. This short contri­bution establishes that sagum is a possible variant of the ninth-century Runic Swedish verb sægia. It belongs to an ē/ja-conjugation where some forms are inflected according to the former paradigm and others to the latter. In Old High German, Old and Middle Dutch, and Old English descendants of both *sagjan and *sagēn are attested. Given the presence in Old Scandinavian of the 2nd and 3rd person present singular segir and the perfect participle sagaðr, which both are ē-inflections, there is reason to expect that even more ē-forms once existed in Old Scandinavian. The sequence sakum (sᴀɢwᴍ) in the Rök in­scrip­tion may therefore represent sagum, a 1st person form of sægia ‘say’. Whether this or Ralph’s interpretation is the best depends on the contextual under­standing of the text.

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  • 41.
    Graf, Martin Hannes
    Universität Zürich.
    Review of Irene García Losquiño. The Early Runic Inscriptions: Their Western Features. Berkeley Insights in Linguistics and Semiotics, 92. New York: Peter Lang, 2015. 193 pp., numerous plates. ISBN 978-1-4331-2704-5. e-ISBN 978-1-4539-1349-9. ISSN 0893-6935.2016Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 7, s. 174-180Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 42.
    Graf, Martin Hannes
    Schweizerisches Idiotikon.
    Review of Reinhard Bleck. Angelsächsische oder friesische Runen auf Goldstücken des 6. und 7. Jahrhunderts (Goldbrakteaten, Solidi und Tremisses). Göppinger Arbeiten zur Germanistik, 784. Göppingen: Kümmerle, 2016. 597 pp., numerous plates. ISBN 978-3-86758-039-7.2019Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 2003-296X, Vol. 8, s. 167-171Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 43.
    Graf, Martin Hannes
    Schweizerdeutsches Wörterbuch, Zürich.
    Review of Solveig Möllenberg. Tradition und Transfer in spätgermanischer Zeit: Süddeutsches, englisches und skandinavisches Fundgut des 6. Jahrhunderts. Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde 76. Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2011. ix + 265 pp., 45 plates. ISBN 978-3-11-025579-9. e-ISBN 978-3-11-025580-5. ISSN 1866-7678.2013Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 3, s. 215-218Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 44.
    Graf, Martin Hannes
    Universität Zürich.
    Review of Wolfgang Krause. Schriften zur Runologie und Sprachwissenschaft. Ed. Heinrich Beck, Klaus Düwel, Michael Job and Astrid van Nahl. Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde, 84. Berlin and Boston: de Gruyter, 2014. vi + 813 pp., numerous plates. ISBN 978-3-11-030723-8. e-ISBN 978-3-11-030739-9. ISSN 1866-7678.2016Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 7, s. 164-169Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 45. Graf, Martin Hannes
    Schrifttheoretische Überlegungen zu nicht-lexikalischen Inschriften aus dem südgermanischen Runenkorpus2012Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 2, s. 103-122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an overview of non-lexical inscriptions in the South Germanic runic corpus. Illustrative objects exhibiting signs or groups of signs with predominantly ornamental, symbolic or imitative function, as well as cross-shaped runic monograms and futhark inscriptions, are analysed and presented. Based on a typology of these inscriptions, it is shown that for largely illiterate societies the role that script plays must be assessed with great caution and not simply compared to the role of script in contemporary literate societies. The results of the analysis in many cases imply that the medium itself takes precedence over the actual message and the meaning is conveyed by the combination of medium and script in an integrated visual manner.

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  • 46. Griffiths, Alan
    The Anglo-Saxon Name for the s-Rune: Sigel, a Precious Jewel2012Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 2, s. 123-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Anglo-Saxon rune-name sigel has been interpreted as meaning ‘sun’. In some contexts Old English sigel does refer to the sun, in others it means ‘clasp’, ‘brooch’, or ‘jewel’. All these meanings, however, are difficult to reconcile with the maritime imagery of the Anglo-Saxon Rune Poem’s sigel stanza. I suggest that the poet has exploited Christian metaphor based on an interpretation of the Hebrew letter-name zaith as zayith ‘olive’, and that the imagery of the sigel stanza refers to the olive branch brought to Noah on his Ark, as well as the oil of chrismation, which was also referred to as the Seal of the Holy Spirit (Latin sigillum). The Nordic Rune Poems would appear to have taken their cue from their Anglo-Saxon counterpart and associated the seal with Emperor Constantine’s vision of the cross in the sun’s halo and the decree that this sign be emblazoned on his army’s shields.

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  • 47.
    Gräslund, Anne-Sofie
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Review of Lisbeth M. Imer and (photo) Roberto Fortuna. Danmarks runesten: En fortelling. 366 pp., richly illustrated. København: Nationalmuseet and Gyldendal, 2016.  ISBN: 978-87-02-19132-5.2016Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 7, s. 181-185Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 48.
    Gräslund, Anne-Sofie
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Historisk-filosofiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antik historia.
    Review of Sigmund Oehrl. Vierbeinerdarstellungen auf schwedischen Runensteinen: Studien zur nord­germanischen Tier- und Fesselungsikonografie. Ergänzungsbände zum Real­lexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde 72. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2011. xi + 371 pp. + 160 plates (385 figs.). ISBN 978-3-11-022742-0. ISSN 1866-7678.2012Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 2, s. 239-242Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 49. Gustavson, Helmer
    Två runristade kopparamuletter från Solberga, Köpingsvik (Öl Fv1976;96A och Öl Fv1976;96B)2016Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 7, s. 63-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the Viking Age and Early Middle Ages, Köpingsvik was one of the centres of trade on Öland. Commercial activities can be archaeologically dated from the end of the tenth century until the end of the twelfth, and some ten loose objects inscribed with runes or rune-like signs have been found in archaeological excavations there. The most remarkable find, comprising two interrelated runic plates of copper, was made in 1972 in a post hole by a furnace. The two plates have nearly 240 runes on their front and back. The parts of the text which can be interpreted consist of an invocation of Christ and the Virgin Mary to save the woman Ōlǫf as she gives birth, and also of a heathen curse to drive a three-headed and soil-stained ogre from the labouring woman. Runologically, the inscription reflects eleventh- and early twelfth-century practices.

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  • 50.
    Holmberg, Per
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Svaren på Rökstenens gåtor: En socialsemiotisk analys av meningsskapande och rumslighet2015Inngår i: Futhark: International Journal of Runic Studies, ISSN 1892-0950, E-ISSN 1892-0950, Vol. 6, s. 65-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a radically new analysis of the Rök runestone inscription (Ög 136) based on social semiotics. The analysis starts by establishing three gen­eral principles for the spatiality of Viking Age runestone inscriptions: (1) the spatial organization typically leads the reader by steps towards the end of the in­scrip­tion, (2) the interpersonal demand seems to be that the reader should respond to the speech acts of the inscription, and (3) the construal of agency typically concerns actions performed at the place of the runestone itself. The hypothesis advanced is that the Rök inscription does not depart from these principles. First­ly, the principle adopted for reading order leads to a new tripartite division of the inscription (after the two introductory lines) where each complex of riddles ends with a numerical cipher. Secondly, speech act analysis reveals that the seem­ing­ly odd numbering “twelfth” and “thir­teenth” can quite simply be taken as numbering of the inscribed speech acts. Thirdly, it is argued that all three parts of the inscription refer to actions and events taking place in the vicinity of the stone: the first deals with the break of dawn and thus the daylight nec­es­sary for carving and reading the runes (rather than naming Theodoric), the sec­ond (about Vilinn) concerns the carv­ing of the runes, and the third (about the twen­ty-four kings) regards the runes themselves and their reading.

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