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  • 1.
    Charalampidis, Charalampos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    van As, Dirk
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Observed melt-season snowpack evolution on the Greenland ice sheet2015In: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, ISSN 1811-4598, E-ISSN 1604-8156, no 33, p. 65-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to recent warm and record-warm summers in Greenland (Nghiem et al. 2012), the melt of the ice-sheet surface and the subsequent runoff are increasing (Shepherd et al. 2012). About 84% of the mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet between 2009 and 2012 resulted from increased surface runoff (Enderlin et al. 2014). The largest melt occurs in the ablation zone, the low marginal area of the ice sheet (Van As et al. 2014), where melt exceeds wintertime accumulation and bare ice is thus exposed during each melt season. In the higher regions of the ice sheet (i.e. the accumulation area), melt is limited and the snow cover persists throughout the year. It is in the vast latter area that models struggle to calculate certain mass fluxes with accuracy. A better understanding of processes such as meltwater percolation and refreezing in snow and firn is crucial for more accurate Greenland ice sheet mass-budget estimates (Van Angelen et al. 2013).

    In May 2012, the field campaign ‘Snow Processes in the Lower Accumulation Zone’ was organized by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) at the KAN_U automatic weather station (67 degrees N, 47 degrees W; 1840 m above sea level), which delivers data to the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE; Van As et al. 2013) and is one of the few weather stations located in the lower accumulation area of Greenland. During the expedition, we installed thermistor strings, firn compaction monitors and a snowpack analyzer; we drilled firn cores, performed firn radar measurements, gathered meteorological data, dug snow pits and performed dye-tracing experiments. One important objective of the campaign was to understand the thermal variability in the snowpack during the melt season by monitoring with high-precision temperature probes [...].

    Below, we present observations from the period 02 May to 23 July and interpret the atmosphere–surface interaction and its impact on the subsurface snow layers, with the goal to quantify refreezing in the Greenland accumulation area.

  • 2.
    Charalampidis, Charalampos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    van As, Dirk
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Langen, Peter L.
    Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI).
    Fausto, Robert S.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Vandecrux, Baptiste
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS);Tech Univ Denmark, Arctic Technol Ctr ARTEK, Byg 118, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
    Box, Jason E.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Regional climate-model performance in Greenland firn derived from in situ observations2016In: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, ISSN 1811-4598, E-ISSN 1604-8156, Vol. 35, p. 75-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Citterio, Michele
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    van As, Dirk
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Andersen, Morten L.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Andersen, Signe B.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Box, Jason E.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Charalampidis, Charalampos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Colgan, William T.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Fausto, Robert S.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Nielsen, Søren
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Veicherts, Martin
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Automatic weather stations for basic and applied glaciological research2015In: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, ISSN 1811-4598, E-ISSN 1604-8156, Vol. 33, p. 69-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1980s, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) glaciology group has developed automatic weather stations (AWSs) and operated them on the Greenland ice sheet and on local glaciers to support glaciological research and monitoring projects (e.g. Olesen & Braithwaite 1989; Ahlstrøm et al. 2008). GEUS has also operated AWSs in connection with consultancy services in relation to mining and hydropower pre-feasibility studies (Colgan et al. 2015). Over the years, the design of the AWS has evolved, partly due to technological advances and partly due to lessons learned in the field. At the same time, we have kept the initial goal in focus: long-term, year-round accurate recording of ice ablation, snow depth and the physical parameters that determine the energy budget of glacierised surfaces. GEUS has an extensive record operating AWSs in the harsh Arctic environment of the diverse ablation areas of the Greenland ice sheet, glaciers and ice caps [...].

    The GEUS AWS model in use now is a reliable tool that is adapted to the environmental and logistical conditions of polar regions. It has a proven record of more than 150 stationyears of deployment in Greenland since its introduction in 2007–2008, and a success rate of c. 90% defined as the fraction of months with more than 80% valid air-temperature measurements over the total deployment time of the 25 stations in the field. The rest of this paper focuses on the technical aspects of the GEUS AWS, and provides an overview of its design and capabilities.

  • 4.
    Fausto, Robert S.
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    van As, Dirk
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Antoft, Jens A.
    Box, Jason E.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Colgan, William T.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Andersen, Signe B.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Andersen, Morten L.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Citterio, Michele
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Charalampidis, Charalampos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Edelvang, Karen
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Haubner, Konstanze
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Larsen, Signe H.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Veicherts, Martin
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Weidick, Anker
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Greenland ice sheet melt area from MODIS (2000–2014)2015In: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, ISSN 1811-4598, E-ISSN 1604-8156, Vol. 33, p. 57-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Greenland ice sheet is an excellent observatory for global climate change. Meltwater from the 1.8 million km2 large ice sheet influences oceanic temperature and salinity, nutrient fluxes and global sea level (IPCC 2013). Surface reflectivity is a key driver of surface melt rates (Box et al. 2012). Mapping of different ice-sheet surface types provides a clear indicator of where changes in ice-sheet surface reflectivity are most prominent. Here, we present an updated version of a surface classification algorithm that utilises NASA’s Moderateresolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on the Terra satellite to systematically monitor ice-sheet surface melt (Fausto et al. 2007). Our aim is to determine the areal extent of three surface types over the 2000–2014 period: glacier ice, melting snow (including percolation areas) and dry snow (Cuff ey & Paterson 2010). Monthly 1 km2 resolution surface-type grids can be downloaded via the CryoClim internet portal (www.cryoclim.net). In this report, we briefly describe the updated classification algorithm, validation of surface types and inter-annual variability in surface types.

  • 5.
    van As, Dirk
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Fausto, Robert S.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Cappelen, John
    Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI).
    van de Wal, Roderik S. W.
    Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research, Utrecht University.
    Braithwaite, Roger J.
    University of Manchester.
    Machguth, Horst
    University of Zurich.
    Charalampidis, Charalampos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Box, Jason E.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Solgaard, Anne M.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Haubner, Konstanze
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Citterio, Michele
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Andersen, Signe B.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Placing Greenland ice sheet ablation measurements in a multi-decadal context2016In: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, ISSN 1811-4598, E-ISSN 1604-8156, Vol. 35, p. 71-74Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    van As, Dirk
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Fausto, Robert S.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Colgan, William T.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Box, Jason E.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Andersen, Signe B.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Andersen, Morten L.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Charalampidis, Charalampos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Citterio, Michele
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Edelvang, Karen
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Jensen, Trine S.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Larsen, Signe H.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Machguth, Horst
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Nielsen, Søren
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Veicherts, Martin
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Weidick, Anker
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Darkening of the Greenland ice sheet due to the melt-albedo feedback observed at PROMICE weather stations2013In: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, ISSN 1811-4598, E-ISSN 1604-8156, Vol. 28, p. 69-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Greenland ice sheet is losing mass (Barletta et al. 2012) and at least half of this loss is caused by an increase in surface melt (e.g. Tedesco et al. 2013). The other part is caused by increased dynamic mass loss, as marine-terminating glaciers lose resistive stresses (Nick et al. 2009) due to both retreat and meltwater lubrication at the bed (Sasgen et al. 2012).

    In 2007, the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) was initiated with the aim of gaining an insight into the causes of the ice-mass budget changes based on quantitative observations. This is primarily done by assessing how much mass is gained as snow accumulation on the surface versus how much is lost by calving and surface ablation (Ahlstrøm et al. 2008). PROMICE monitors the surface mass balance by means of automatic weather stations (AWSs) designed to quantify accumulation and ablation, as well as the specific energy sources contributing to ablation. These observations are vital to interpreting the physical mechanisms for ice-sheet response to climate change and for the calibration and validation of both satellite observations and climate models.

    In the wake of several record-breaking warm summers – increasing surface melt rate and extent (Nghiem et al. 2012) – interest in Greenland’s surface mass balance has increased (Tedesco et al. 2013). Observations of net ablation at PROMICE stations provided in situ confirmation of extreme massloss events in 2010 (Fausto et al. 2012) and 2012, primarily documented by other workers through satellite data. In this paper, we present atmospheric temperatures and surface solar reflectivity (known as albedo) of the Greenland ice sheet in the PROMICE period. Albedo modulates the absorption of solar radiation, which is the primary source of melt energy. It is reported to be decreasing in Greenland in recent years (Box et al. 2012), causing the monitoring of albedo variability to be increasingly important. Air temperatures, besides being strongly correlated to surface melt rates, affect surface albedo by controlling the rate of snow-grain metamorphism and the fraction of summer precipitation falling as rain versus snow. To elucidate the so-called melt-albedo feedback, whereby increased melt darkens the ice sheet and further enhances melt, the relationship between albedo and air temperature, observed at PROMICE stations, is examined in this study.

  • 7.
    van As, Dirk
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Fausto, Robert S.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Steffen, Konrad
    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Andersen, Signe B.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Andersen, Morten L.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Box, Jason E.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Charalampidis, Charalampos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Citterio, Michele
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Colgan, William T.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Edelvang, Karen
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Larsen, Signe H.
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Nielsen, Søren
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Veicherts, Martin
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Weidick, Anker
    Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).
    Katabatic winds and piteraq storms: observations from the Greenland ice sheet2014In: Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin, ISSN 1811-4598, E-ISSN 1604-8156, Vol. 31, p. 83-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007 the Programme for Monitoring the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) was initiated to observe and gain insight into the mass budget of Greenland ice masses. By means of in situ observations and remote sensing, PROMICE assesses how much mass is gained as snow accumulation on the surface versus how much is lost by iceberg calving and surface ablation (Ahlstrøm et al. 2008). A key element of PROMICE is a network of automatic weather stations (AWSs) designed to quantify components of the surface mass balance, including the energy exchanges contributing to surface ablation (Van As et al. 2013).

    The use of these AWS observations is not limited to studies of ice-sheet mass balance. PROMICE contributes to CryoNet (www.globalcryospherewatch.org/cryonet), the core network of surface measurement sites of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Cryosphere Watch. By real-time delivery through WMO, PROMICE observations contribute to improve both operational forecasting and climate analysis in the data-sparse Arctic. The Greenlandic population, highly dependent on accurate forecasting of weather conditions, benefits directly from these real-time observations. For instance, extreme surface wind speeds are a high-risk element in Greenland. The third-highest wind speed observed at the surface of the Earth (93 m/s or 333 km/h), was recorded in a 8–9 March 1972 storm at Thule in North-West Greenland (Stansfield 1972).

    In this paper, we discuss the extent to which the Greenland ice sheet generates its own near-surface wind field. We use PROMICE data to gain insight into the interaction between air temperature, radiation and gravity-driven katabatic winds. We focus on a particularly powerful spring storm in 2013 that contributed to a fatality on an ice-sheet ski traverse attempt (Linden 2013).

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