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  • 1.
    Aboulfadl, Hisham
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Keller, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Larsen, Jes K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Thuvander, Mattias
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Riekehr, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Platzer Björkman, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Microstructural Characterization of Sulfurization Effects in Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Thin Film Solar Cells2019In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 532-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface sulfurization of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGSe) absorbers is a commonly applied technique to improve the conversion efficiency of the corresponding solar cells, via increasing the bandgap towards the heterojunction. However, the resulting device performance is understood to be highly dependent on the thermodynamic stability of the chalcogenide structure at the upper region of the absorber. The present investigation provides a high-resolution chemical analysis, using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and laser-pulsed atom probe tomography, to determine the sulfur incorporation and chemical re-distribution in the absorber material. The post-sulfurization treatment was performed by exposing the CIGSe surface to elemental sulfur vapor for 20 min at 500 degrees C. Two distinct sulfur-rich phases were found at the surface of the absorber exhibiting a layered structure showing In-rich and Ga-rich zones, respectively. Furthermore, sulfur atoms were found to segregate at the absorber grain boundaries showing concentrations up to similar to 7 at% with traces of diffusion outwards into the grain interior.

  • 2.
    Ali, Hasan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Warnatz, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Xie, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Towards Quantitative Nanomagnetism in Transmission Electron Microscope by the Use of Patterned Apertures2019In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 25, no S2, p. 654-655Article in journal (Other academic)
    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-05 12:40
  • 3.
    Klemm, Anna H.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Thomae, Andreas W.
    Wachal, Katarina
    Dietzel, Steffen
    Tracking Microscope Performance: A Workflow to Compare Point Spread Function Evaluations Over Time2019In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 699-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Routine system checks are essential for supervising the performance of an advanced light microscope. Recording and evaluating the point spread function (PSF) of a given system provides information about the resolution and imaging. We compared the performance of fluorescent and gold beads for PSF recordings. We then combined the open-source evaluation software PSFj with a newly developed KNIME pipeline named PSFtracker to create a standardized workflow to track a system's performance over several measurements and thus over long time periods. PSFtracker produces example images of recorded PSFs, plots full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) measurements over time and creates an html file which embeds the images and plots, together with a table of results. Changes of the PSF over time are thus easily spotted, either in FWHM plots or in the time series of bead images which allows recognition of aberrations in the shape of the PSF. The html file, viewed in a local browser or uploaded on the web, therefore provides intuitive visualization of the state of the PSF over time. In addition, uploading of the html file on the web allows other microscopists to compare such data with their own.

  • 4. Krivanek, Ondrej L.
    et al.
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Idrobo, Juan-Carlos
    Lovejoy, Tracy J.
    Dellby, Niklas
    Toward Single Mode, Atomic Size Electron Vortex Beams2014In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 832-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a practical method of producing a single mode electron vortex beam suitable for use in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The method involves using a holographic "fork" aperture to produce a row of beams of different orbital angular momenta, as is now well established, magnifying the row so that neighboring beams are separated by about 1 mu m, selecting the desired beam with a narrow slit, and demagnifying the selected beam down to 1-2 angstrom in size. We show that the method can be implemented by adding two condenser lenses plus a selection slit to a straight-column cold-field emission STEM. It can also be carried out in an existing instrument, the monochromated Nion high-energy-resolution monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy-STEM, by using its monochromator in a novel way. We estimate that atom-sized vortex beams with <= 20 pA of current should be attainable at 100-200 keV in either instrument.

  • 5.
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    A Cryo-FIB Lift-Out Procedure for Cryo-TEM Sample Preparation at Soft-HardMatter Interfaces2015In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 21, p. 2315-2316Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Rubino, Stefano
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Univ Victoria, Adv Microscopy Facil, Victoria, BC, Canada..
    Akhtar, Sultan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences. Govt Coll Univ, Ctr Adv Studies Phys, Katchery Rd, Lahore 54000, Pakistan..
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    A Simple Transmission Electron Microscopy Method for Fast Thickness Characterization of Suspended Graphene and Graphite Flakes2016In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 250-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a simple, fast method for thickness characterization of suspended graphene/graphite flakes that is based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We derive an analytical expression for the intensity of the transmitted electron beam I-0(t), as a function of the specimen thickness t (t < < lambda; where lambda is the absorption constant for graphite). We show that in thin graphite crystals the transmitted intensity is a linear function of t. Furthermore, high-resolution (HR) TEM simulations are performed to obtain lambda for a 001 zone axis orientation, in a two-beam case and in a low symmetry orientation. Subsequently, HR (used to determine t) and bright-field (to measure I-0(0) and I-0(t)) images were acquired to experimentally determine lambda. The experimental value measured in low symmetry orientation matches the calculated value (i.e., lambda = 225 +/- 9 nm). The simulations also show that the linear approximation is valid up to a sample thickness of 3-4 nm regardless of the orientation and up to several ten nanometers for a low symmetry orientation. When compared with standard techniques for thickness determination of graphene/graphite, the method we propose has the advantage of being simple and fast, requiring only the acquisition of bright-field images.

  • 7.
    Sanchez, Sophie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Trinajstic, Katherine M.
    Mirone, Alessandro
    Tafforeau, Paul
    Three-Dimensional Synchrotron Virtual Paleohistology: A New Insight into the World of Fossil Bone Microstructures2012In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 1095-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent developments of phase-contrast synchrotron imaging techniques have been of great interest for paleontologists, providing three-dimensional (3D) tomographic images of anatomical structures, thereby leading to new paleobiological insights and the discovery of new species. However, until now, it has not been used on features smaller than 57 mu m voxel size in fossil bones. Because much information is contained within the 3D histological architecture of bone, including an ontogenetic record, crucial for understanding the paleobiology of fossil species, the application of phase-contrast synchrotron tomography to bone at higher resolutions is potentially of great interest. Here we use this technique to provide new 3D insights into the submicron-scale histology of fossil and recent bones, based on the development of new pink-beam configurations, data acquisition strategies, and improved processing tools. Not only do the scans reveal by nondestructive means all of the major features of the histology at a resolution comparable to that of optical microscopy, they provide 3D information that cannot be obtained by any other method.

  • 8.
    Shinde, Deodatta
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fritze, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Thuvander, Mattias
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malinovskis, Paulius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Riekehr, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Stiller, Krystyna
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Elemental Distribution in CrNbTaTiW-C High Entropy Alloy Thin Films2019In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 489-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure and distribution of the elements have been studied in thin films of a near-equimolar CrNbTaTiW high entropy alloy (HEA) and films with 8 at.% carbon added to the alloy. The films were deposited by magnetron sputtering at 300 degrees C. X-ray diffraction shows that the near-equimolar metallic film crystallizes in a single-phase body centered cubic (bcc) structure with a strong (110) texture. However, more detailed analyses with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) show a strong segregation of Ti to the grain boundaries forming a very thin Ti-Cr rich interfacial layer. The effect can be explained by the large negative formation enthalpy of Ti-Cr compounds and shows that CrNbTaTiW is not a true HEA at lower temperatures. The addition of 8 at.% carbon leads to the formation of an amorphous structure, which can be explained by the limited solubility of carbon in bcc alloys. TEM energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that all metallic elements are randomly distributed in the film. The APT investigation, however, revealed that carbide-like clusters are present in the amorphous film.

  • 9.
    Stengl, Vaclav
    et al.
    Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., Czech Republic .
    Bakardjieva, Snejana
    Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., Czech Republic .
    Murafa, N.
    Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., Czech Republic .
    Opluštil, F.
    Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Czech Republic .
    Österlund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Mattsson, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Andersson, Per Ola
    FOI - Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Warfare Agents Degradation on Zirconium Doped Titania2009In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 15, no S2, p. 1038-1039Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi
    et al.
    Muto, Shunsuke
    Rusz, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Energy Loss by Channeled Electrons: A Quantitative Study on Transition Metal Oxides2013In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1586-1594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) attached to current   transmission electron microscopes can probe not only element-selective   chemical information, but also site-selective information that depends   on the position that a specific element occupies in a crystal lattice.   The latter information is exploited by utilizing the Bloch waves   symmetry in the crystal, which changes with its orientation with respect   to the incident electron wave (electron channeling). We demonstrate the   orientation dependence of the cross-section of the electron energy-loss   near-edge structure for particular crystalline sites of spinel ferrites,   by quantitatively taking into account the dynamical diffraction effects   with a large number of the diffracted beams. The theoretical results are   consistent with a set of experiments in which the transition metal sites   in spinel crystal structures are selectively excited. A new measurement   scheme for site-selective EELS using a two-dimensional   position-sensitive detector is proposed and validated by theoretical   predictions and trial experiments.

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