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  • 1. Arfken, Cynthia L
    et al.
    Arnetz, Bengt B
    2.Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.
    Fakhouri, Monty
    Ventimiglia, Matthew J
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Alcohol use among Arab Americans: what is the prevalence?2011Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 713-718Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Information is limited on alcohol use among Arab Americans. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans by reviewing existing surveys using an acculturation model. Secondary data analysis. Nationally, English-speaking immigrant Arab Americans reported lower rates of lifetime alcohol use (50.8%), past month use (26.4%) and binge drinking (10%) than the White majority group. In a state survey, self-identified English-speaking Arab Americans were less likely to report past month use (45.6%) than the White majority group but reported similar rate of binge drinking (17.0%). Locally, lifetime drinking was reported by 46.2% of the immigrants but only 13.4% of refugees fleeing war. Few databases are available to estimate alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans; the limited data suggest a drinking pattern consistent with acculturation. However, the potential influence of other factors is unknown and needs to be investigated.

  • 2.
    Arnetz, Bengt B
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Broadbridge, Carissa L
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Lumley, Mark A
    Pole, Nnamdi
    Barkho, Evone
    Fakhouri, Monty
    Talia, Yousif Rofa
    Arnetz, Judith E
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Specific Trauma Subtypes Improve the Predictive Validity of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire in Iraqi Refugees2014Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 1055-1061Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12 and 10 %, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7 and 3 %, respectively). Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations.

  • 3. Barkho, Evone
    et al.
    Fakhouri, Monty
    Arnetz, Judith E.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin.
    Intimate Partner Violence Among Iraqi Immigrant Women in Metro Detroit: A Pilot Study2011Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 725-731Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Violence against women is an important public health problem. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among immigrant Iraqi women, and to explore the association between IPV and self-rated health. A pilot study using a previously published, self-report questionnaire was carried out among a convenience sampling of 55 Iraqi women in greater Detroit. The overall prevalence of controlling behavior, threatening behavior, and physical violence was 93, 76, and 80%, respectively. Approximately 40% of the women reported having poor or fair health, and 90% reported experiencing one or more types of psychosomatic symptoms. Self-rated health was inversely related to exposure to threatening behavior and physical violence, and positively related to knowledge of one's legal rights. The prevalence of IPV in this sample was high. Results indicated a significant association between exposure to IPV and women's physical health and psychosomatic symptoms.

  • 4. Degni, Filio
    et al.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    El Ansari, Walid
    Vehvilainen-Julkunen, Katri
    Communication and Cultural Issues in Providing Reproductive Health Care to Immigrant Women: Health Care Providers' Experiences in Meeting Somali Women Living in Finland2012Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 330-343Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication problems due to language and cultural differences between health care professionals and patients are widely recognized. Finns are described as more silent whereas one concurrent large immigrant group, the Somalis, are described as more open in their communication. The aim of the study was to explore physicians-nurses/midwives' communication when providing reproductive and maternity health care to Somali women in Finland. Four individual and three focus group interviews were carried out with 10 gynecologists/obstetricians and 15 nurses/midwives from five selected clinics. The health care providers considered communication (including linguistic difficulties), cultural traditions, and religious beliefs to be problems when working with Somali women. Male and female physicians were generally more similar in communication style, interpersonal contacts, and cultural awareness than the nurses/midwives who were engaged in more partnership-building with the Somali women in the clinics. Despite the communication and cultural problems, there was a tentative mutual understanding between the Finnish reproductive health care professionals and the Somali women in the clinics.

  • 5.
    Elsouhag, D.
    et al.
    Univ Detroit Mercy, Dept Biomed Sci, Sch Dent, Detroit, MI 48208 USA.;Baker Coll, Dept Hlth Sci, Clinton, MI USA..
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin. Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA.;Wayne State Univ, Inst Environm Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA.;Wayne State Univ, Inst Cardiovasc Res, Detroit, MI USA..
    Jamil, H.
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA.;Wayne State Univ, Inst Environm Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA..
    Lumley, M. A.
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Psychol, Detroit, MI 48202 USA..
    Broadbridge, C. L.
    Kentucky Wesleyan Coll, Div Social Sci, Owensboro, KY USA..
    Arnetz, Judy
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin. Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA.;Wayne State Univ, Inst Environm Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA..
    Factors Associated with Healthcare Utilization Among Arab Immigrants and Iraqi Refugees2015Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 1305-1312Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arab migrants-both immigrants and refugees-are exposed to pre- and post- migration stressors increasing their risk for health problems. Little is known, however, about rates of, or factors associated with, healthcare utilization among these two groups. A sample of 590 participants were interviewed approximately 1 year post-migration to the United States. Factors associated with healthcare utilization, including active and passive coping strategies, were examined using logistic regressions. Compared to national healthcare utilization data, immigrants had significantly lower, and refugees had significantly higher rates of healthcare utilization. Being a refugee, being married, and having health insurance were significantly associated with medical service utilization. Among refugees, less use of psychological services was associated with the use of medications and having problem-focused (active) strategies for dealing with stress. Healthcare utilization was significantly higher among refugees, who also reported a greater need for services than did immigrants.

  • 6. Jamil, H
    et al.
    Raymind, D
    Fakhouri, M
    Templin, T
    Khory, R
    Fakhouri, H
    Arnetz, Bengt
    1.Department of Family Medicine & Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupation and Environmental Health, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 3939 Woodward Ave., 3rd floor, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
    Self-reported asthma in Chaldeans, Arabs, and African Americans: factors associated with asthma2011Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 568-575Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the prevalence of asthma is increasing worldwide, there are striking, and largely unexplained differences across various racial and ethnic groups. The current study looks at the prevalence of asthma and risk factors between Chaldeans, Arabs, and African Americans. We used Health Assessment Survey data representing 3,136 respondents. Prevalence across the three ethnic groups were compared using unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios, accounting for multiple risk factors. There were significant socio-demographic differences across all ethnic groups. Asthma prevalence was significantly lower in Arabs (9.4%) and Chaldeans (5.4%) than in Non-Middle Eastern Whites (14.4%). African American prevalence was 14.4%. The significantly lower prevalence of asthma among Chaldean and Arabs, as compared to African Americans, were not explained by traditional risk factors included in our models. We therefore, suggest that future studies should explore the possible role of ethnic-specific differences in gene × environmental interactions in the precipitation and/or exacerbation of asthma.

  • 7. Jamil, Hikmet
    et al.
    Geeso, Sanabil G
    Arnetz, Bengt B
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Arnetz, Judith E
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin.
    Risk Factors for Hookah Smoking Among Arabs and Chaldeans2014Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 501-507Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hookah smoking is more prevalent among individuals of Middle Eastern descent. This study examined general and ethnic-specific risk factors for hookah smoking among Arabs and Chaldeans. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was conducted among 801 adults residing in Southeast Michigan. Binary logistic regression modeling was used to predict risk factors for hookah smoking. Hookah smoking was significantly more prevalent among Arabs (32 %) than Chaldeans (26 %, p < 0.01) and being Arab was a risk factor for lifetime hookah use. Younger age (<25 years), being male, higher annual income, and having health insurance were significant risk factors for hookah use. Chaldeans believed to a greater extent than Arabs that smoking hookah is less harmful than cigarette smoking (75 vs. 52 %, p < 0.001). Hookah smoking is prevalent in both ethnic groups, but significantly higher among Arabs. Results indicate that prevention efforts should target younger males with higher incomes.

  • 8.
    Jen, K. -L. Catherine
    et al.
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Nutr & Food Sci, Detroit, MI USA.
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA; Michigan State Univ, Dept Family Med, Coll Human Med, E Lansing, MI USA.
    Zhou, Kequan
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Nutr & Food Sci, Detroit, MI USA.
    Breejen, Karen
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Family Med, Coll Human Med, E Lansing, MI USA.
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin. Wayne State Univ, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA; Michigan State Univ, Dept Family Med, Coll Human Med, E Lansing, MI USA.
    Erratum to: Sex Differences and Predictors of Changes in Body Weight and Noncommunicable Diseases in a Random, Newly-Arrived Group of Refugees Followed for Two Years2018Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 295-295Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Jen, K. -L. Catherine
    et al.
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Nutr & Food Sci, Detroit, MI 48202 USA..
    Zhou, Kequan
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Nutr & Food Sci, Detroit, MI 48202 USA..
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin. Wayne State Univ, Inst Environm Hlth Sci, Div Occupat & Environm Hlth, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI 48201 USA..
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Wayne State Univ, Inst Environm Hlth Sci, Div Occupat & Environm Hlth, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI 48201 USA..
    Pre- and Post-displacement Stressors and Body Weight Development in Iraqi Refugees in Michigan2015Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 1468-1475Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Refugees have typically experienced stress and trauma before entering the US. Stressors and mental health disorders may contribute to obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the body mass index (BMI) in Iraqi refugees settled in Michigan in relationship to pre- and post-migration stressors and mental health. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected from 290 Iraqi refugees immediately after they arrived in Michigan and one year after settlement. Significant increases were observed in BMI (+0.46 +/- A 0.09 kg/m(2), p < 0.0001) and the percentage of refugees suffering from hypertension (from 9.6 to 13.1 %, p < 0.05). Significant increases in stress, depression and acculturation, as well as decreases in post-migration trauma and social support, were also observed. Linear regression analyses failed to link stressors, well-being, and mental health to changes in BMI. It is likely that acculturation to a new lifestyle, including dietary patterns and physical activity levels, may have contributed to these changes.

  • 10.
    Jen, K-L. Catherine
    et al.
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Nutr & Food Sci, Detroit, MI USA.
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA; Michigan State Univ, Dept Family Med, Coll Human Med, E Lansing, MI USA.
    Zhou, Kequan
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Nutr & Food Sci, Detroit, MI USA.
    Breejen, Karen
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Family Med, Coll Human Med, E Lansing, MI USA.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin. Wayne State Univ, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA; Michigan State Univ, Dept Family Med, Coll Human Med, E Lansing, MI USA.
    Sex Differences and Predictors of Changes in Body Weight and Noncommunicable Diseases in a Random, Newly-Arrived Group of Refugees Followed for Two Years2018Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 283-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have reported that none of the psychological/mental variables examined predicted the increase in BMI and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Iraqi refugees after 1 year resettlement in Michigan. We continuously followed the same cohort of refugees for 2 years (Y2 FU) to further determine the gender difference in predicting of increased BMI and NCDs. Only 20% of the BMI variability could be accounted for by the factors examined. Number of dependent children and depression were positively and stress negatively associated with BMI in male refugees but not in females. Number of dependent children was negatively associated with changes in BMI and in males only. Two-third of the NCD variability was accounted for by gender, BMI, employment status, depression, posttraumatic stress disorders and coping skills. Unmarried, unemployed and with high PTSD scores at Y2 in males were positively and number of dependent children was negatively associated with NCD changes in females. Factors such as dietary patterns and lifestyle may have contributed to the increased BMI and NCDs in these refugees at 2 years post-settlement.

  • 11.
    Wright, A. Michelle
    et al.
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI 48202 USA.;Wayne State Univ, Dept Psychol, 71 W Warren Ave, Detroit, MI 48202 USA.;Western Michigan Univ, Off Vice President Res, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 USA..
    Talia, Yousif R.
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI 48202 USA..
    Aldhalimi, Abir
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI 48202 USA.;Univ Detroit Mercy, Dept Psychol, Detroit, MI 48221 USA..
    Broadbridge, Carissa L.
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI 48202 USA.;St Xavier Univ, Dept Psychol, Chicago, IL USA..
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI 48202 USA.;Michigan State Univ, Dept Family Med, Coll Human Med, 788 Serv Rd,Room B106D Clin Ctr, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Lumley, Mark A.
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Psychol, 71 W Warren Ave, Detroit, MI 48202 USA..
    Pole, Nnamdi
    Smith Coll, Dept Psychol, Northampton, MA 01063 USA..
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI 48202 USA.;Michigan State Univ, Dept Family Med, Coll Human Med, 788 Serv Rd,Room B106D Clin Ctr, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Arnetz, Judith E.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Allmänmedicin och preventivmedicin. Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI 48202 USA.;Michigan State Univ, Dept Family Med, Coll Human Med, 788 Serv Rd,Room B106D Clin Ctr, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Kidnapping and Mental Health in Iraqi Refugees: The Role of Resilience2017Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 98-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although kidnapping is common in war-torn countries, there is little research examining its psychological effects. Iraqi refugees (N = 298) were assessed upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year later. At arrival, refugees were asked about prior trauma exposure, including kidnapping. One year later refugees were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression disorder (MDD) using the SCID-I. Individual resilience and narratives of the kidnapping were also assessed. Twenty-six refugees (9 %) reported being kidnapped. Compared to those not kidnapped, those who were had a higher prevalence of PTSD, but not MDD, diagnoses. Analyses examining kidnapping victims revealed that higher resilience was associated with lower rates of PTSD. Narratives of the kidnapping were also discussed. This study suggests kidnapping is associated with PTSD, but not MDD. Additionally, kidnapping victims without PTSD reported higher individual resilience. Future studies should further elucidate risk and resilience mechanisms.

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