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  • 1. Carlini, Valeria P.
    et al.
    Gaydou, Romina C.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    de Barioglio, Susana R.
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) decreases the effects of ghrelin on memory retention and food intake2007In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 140, no 1-2, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ghrelin (Ghr) is an appetite stimulating hormone that is produced peripherally, by the stomach, and centrally as well. Previous investigations show that Ghr increases food intake and memory retention in rats, and that extra-hypothalamic structures, such as the hippocampus, participate in these effects. In the present work we analyzed the effect on food intake and memory retention induced by Ghr after serotonin (5-HT) availability modification at the serotoninergic synapses. Animals only treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine (FLU) 5 mg/kg or clomipramine (CLO) 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, showed a significant reduction in both food intake and memory retention. On the contrary, Ghr administration induces a significant increase in food intake and a dose-dependent increase in short and long term memory retention. When the animals were treated with FLU prior to Ghr injection, the food intake induced, as well as the expression of short and long term memory retention, was decreased. In conclusion, evidence presented in this paper suggests that the effects of Ghr on both feeding and memory retention in extra-hypothalamic structures such as the hippocampus, could depend on the availability of 5-HT.

  • 2.
    Cui, Tao
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Tsolakis, Apostolos V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Cunningham, Janet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Li, Su-Chen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Öberg, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Giandomenico, Valeria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Olfactory receptor 51E1 is a potential novel tissue biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors2012In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 177, no Suppl, p. S18-S18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Grönberg, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Amini, Rose-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemical endocrinology.
    Janson, Eva Tiensuu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Saras, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Neuroendocrine markers are expressed in human mammary glands2010In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 160, no 1-3, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Regulatory peptides have previously been detected in epithelial cells of human mammary glands. As these peptides are produced by scattered neuroendocrine cells in the epithelium of other tissues the aim of this study was to investigate whether the mammary glands express molecular markers for neuroendocrine cells.

    Material and methods

    Specimens from 28 human mammary glands were retrieved. The distribution of immunoreactive cells was determined using immunohistochemistry with antibodies versus a set of endocrine markers including peptide hormones, chromogranins/secretogranins, vesicular monoamine transporters, synaptophysin, serotonin and synaptic vesicle protein 2.

    Results

    Cells of the luminal epithelium of ducts and lobules of human mammary glands expressed vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and chromogranin B, as well as the previously reported regulatory peptides obestatin, ghrelin, adrenomedullin and apelin. Using consecutive sections, it was revealed that the immunoreactivity patterns of the regulatory peptides and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 were similar. Interestingly, immunoreactivity for secretogranin II, secretogranin III and chromogranin B was identified in myoepithelial cells. No immunoreactivity was detected for chromogranin A or synaptophysin.

    Conclusion

    Specific cells in the epithelium and myoepithelium of mammary glands express neuroendocrine markers suggesting that mammary glands may have neuroendocrine functions.

  • 4. Hellström, Per M.
    GLP-1: broadening the incretin concept to involve gut motility2009In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 156, no 1-3, p. 9-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incretin effect of the gut peptide hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a combined result of inhibition of gastric emptying and stimulation of insulin secretion via an incretin mechanism. The temporal pattern of these events implicate that gastric emptying is primarily delayed, while later in the digestive process insulin is released for nutrient disposal. Since the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on gastric motility is very outspoken, we considered it of value to study its effects on gut motility. Animal experimentation in the rat clearly showed that not only gastric emptying, but also small bowel motility with the migrating myoelectric complex was profoundly inhibited by GLP-1 at low doses. Similar effects were seen with analogues of the peptide. Extending the studies to man supported our earliest data indicating that the migrating motor complex of the small intestine was affected, and even more noticeable, the summarized motility index inhibited. Further extension of our studies to patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) displayed similar results. This encouraged us to embark on a clinical pain-relief multi-centre study in IBS patients using a GLP-1 analogue, ROSE-010, with longer half-life than the native peptide. The outcome of the IBS study proved ROSE-010 to be superior to placebo with a pain-relief response rate of 24% for ROSE-010 compared to 12% for placebo. Taken together, the GLP-1 analogue ROSE-010 is believed to cause relaxation of the gut and can thereby relieve an acute pain attack of IBS, even though its precise mechanism is yet to be defined.

  • 5.
    Hellström, Per M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
    Smithson, A.
    Stowell, G.
    Greene, S.
    Kenny, E.
    Damico, C.
    Leone-Bay, A.
    Baughman, R.
    Grant, M.
    Richardson, P.
    Receptor-mediated inhibition of small bowel migrating complex by GLP-1 analog ROSE-010 delivered via pulmonary and systemic routes in the conscious rat2012In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 179, no 1-3, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: ROSE-010, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, reduces gastrointestinal motility and relieves acute pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The rat small bowel migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) is a reliable model of pharmacological effects on gastrointestinal motility. Accordingly, we investigated whether ROSE-010 works through GLP-1 receptors in gut musculature and its effectiveness when administered by pulmonary inhalation. Materials and methods: Rats were implanted with bipolar electrodes at 5, 15 and 25 cm distal to pylorus and myoelectric activity was recorded. First, intravenous or subcutaneous injections of ROSE-010 or GLP-1 (1, 10, 100 mu g/kg) with or without the GLP-1 receptor blocker exendin(9-39)amide (300 mu g/kg.h), were studied. Second, ROSE-010 (100, 200 mu g/kg) Technosphere (R) powder was studied by inhalation. Results: The baseline MMC cycle length was 17.5 +/- 0.8 min. GLP-1 and ROSE-010. administered intravenously or subcutaneously, significantly inhibited myoelectric activity and prolonged MMC cycling; 100 mu g/kg completely inhibited spiking activity for 49.1 +/- 4.2 and 73.3 +/- 7.7 min, while the MMC cycle length increased to 131.1 +/- 11.4 and 149.3 +/- 15.5 min, respectively. Effects of both drugs were inhibited by exendin(9-39) amide. Insufflation of ROSE-010 (100, 200 mu g/kg) powder formulation totally inhibited myoelectric spiking for 52.6 +/- 5.8 and 70.1 +/- 5.4 min, and increased MMC cycle length to 102.6 +/- 18.3 and 105.9 +/- 9.5 min, respectively. Conclusions: Pulmonary delivery of ROSE-010 inhibits gut motility through the GLP-1R similar to natural GLP-1. ROSE-010 causes receptor-mediated inhibition of MMC comparable to that of intravenous or subcutaneous administration. This suggests that ROSE-010 administered as a Technosphere (R) inhalation powder has potential in IBS pain management and treatment.

  • 6.
    Holmberg, Sara K S
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Johnson, A E
    Bergqvist, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Källström, Lillemor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Larhammar, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Localization of neuropeptide Y receptor Y5 mRNA in the guinea pig brain2004In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 117, p. 61-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has prominent stimulatory effects on food intake in virtually all animals that have been studied. In mammals, the effect is primarily mediated by receptors Y1 and Y5, which seem to contribute to different aspects of feeding behavior in guinea pigs and rats/mice. Interestingly, differences in receptor distribution among mammalian species have been reported. To get a broader perspective on the role of Y5, we describe here studies of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), a species which due to its phylogenetic position in the mammalian radiation is an interesting complement to previous studies in rat and mouse. Guinea pig brain sections were hybridized with two 35S-labeled oligonucleotides complementary to Y5 mRNA. The highest expression levels of Y5 mRNA were observed in the hippocampus and several hypothalamic and brain stem nuclei implicated in the regulation of feeding, such as the paraventricular, arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei. This contrasts with autoradiography studies that detected low Y5-like binding in these areas, a discrepancy observed also in rat and human. Y5 mRNA expression was also seen in the striatum, in great contrast to mouse and rat. Taken together, these data show that Y5 mRNA distribution displays some interesting species differences, but that its expression in feeding centers seems to be essentially conserved among mammals, adding further support for an important role in food intake.

  • 7. Høyerup, P.
    et al.
    Hellström, Per M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
    Schmidt, P. T.
    Brandt, C. F.
    Askov-Hansen, C.
    Mortensen, P. B.
    Jeppesen, P. B.
    Glucagon-like peptide-2 stimulates mucosal microcirculation measured by laser Doppler flowmetry in end-jejunostomy short bowel syndrome patients2013In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 180, no 1, p. 12-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In animal and human studies glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) has been shown to increase blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein. This study describes the effect of GLP-2 measured directly on the intestinal mucosal blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) in end-jejunostomy short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients. Methods: In five SBS patients with end-jejunostomy a specially designed laser Doppler probe was inserted into the stoma nipple, and blood flow measured directly on the jejunal mucosa for 105. min in relation to no treatment, systemic saline infusion, topical adrenaline application and a subcutaneous injection of 800μg native GLP-2. Results: The GLP-2 injection increased jejunal mucosal blood flow by 79 ± 37% compared to conditions, where no treatment was given (p < 0.001). The significant effect was present at least 105. min. Systemic saline infusion and topical, mucosal adrenaline application did not affect mucosal microcirculation. Conclusions: GLP-2 raises jejunal microcirculation in SBS patients with end-jejunostomy. This may explain the redness and increase in the end-jejunostomy nipple size imminently after commencing GLP-2 injections. The potential beneficial effects of this GLP-2-mediated increase of blood flow in the mesenteric bed should be investigated in clinical conditions other than the short bowel syndrome.

  • 8.
    Larhammar, Dan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Ocampo, Daniel Daza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Bergqvist, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Sundström, Görel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Evolution of vertebrate neuropeptide receptors2010In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 164, no 1, p. 20-20Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ludvigsen, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Taylor, John
    Culler, Michael
    Öberg, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Janson, Eva Tiensuu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sandler, Stellan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion from rat pancreatic islets in vitro by somatostatin analogues2007In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 138, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Somatostatin is an inhibitor of hormone secretion through specific receptors (sst1-5). The aim of this study was to investigate the putative regulatory role of somatostatin analogues on the secretion of insulin and glucagon by rat pancreatic islets. After 48 h exposure only the non-selective agonists (somatostatin, octreotide and SOM-230) inhibited insulin accumulation. The inhibition of insulin secretion was accompanied by increased islet insulin contents. None of the analogues showed a consistent effect on the glucagon accumulation in the medium after 48 h. Since we observed a difference in the regulatory effect between the non-selective and selective analogues, combinations of selective analogues were studied. Combination of sst2 + sst5 agonists inhibited the medium insulin accumulation, while combination of sst1 + sst2 analogues caused a decrease in glucagon accumulation. After removal of somatostatin a rebound effect with increased insulin secretion were observed. This effect was reversed after 6 h. For SOM-230 insulin secretion continued to be suppressed even after the analogue was removed and returned to control values after 3 h. As for glucagon secretion there was an initial decline after culture with octreotide, while the other substances failed to induce any changes. In summary, non-selective somatostatin analogues or combinations of receptor selective analogues may cause inhibition of hormone secretion from rat pancreatic islets. For insulin and glucagon, combinations of sst2 + sst5 and sst1 + sst2, respectively may exert this effects. Thus, our data suggest that more than one sst must be involved to down-regulate islet glucagon and insulin secretion.

  • 10.
    Lundell, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Rabe Bernhardt, Nadine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Johnsson, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Larhammar, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Internalization studies of chimeric neuropeptide Y receptors Y1 and Y2 suggest complex interactions between cytoplasmic domains2011In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 168, no 1-3, p. 50-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agonist stimulation readily internalizes neuropeptide Y receptor Y1 while there are contradictory results for the Y2 receptor. In order to explore putative functional differences between the Y1 and Y2 receptors we generated reciprocal chimeras by swapping the third intracellular loop, the carboxy terminus or both between human Y1 and Y2. Internalization was studied in a quantitative radioligand binding assay with removal of surface-bound ligand in an acidic-wash procedure. The internalization assay revealed a lower degree of internalization as well as slower kinetics for the Y2 receptor. Generally, reciprocal exchange of receptor segments did not convey properties of the donor receptor but tended to enhance internalization. Surprisingly, insertion of the Y2 carboxy terminus into Y1 gave almost complete internalization (92%), rather than reduced internalization, while the insertion of both segments resulted in internalization equal to the native Y1 receptor. These findings were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy of immuno-stained receptors tagged with a C-terminal FLAG epitope. However, after exposure to high agonist concentrations (100 nM) Y2 was internalized. Studies of Y2 and the closely related Y7 receptor confirmed low internalization for Y2 from chicken and teleost fishes as well as Y7 from two teleosts. The conservation across species of low internalization at physiological concentrations suggests that this is an ancient feature and of vital importance for Y2 function. We propose that amino acid motifs in the third intracellular loop as well as the C terminus of both Y1 and Y2 are able to drive agonist-promoted internalization and that there may be constraining motifs in the Y2 receptor.

  • 11.
    Portela-Gomes, G. M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Gayen, J. R.
    Grimelius, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Mahata, S. K.
    The importance of chromogranin A in the development and function of endocrine pancreas2008In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 151, no 1-3, p. 19-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chromogranin (Cg) A is expressed in neuroendocrine and neuronal tissues. It is involved in the generation of secretory granules and is cleaved to form biologically active peptides. Targeted ablation of the Chga gene resulted in increased plasma catecholamines, high blood pressure, and decreased size and number of adrenal medullary chromaffin granules. The aim of this study was to determine whether Chga null mice display changes in the morphology and function of the endocrine pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sections of pancreata from Chga-/-, Chga+/- and Chga+/+ mice, were immunostained with antibodies against synaptophysin, CgA, CgB, secretogranin II and the four major pancreatic islet hormones. Plasma was analysed for glucose, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). RESULTS: CgA epitopes were undetectable in the islets of Chga-/- animals. CgB and secretogranin II epitopes were expressed in the islets of all animal groups albeit with decreased expression in Chga-/- islets. The islet number and size were decreased in the Chga-/- animals compared with Chga+/+. The proportion of insulin cells was decreased but somatostatin and PP cells were increased in Chga-/- mice compared to Chga+/+ mice. The nuclear size was decreased in insulin cells and increased in somatostatin cells in Chga-/- mice. Plasma insulin level was markedly decreased in the Chga-/- mice although fasting plasma glucose and glucagon were normal. CONCLUSION: Ablation of the Chga gene affected the islet volume, the composition, distribution and nuclear size of islet cell types and plasma insulin concentration. Our data indicate decreased insulin cell function and increased glucagon cell function. Our study shows that CgA exerts a significant influence on the endocrine pancreas with importance in maintaining islet volume, cellular composition and function.

  • 12. Portela-Gomes, G. M.
    et al.
    Grimelius, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemical endocrinology.
    Selective processing of chromogranin A in rectal carcinoid tumours: An immunohistochemical study with region-specific antibodies2010In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 164, no 1, p. 37-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Portela-Gomes, Guida M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Grimelius, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Johansson, H.
    Co-localization of chromogranins and neuroendocrine hormones in the human gastrointestinal mucosa1996In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 154-154Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-localization of chromogranin (Cg) A, B and C has been studied in different neuroendocrine cell types in histologically normal mucosa from human gastrointestinal (GI) tract (corpus, antrum, duodenum, ileum and colon). Single, double and triple immunofluorescence stains were used, including appropriate controls. The results showed that whereas CgA cells predominated in all GI-regions, CgB cells were numerous in antrum, few in duodenum (only villi), and almost non-existent in corpus, ileum and colon. CgC cells were sparse in antrum and duodenum (only crypts). Concerning co-localization, gastrin cells harboured CgA and B, some also CgC. All EC cells displayed CgA-immunoreactivity. The EC cells localized in the luminal 23 of the antral mucosa and those in the duodenal villi also contained CgB. Occasionally the EC cells in the duodenal crypts displayed CgC. Almost all cells showing immunoreaction to enteroglucagon/PYY, secretin, neurotensin, or GIP were positive for CgA. Somatostatin cells were with few exceptions CgA-negative, and displayed neither CgB nor C immunoreactivity. CCK cells, indirectly identified, were negative for CgB and C, probably also for CgA.Regarding intracellular localization, CgA and C were seen closer to the basal cell regions, whereas CgB was found more diffusely spread throughout the cytoplasm. This difference in localization between chromogranins suggests that not all secretory granules contain CgA or that CgB may appear in a non-granular form. The results confirm previous findings that CgA occurs in most neuroendocrine cell types of the GI-tract. In most gastrin cells there were two sets of chromogranins, CgA and B, a minority all three chromogranins. All EC cells were CgA immunoreactive, a minority also contained CgB (antrum + duodenal villi) or CgC (duodenal crypts), but not both. All CCK cells seem to be devoid of chromogranins. With few exceptions the same was true of the somatostatin cells. An interesting question posed by the present study is why the chromogranins occur in varying extent and composition in the different cell types.

  • 14. Portela-Gomes, Guida M.
    et al.
    Grimelius, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Wilander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Granins and granin-related peptides in neuroendocrine tumours2010In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 165, no 1, p. 12-20Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review focus on neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), with special reference to the immunohistochemical analysis of granins and granin-related peptides and their usefulness in identifying and characterizing the great diversity of NET types. Granins, their derived peptides, and complex protein-processing enzyme systems that cleave granins and prohormones, have to some extent cell-specific expression patterns in normal and neoplastic NE cells. The marker most commonly used in routine histopathology to differentiate between non-NETs and NETs is chromogranin (Cg) A, to some extent CgB. Other members of the granin family may also be of diagnostic value by identifying special NET types, e.g. secretogranin (Sg) VI was only found in pancreatic NETs and phaeochromocytomas. SgIII has recently arisen as an important NET marker; it was strongly expressed in NETs, with some exceptions - phaeochromocytomas expressed few cells and parathyroid adenomas none. Some expression patterns of granin-related peptides seem valuable in differentiating between some benign and malignant NETs, some may also provide prognostic information, among which: well-differentiated NET types expressed more CgA epitopes than the poorly differentiated ones, except insulinomas, where the opposite was noted; medullary thyroid carcinomas containing few cells immunoreactive to a CgB antibody were related to a bad prognosis; C-terminal secretoneurin visualized a cell type related to malignancy in phaeochromocytomas. Further research will probably establish new staining patterns with marker functions for granins in NETs which may be of histopathological diagnostic value.

  • 15.
    Portela-Gomes, Guida Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Grimelius, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemical endocrinology.
    Prohormone convertases 1/3, 2, furin and protein 7B2 (Secretogranin V) in endocrine cells of the human pancreas2008In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 146, no 1-3, p. 117-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prohormone convertases (PCs) are proteinases that cleave inactive prohormones to biologically active peptides. Seven PCs have been identified; two of them, PC1/3 and PC2, have only been localized in neuroendocrine (NE) tissues; a third, furin, in both endocrine and exocrine tissues. We have studied the immunoreactivity of PC1/3, PC2 and furin in the four major NE cell types of the human pancreas by using double immunofluorescence techniques. The study also included the expression of NE secretory protein 7B2 (secretogranin V), a member of the granin family, which influences the function of PC2. The results showed that the three PCs and 7B2 were expressed only in endocrine pancreas, furin also in exocrine cells. Insulin (B) cells harboured PC1/3 and PC2, but not furin. Glucagon (A) cells were immunoreactive to all three PCs; all glucagon cells expressed PC2, but one subpopulation showed PC1/3 immunoreactivity and another furin. Only a few somatostatin (D) cells contained PC2, but no other proconvertase. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells were non-reactive to all three PCs. 7B2 occurred only in insulin and glucagon cells. A varying co-localization pattern was observed between PCs and between PCs and 7B2, with the exception of PC1/3 and furin which were not co-localized. In conclusion, our study shows that PCs are localized in insulin and glucagon cells and do seem to be important in these cell types for processing of hormone and other protein precursors, especially chromogranins, but for the two other major cell types probably other enzymes are of importance.

  • 16. Portela-Gomes, Guida Maria
    et al.
    Grimelius, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Secretogranin III in human neuroendocrine tumours A comparative immunohistochemical study with chromogranins A and B and secretogranin II2010In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 165, no 1, p. 30-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Different epitopes of the granin family of proteins, chromogranin (Cg) A, CgB and secretogranin (Sg) II, have been demonstrated in normal human pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, adrenal medulla and in several neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). SgIII has been recently reported in endocrine pancreas. The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of SgIII in different NETs and compare it with the expression of CgA. CgB and SgII epitopes. Material and methods: Tissue specimens from 47 NETs were analyzed. Antibodies to CgA 250-284, CgB 244-255. SgII 172-186 (C-terminal secretoneurin) and SgIII 348-361 were used for immunostaining. Results: SgIII was expressed in 41 of 47 NETs. The expression of SgIII agreed well with that of CgA, CgB and SgII, with exceptions of phaeochromocytomas, where more CgB and SgII immunoreactive cells were observed and parathyroid adenomas, which were only stained by CgA. In rectal NETs more cells expressed SgIII than CgA. Conclusions: This is the first report on SgIII expression in various NETs. A majority of tumours studied displayed SgIII immunostaining, which indicates a functional relationship with the other granins.

  • 17. Rosjo, Helge
    et al.
    Opstad, Per-Kristian
    Hoff, Jon Erik
    Godang, Kristin
    Christensen, Geir
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemical endocrinology.
    Omland, Torbjorn
    Effect of short- and long-term physical activities on circulating granin protein levels2013In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 185, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The classic chromogranin-secretogranin (granin) proteins are produced in the myocardium and throughout the neuroendocrine system, but while chromogranin (Cg) A and B levels are high in the adrenal medulla, secretogranin (Sg) II production is higher in the pituitary gland. Whether these differences may influence the response to physical activity is not known. Methods: We measured circulating granin proteins during (1) a short-term maximal bicycle exercise stress test and (2) a 7 day military ranger course of continuous physical activity and sleep and energy deprivation. Results: In 9 healthy subjects performing the exercise stress test (7 male, age 45 +/- 5 y [mean +/- SEM], duration 10.13 +/- 1.14 min), CgB levels increased from before to immediately after the test: 1.20 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.45 +/- 0.09 nmol/L, p = 0.013. Metabolic equivalents, representing an index of performed work, were closely associated with the change (Delta) in CgB levels during stress testing and explained 74% of the variability in (Delta)CgB levels (p = 0.004). CgA and SgII levels were not increased after exercise stress testing. In the second cohort of 8 male subjects (age 25 +/- 1 y) participating in the ranger course, CgB levels increased from day 1 and wire significantly elevated on days 5 and 7. CgA also increased gradually with levels significantly elevated on day 7, while SgII was markedly increased on day 5 whereas levels on days 3 and 7 were unchanged compared to baseline levels. Conclusion: We demonstrate a heterogeneous response to short- and long-term physical activities among circulating granin proteins with the most potent effect on CgB levels.

  • 18. Rudholm, T
    et al.
    Wallin, B
    Theodorsson, E
    Näslund, E
    Hellström, Per M.
    Release of regulatory gut peptides somatostatin, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal peptide by acid and hyperosmolal solutions in the intestine in conscious rats2009In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 152, no 1-3, p. 8-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of exposure of the intestinal mucosa to acid and hyperosmolal solutions on the release of the inhibitory gut peptides somatostatin (SOM), neurotensin (NT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied in conscious rats during pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. The animals were equipped with a chronic gastric fistula to measure acid secretion and a jejunal Thiry–Vella loop for intestinal challenge with saline, hydrochloric acid (HCl, 200 mmol L− 1) or hyperosmolal polyethylene glycol (PEG, 1200 mOsm kg− 1). Gut peptide concentrations were measured in intestinal perfusates, and in plasma samples collected during stimulated acid secretion, and at the end of experiments with luminal challenge of the loops.

    After pentagastrin-stimulation acid secretion was dose-dependently inhibited by intravenous administration of the gastrin receptor antagonist gastrazole, as well as ranitidine and esomeprazole by maximally 73 ± 10%; 95 ± 3%; 90 ± 10%, respectively.

    Acid perfusion of the Thiry–Vella loop caused a prominent release of SOM both to the lumen (from 7.2 ± 5.0 to 1279 ± 580 pmol L− 1) and to the circulation (from 18 ± 5.2 to 51 ± 9.0 pmol L− 1) simultaneously with an inhibition of gastric acid secretion. The release of NT and VIP was not affected to the same extent. PEG perfusion of the loop caused a release of SOM as well as NT and VIP, but less. Simultaneously acid secretion was slightly decreased.

    In conclusion, intestinal perfusion with acid or hyperosmolal solutions mainly releases SOM, which seems to exert a major inhibitory action in the gut, as shown by inhibition of acid secretion. The other peptides NT and VIP also participate in this action but to a much lesser degree. The operative pathways of these gut peptides hence involve both endocrine (SOM) and paracrine actions (SOM, NT, VIP) in order to exert inhibitory functions on the stomach. The inhibitory action of gastrazole, was in a similar range as that of SOM implying that physiological acid-induced inhibition of gastric acid may primarily be exerted through inhibition of gastrin endocrine secretion.

  • 19. Salehi, Albert
    et al.
    Qader, Saleem S
    Grapengiesser, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Hellman, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Pulses of somatostatin release are slightly delayed compared with insulin and antisynchronous to glucagon2007In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 144, no 1-3, p. 43-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It was early proposed that somatostatin-producing delta-cells in pancreatic islets have local inhibitory effects on the release of insulin and glucagon. Recent observations that pulses of insulin and glucagon are antisynchronous make it important to examine the temporal characteristics of glucose-induced somatostatin release. Analysis of 30 s fractions from the perfused rat pancreas indicated that increase of glucose from 3 to 20 mmol/l results in initial suppression of somatostatin release followed by regular 4-5 min pulses. During continued exposure to 20 mmol/l glucose, the pulses of somatostatin overlapped those of insulin with a delay of 30 s. Somatostatin and glucagon pulses were coupled in antisynchronous fashion (phase shift 2.4 +/- 0.2 min), supporting the idea that the delta-cells have a local inhibitory effect on glucagon release. It was possible to remove the pulses of somatostatin and glucagon with maintenance of the insulin rhythmicity by addition of I mu mol/l of the P2Y(1) receptor antagonist MRS 2179.

  • 20. Sandin, Johan
    et al.
    Nylander, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Silberring, Jerzy
    Metabolism of beta-endorphin in plasma studied by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry1998In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 67-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation of synthetic human beta-endorphin by a human plasma proteinase was studied with high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. The peptide was metabolized at a rate of 25 pmol/min to the major fragments beta-endorphin (1-19) and (20-31), the latter reported as a potent inhibitor of morphine- and beta-endorphin-induced analgesia in mice. The proteinase responsible for this process was classified as a metal-dependent serine proteinase and was effectively inactivated by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Identification of the products formed during the enzymatic reaction was performed by liquid chromatography on-line with electrospray mass spectrometry, using a reversed-phase or a novel size-exclusion column capable of separating molecules between 0.1-7 kilodaltons. Peptide sequences were verified by tandem mass spectrometry experiments. The conversion of beta-endorphin may have physiological implications in the mechanism of pain. The obtained data suggest that several precautions should be considered during recovery and measurement of beta-endorphin in plasma by immunological techniques. The applied strategy may also be useful for studying metabolism of various peptidergic compounds with potential pharmacological significance.

  • 21. Sathanoori, Ramasri
    et al.
    Voss, Ulrikke
    Riva, Matteo
    Sorhede-Winzell, M.
    Ahren, B.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology.
    Wierup, Nils
    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is upregulated in islets of type-2 diabetic patients to stimulate insulin secretion, inhibit glucagon secretion and protect against beta cell death2010In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 164, no 1, p. 45-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Sjöblom, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Lindqvist, Ramin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Bengtsson, Magnus W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Jedstedt, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Flemström, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Cholecystokinin but not ghrelin stimulates mucosal bicarbonate secretion in rat duodenum: Independence of feeding status and cholinergic stimuli2013In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 183, p. 46-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important regulator of food digestion but its influence on small intestinal secretion has received little attention. We characterized effects of CCK-8, ghrelin and some related peptides on duodenal HCO3- secretion in vivo and demonstrated CCK-induced calcium signaling in acutely isolated enterocytes. A segment of proximal duodenum with intact blood supply was cannulated in situ in anaesthetized rats. Mucosal HCO3- secretion was continuously recorded (pH-stat). Peptides were administrated to the duodenum by close intra-arterial infusion. Clusters of duodenal enterocytes were attached to the bottom of a perfusion chamber. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+](i)) was examined by dual-wavelength imaging. CCK-8 (3.0, 15 and 60 pmol/kg,h) caused dose-dependent increases (p < 0.01) in duodenal alkaline secretion in both overnight fasted and continuously fed animals. The CCK1R-antagonist devazepide but neither the CCK2R-antagonist YMM022 nor the melatonin MT2-selective antagonist luzindole inhibited the rise in secretion. Atropine decreased sensitivity to CCK-8. The appetite-related peptide ghrelin was without effect on the duodenal secretion in fasted as well as fed animals. Superfusion with CCK-8 (1.0-50 nM) induced [Ca2+](i) signaling in acutely isolated duodenal enterocytes. After an initial peak response, [Ca2+](i) returned to near basal values within 3-5 min. Devazepide but not YMM022 inhibited this [Ca2+](i) response. Low doses of CCK-8 stimulate duodenal alkaline secretion and induce enterocyte [Ca2+](i) signaling by an action at CCK1 receptors. The results point to importance of CCK in the rapid postprandial rise in mucosa-protective duodenal secretion.

  • 23. Spegel, Peter
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Andreas
    Sandberg, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Wierup, Nils
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide lowers branched chain amino acids in hyperglycemic rats2014In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 189, p. 11-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypersecretion of the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been associated with obesity and glucose intolerance. This condition has been suggested to be linked to GIP resistance. Besides its insulinotropic effect, GIP also directly affects glucose uptake and lipid metabolism. This notwithstanding, effects of GIP on other circulating metabolites than glucose have not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we examined effects of infusion of various concentrations of GIP in normo- and hyperglycemic rats on serum metabolite profiles. We found that, despite a decrease in serum glucose levels (-26%, p < 0.01), the serum metabolite profile was largely unaffected by GIP infusion in normoglycemic rats. Interestingly, levels of branched chain amino acids and the ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate were decreased by 21% (p < 0.05) and 27% (p < 0.001), respectively, in hyperglycemic rats infused with 60 ng/ml GIP. Hence, our data suggest that GIP provokes a decrease in BCAA levels and ketone body production. Increased concentrations of these metabolites have been associated with obesity and T2D.

  • 24.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemical endocrinology.
    Region-specific expression of granins in neuroendocrine tissue and measurements of circulating concentrations2010In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 164, no 1, p. 21-21Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Fellström, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Kristiansson, Gudjon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Janson, Eva Tiensuu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Measurements of chromogranin B can serve as a complement to chromogranin A2007In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 139, no 1-3, p. 80-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    CgA has been shown to be an excellent marker for neuroendocrine tumours. However, there are two major drawbacks with CgA measurements; elevated levels are common in patients with decreased renal function and in patients on treatment with proton pump inhibitors. These problems are not seen with CgB measurements. We have recently presented the development of 13 region-specific radioimmunoassays for measurements of CgB. A region-specific assay was identified, which measured higher concentrations of CgB than the other assays and seemed to be very useful as a marker for neuroendocrine tumours. The aim of the present study was therefore to further explore the diagnostic potential of this assay in the clinical management of patients with neuroendocrine tumours.

    Methods

    Measurements of CgB with two methods were compared with CgA in plasma samples from patients investigated for neuroendocrine tumours (N = 86), patients with decreased renal function (N = 35) and patients on treatment with proton pump inhibitors (N = 29).

    Results

    The diagnostic sensitivity for the new CgB assay was almost as good as that for CgA. Furthermore, with CgB measurements we could avoid the falsely elevated levels of CgA found in patients with decreased renal function and treatment with proton pump inhibitors.

    Conclusions

    We conclude that the new CgB assay can serve as a complement to CgA measurements as an important tumour marker for neuroendocrine tumours.

  • 26.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemical endocrinology.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Tumor Biology.
    Janson, Eva Tiensuu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology.
    Measurements of secretogranins II, III, V and proconvertases 1/3 and 2 in plasma from patients with neuroendocrine tumours2008In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 148, no 1-3, p. 95-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION:

    Chromogranin (Cg) and secretogranin (Sg) are members of the granin family of proteins, which are expressed in neuroendocrine and nervous tissue. In recent publications we have presented generation of region-specific antibodies against CgA and CgB and also development of several region-specific radioimmunoassays for measurements of specific parts of the Cgs. In this study we describe generation of antibodies against SgII, SgIII, SgV and the proconvertases PC1/3 and PC2 and development of radioimmunoassays for measurements of these proteins.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS:

    Peptides homologous to defined parts of the secretogranin and proconvertase molecules were selected and synthesised. Antibodies were raised, radioimmunoassays were developed and circulating levels of the proteins in plasma samples from 22 patients with neuroendocrine tumours were measured in the assays.

    RESULTS:

    Increased plasma concentrations were recorded in 11, 4 and 3 of the patients with the SgII 154-165 (N-terminal secretoneurin), the SgII 172-186 (C-terminal Secretoneurin) and the SgII 225-242 assays respectively. The SgIII, SgV, PC1/3 and PC2 assays failed to detect increased concentrations in any of the patients.

    CONCLUSION:

    Increased concentrations of SgII, especially the N-terminal part of secretoneurin could be measured in plasma from patients with endocrine pancreatic tumours and in this case this assay was quite comparable to measurements of CgA and CgB. Even though secretoneurin was not as frequently increased as CgA and CgB in patients with carcinoid tumours or pheochromocytoma it may be a useful marker for endocrine pancreatic tumours.

  • 27.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemical endocrinology.
    Eriksson, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine.
    Lundqvist, Gudmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Skogseid, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine.
    Wilander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Öberg, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in patients with neuroendocrine tumours1995In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 119-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although IAPP was first discovered and isolated from amyloid deposits in an endocrine pancreatic tumour (EPT), surprisingly few reports have investigated the potential use of IAPP as a marker for neuroendocrine tumour growth. In this study we present results from plasma measurements of IAPP in 102 patients with neuroendocrine tumours. Four of 35 patients (11%) with midgut carcinoid tumours, but none of the patients (4 and 5, respectively) with lung carcinoids or with rectal carcinoids displayed elevated plasma levels of IAPP. Five of 31 patients (16%) with sporadic EPT and 3 of 27 patients (11%) with EPT and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome disclosed elevated IAPP levels. Within the different syndromes, 1/11 individuals with insulinoma, 2/16 with gastrinoma, 0/2 with glucagonoma, 0/3 with VIPoma and 5/26 with non-functioning tumours showed elevated plasma levels of IAPP. In two patients, the plasma IAPP levels were extremely elevated. These patients also exhibited altered glucose homeostasis. In response to a standardised mixed meal test, IAPP increased in parallel to the insulin, pancreatic polypeptide, gastrin and glucose responses. In MEN1 patients with hypercalcaemia due to increased secretion of parathyroid hormone, the plasma levels of IAPP were significantly higher before than after surgical removal of the parathyroid adenomas. However in normocalcaemic patients, no correlation between the blood calcium and plasma IAPP levels was found. Immunocytochemical staining of tumour tissue showed that 9/13 (69%) of insulin producing tumours, 4/14 (29%) of non-functioning tumours and 1/9 (11%) of gastrin producing tumours were IAPP immunoreactive. Amyloid deposits were always IAPP immunoreactive. In conclusion, increased circulating levels of IAPP occurred in 12% of 102 patients with neuroendocrine tumours. In 2 patients with extremely elevated plasma levels of IAPP, effects on glucose homeostasis were recorded. Thus, IAPP may be useful as an additional marker for neuroendocrine tumour growth in selected cases.

  • 28. Witte, A-B
    et al.
    Grybäck, P
    Holst, J J
    Hilsted, L
    Hellström, Per M.
    Jacobsson, H
    Schmidt, P T
    Differential effect of PYY1-36 and PYY3-36 on gastric emptying in man2009In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 158, no 1-3, p. 57-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) is a prandially controlled hormone in endocrine ileal and colonic mucosa cells. In plasma, PYY appears as full-length PYY1-36 and truncated PYY3-36. Both have different pharmacological profile, and PYY3-36 seems to inhibit food intake. We aimed at investigating the effect of intravenously administered PYY1-36 and PYY3-36 on gastric emptying and short-term metabolic control. Eight healthy adults were studied in single-blinded, randomized design. At separate occasions, intravenous infusion of saline, PYY1-36 or PYY3-36 (0.8 pmol kg− 1 min− 1) and a radio-labelled omelette were given. Gastric emptying (scintigraphy), appetite ratings (VAS), and plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, GLP-1 and PYY were measured. PYY3-36 and PYY1-36 both inhibited gastric emptying, PYY3-36 most effectively. Half-emptying time was prolonged from 63.1 ± 5.2 (saline) to 87.0 ± 11.5 min (PYY3-36), whereas retention at 120 min was 2.5 ± 1.4% for saline, 10.7 ± 4.4 for PYY1-36 and 15.8 ± 4.4 for PYY3-36. Neither form influenced glucose or GLP-1 concentrations, but both decreased the postprandial rise in insulin. PYY3-36 induced nausea (VAS increase 47.5 ± 22.6 mm) and decreased prospective consumption (VAS change 39.5 ± 7.7 mm). In conclusion, PYY3-36's reducing effect upon food intake might be mediated by a decreased gastric emptying rate.

  • 29.
    Åkerberg, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Fällmar, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Sjödin, Paula
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Boukharta, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Gutierrez-de-Teran, Hugo
    Lundell, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Mohell, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Larhammar, Dan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Mutagenesis of human neuropeptide Y/peptide YY receptor Y2 reveals additional differences to Y1 in interactions with highly conserved ligand positions2010In: Regulatory Peptides, ISSN 0167-0115, E-ISSN 1873-1686, Vol. 163, no 1-3, p. 120-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) share similar to 70% of their 36 amino acids and bind to the same three human receptor subtypes, Y1, Y2 and Y5, even though these receptors only share similar to 30% sequence identity Based on our previous investigation of human Y1 we describe here a mutagenesis study of three corresponding positions in human Y2, i e Tyr(2 64), Val(6 58) and Tyr(7 31) Pharmacological characterization was performed with the four peptide agonists PYY, NPY, PYY(3-36) and NPY(13-36) as well as the non-peptide antagonist BIIE0246 Results from mutants where Tyr(2 64) has been substituted by Ala suggest that Tyr(2 64) is involved in the interaction with all investigated ligands whereas position Tyr(7 31) seems to be more important for interaction with the truncated peptide PYY(3-36) than with intact NPY Surprisingly, substitution of Tyr(7 31) with His, the corresponding residue in Y1, resulted in total loss of binding of iodinated porcine PYY The third position. Val(6 58), did not influence binding of any of the ligands. These findings differ from those obtained for Y1 where Ala substitution resulted in lost or changed binding for each of the three positions. Although Tyr(2 64) and Tyr(7 31) in Y2 are involved in ligand binding, their interactions with the peptide ligands seem to be different from the corresponding positions in Y1 This suggests that the receptor-ligand interactions have changed during evolution after Y1 and Y2 arose from a common ancestral receptor.

1 - 29 of 29
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