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  • 1.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
    Kaialy, Waseem
    Mahlin, Denny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Bergström, Christel A. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Computational predictions of glass-forming ability and crystallization tendency of drug molecules2014In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 3123-3132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphization is an attractive formulation technique for drugs suffering from poor aqueous solubility as a result of their high lattice energy. Computational models that can predict the material properties associated with amorphization, such as glass-forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior in the dry state, would be a time-saving, cost-effective, and material-sparing approach compared to traditional experimental procedures. This article presents predictive models of these properties developed using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The GFA and crystallization tendency were investigated by melt-quenching 131 drug molecules in situ using differential scanning calorimetry. The SVM algorithm was used to develop computational models based on calculated molecular descriptors. The analyses confirmed the previously suggested cutoff molecular weight (MW) of 300 for glass-formers, and also clarified the extent to which MW can be used to predict the GFA of compounds with MW < 300. The topological equivalent of Grav3_3D, which is related to molecular size and shape, was a better descriptor than MW for GFA; it was able to accurately predict 86% of the data set regardless of MW. The potential for crystallization was predicted using molecular descriptors reflecting Hückel pi atomic charges and the number of hydrogen bond acceptors. The models developed could be used in the early drug development stage to indicate whether amorphization would be a suitable formulation strategy for improving the dissolution and/or apparent solubility of poorly soluble compounds.

  • 2.
    Alskär, Linda C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Keemink, Janneke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Johannesson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Porter, Christopher J H
    Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.
    Bergström, Christel A. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.
    Impact of Drug Physicochemical Properties on Lipolysis-Triggered Drug Supersaturation and Precipitation from Lipid-Based Formulations2018In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 4733-4744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigated lipolysis-triggered supersaturation and precipitation of a set of model compounds formulated in lipid-based formulations (LBFs). The purpose was to explore the relationship between precipitated solid form and inherent physicochemical properties of the drug. Eight drugs were studied after formulation in three LBFs, representing lipid-rich (extensively digestible) to surfactant-rich (less digestible) formulations. In vitro lipolysis of drug-loaded LBFs were conducted, and the amount of dissolved and precipitated drug was quantified. Solid form of the precipitated drug was characterized with polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Raman spectroscopy. A significant solubility increase for the weak bases in the presence of digestion products was observed, in contrast to the neutral and acidic compounds for which the solubility decreased. The fold-increase in solubility was linked to the degree of ionization of the weak bases and thus their attraction to free fatty acids. A high level of supersaturation was needed to cause precipitation. For the weak bases, the dose number indicated that precipitation would not occur during lipolysis; hence, these compounds were not included in further studies. The solid state analysis proved that danazol and griseofulvin precipitated in a crystalline form, while niclosamide precipitated as a hydrate. Felodipine and indomethacin crystals were visible in the PLM, whereas the Raman spectra showed presence of amorphous drug, indicating amorphous precipitation that quickly crystallized. The solid state analysis was combined with literature data to allow analysis of the relationship between solid form and the physicochemical properties of the drug. It was found that low molecular weight and high melting temperature increases the probability of crystalline precipitation, whereas precipitation in an amorphous form was favored by high molecular weight, low melting temperature, and positive charge.

  • 3.
    Alskär, Linda C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Porter, Christopher J. H.
    Monash Univ, Monash Inst Pharmaceut Sci, Drug Delivery Disposit & Dynam, Parkville, Vic 3052, Australia..
    Bergström, Christel A. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. UMonash Univ, Monash Inst Pharmaceut Sci, Drug Delivery Disposit & Dynam, Parkville, Vic 3052, Australia..
    Tools for Early Prediction of Drug Loading in Lipid-Based Formulations2016In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 251-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identification of the usefulness of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) for delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs is at date mainly experimentally based. In this work we used a diverse drug data set, and more than 2,000 solubility measurements to develop experimental and computational tools to predict the loading capacity of LBFs. Computational models were developed to enable in silico prediction of solubility, and hence drug loading capacity, in the LBFs. Drug solubility in mixed mono-, di-, triglycerides (Maisine 35-1 and Capmul MCM EP) correlated (R-2 0.89) as well as the drug solubility in Carbitol and other ethoxylated excipients (PEG400, R-2 0.85; Polysorbate 80, R-2 0.90; Cremophor EL, R-2 0.93). A melting point below 150 degrees C was observed to result in a reasonable solubility in the glycerides. The loading capacity in LBFs was accurately calculated from solubility data in single excipients (R-2 0.91). In silico models, without the demand of experimentally determined solubility, also gave good predictions of the loading capacity in these complex formulations (R-2 0.79). The framework established here gives a better understanding of drug solubility in single excipients and of LBF loading capacity. The large data set studied revealed that experimental screening efforts can be rationalized by solubility measurements in key excipients or from solid state information. For the first time it was shown that loading capacity in complex formulations can be accurately predicted using molecular information extracted from calculated descriptors and thermal properties of the crystalline drug.

  • 4.
    Bondza, Sina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Stenberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Nestor, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Andersson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Björkeund, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Conjugation Effects on Antibody-Drug Conjugates: Evaluation of Interaction Kinetics in Real Time on Living Cells2014In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 4154-4163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) have shown promising effects in cancer therapy by combining the target specificity of an antibody with the toxicity of a chemotherapeutic drug. As the number of therapeutic antibodies is significantly larger than those used as ADCs, there is unused potential for more effective therapies. However, the conjugation of an additional molecule to an antibody may affect the interaction with its target, altering association rate, dissociation rate, or both. Any changes of the binding kinetics can have subsequent effects on the efficacy of the ADCs, thus the kinetics are important to monitor during ADC development and production. This paper describes a method for the analysis of conjugation effects on antibody binding to its antigen, using the instrument LigandTracer and a fluorescent monovalent anti-IgG binder denoted FIBA, which did not affect the interaction. All measurements were done in real time using living cells which naturally expressed the antigens. With this method the binding profiles of different conjugations of the therapeutic anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab and the anti-CD44v6 antibody fragment AbD15171 were evaluated and compared. Even comparatively small modifications of cetuximab altered the interaction with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In contrast, no impact on the AbD15171-CD44v6 interaction was observed upon conjugation. This illustrates the importance to study the binding profile for each ADC combination, as it is difficult to draw any general conclusion about conjugation effects. The modification of interaction kinetics through conjugation opens up new possibilities when optimizing an antibody or an ADC, since the conjugations can be used to create a binding profile more apt for a specific clinical need.

  • 5.
    Carlert, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Åkesson, Pernilla
    Jerndal, Gunilla
    Lindfors, Lennart
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Abrahamsson, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    In Vivo Dog Intestinal Precipitation of Mebendazole: A Basic BCS Class II Drug2012In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 2903-2911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in viva intestinal precipitation of a model drug mebendazole, a basic BCS class II drug, using dogs with intestinal stomas for administration or sampling. After oral administration of a solution with an expected intestinal supersaturation of approximately 20 times the solubility, the measured supersaturation in dog intestinal fluid (DIE) was up to 10 times and, on average, only 11% of the given dose was retrieved as solid drug in the collected fluid from the stoma. The drug was rapidly absorbed with >90% of the total systemic exposure reached within three hours after duodenal administration of a solution. In silico absorption modeling showed that in vivo data were reasonably well described by a nonprecipitating solution. An in vitro model of precipitation in DIF predicted that the intestinal concentration of dissolved mebendazole would be less than 1/5 of the initial concentration within 10 min at concentrations comparable to in vivo. It was concluded that intestinal precipitation did not have any major influence on mebendazole absorption. The extent of precipitation was overpredicted in vitro given the in vivo absorption rate, and further work is needed to identify in vitro factors that could enable more accurate in vivo predictions of intestinal precipitation from solutions.

  • 6. Dahan, Arik
    et al.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Amidon, Gordon L.
    The Fraction Dose Absorbed, in Humans, and High Jejunal Human Permeability Relationship2012In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 1847-1851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The drug intestinal permeability (P-eff) measure has been widely used as one of the main factors governing both the rate and/or extent of drug absorption (F-abs) in humans following oral administration. In this communication we emphasize the complexity behind and the care that must be taken with this in vivo Puff measurement. Intestinal permeability, considering the whole of the human intestine, is more complex than generally recognized, and this can lead to misjudgment regarding F-abs and P-err in various settings, e.g. drug discovery, formulation design, drug development and regulation. Setting the adequate standard for the low/high permeability class boundary, the different experimental methods for the permeability measurement, and segmental-dependent permeability throughout the human intestine due to different mechanisms are some of the main points that are discussed. Overall, the use of jejunal P-eff as a surrogate for extent of absorption is sound and scientifically justified; a compound with high jejunal P-eff will have high F-abs, eliminating the risk for misclassification as a BCS class I drug. Much more care should be taken, however, when jejunal P-eff does not support a high-permeability classification; a thorough examination may reveal high-permeability after all, attributable to e.g. segmental-dependent permeability due to degree of ionization or transporter expression. In this situation, the use of multiple permeability experimental methods, including the use of metabolism, which except for huminal degradation requires absorption, is prudent and encouraged.

  • 7.
    Dahlgren, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Roos, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    AstraZeneca R&D, SE-43150 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lundqvist, Anders
    AstraZeneca R&D, SE-43150 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Tannergren, Christer
    AstraZeneca R&D, SE-43150 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Abraharnsson, Bertil
    AstraZeneca R&D, SE-43150 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Regional Intestinal Permeability in Dogs: Biopharmaceutical Aspects for Development of Oral Modified-Release Dosage Forms2016In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 3022-3033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of oral modified-release (MR) dosage forms requires an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with a sufficiently high absorption rate in both the small and large intestine. Dogs are commonly used in preclinical evaluation of regional intestinal absorption and in the development of novel MR dosage forms. This study determined regional intestinal effective permeability (P-eff) in dogs with the aim to improve regional Peff prediction in humans. Four model drugs, atenolol, enalaprilat, metoprolol, and ketoprofen, were intravenously and regionally dosed twice as a solution into the proximal small intestine (P-SI) and large intestine (LI) of three dogs with intestinal stomas. Based on plasma data from two separate study occasions for each dog, regional Peff values were calculated using a validated intestinal deconvolution method. The determined mean P-eff values were 0.62, 0.14, 1.06, and 3.66 X 10(-4) cm/s in the P-SI, and 0.13, 0.02, 1.03, and 2.20 X 10(-4) cm/s in the LI, for atenolol, enalaprilat, metoprolol, and ketoprofen, respectively. The determined P-SI Peff values in dog were highly correlated (R-2 = 0.98) to the historically directly determined human jejunal P-eff after a single-pass perfusion. The determined dog P-SI P-eff values were also successfully implemented in GI-Sim to predict the risk for overestimation of LI absorption of low permeability drugs. We conclude that the dog intestinal stoma model is a useful preclinical tool for determination of regional intestinal permeability. Still, further studies are recommended to evaluate additional APIs, sources of variability, and formulation types, for more accurate determination of the dog model in the drug development process.

  • 8.
    Dahlgren, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Roos, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lundqvist, Anders
    AstraZeneca R&D, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Abrahamsson, Bertil
    AstraZeneca R&D, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Tannergren, Christer
    AstraZeneca R&D, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hellström, Per M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Gastroenterology/Hepatology.
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Regional Intestinal Permeability of Three Model Drugs in Human2016In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 3013-3021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there are only a limited number of determinations of human P-eff in the distal small intestine and none in the large intestine. This has hindered the validation of preclinical models with regard to absorption in the distal parts of the intestinal tract, which can be substantial for BCS class II-IV drugs, and drugs formulated into modified-release (MR) dosage forms. To meet this demand, three model drugs (atenolol, metoprolol, and ketoprofen) were dosed in solution intravenously, and into the jejunum, ileum, and colon of 14 healthy volunteers. The P-eff of each model drug was then calculated using a validated deconvolution method. The median P-eff of atenolol in the jejunum, ileum, and colon was 0.45, 0.15, and 0.013 X 10(-4) cm/s, respectively. The corresponding values for metoprolol were 1.72, 0.72, and 1.30 X 10(-4) cm/s, and for ketoprofen 8.85, 6.53, and 3.37 X 10(-4) cm/s, respectively. This is the first study where the human Peff of model drugs has been determined in all parts of the human intestinal tract in the same subjects. The jejunal values were similar to directly determined values using intestinal single-pass perfusion, indicating that the deconvolution method is a valid approach for determining regional P-eff. The values from this study will be highly useful in the validation of preclinical regional absorption models and in silico tools.

  • 9.
    Dahlgren, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Roos, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lundqvist, Anders
    AstraZeneca R&D.
    Tannergren, Christer
    AstraZeneca R&D.
    Langguth, Peter
    School of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University, 55122 Mainz, Germany.
    Sjöblom, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Preclinical Effect of Absorption Modifying Excipients on Rat Intestinal Transport of Model Compounds and the Mucosal Barrier Marker 51Cr-EDTA2017In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 4243-4251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a renewed interest from the pharmaceutical field to develop oral formulations of compounds, such as peptides, oligonucleotides, and polar drugs. However, these often suffer from insufficient absorption across the intestinal mucosal barrier. One approach to circumvent this problem is the use of absorption modifying excipient(s) (AME). This study determined the absorption enhancing effect of four AMEs (sodium dodecyl sulfate, caprate, chitosan, N-acetylcysteine) on five model compounds in a rat jejunal perfusion model. The aim was to correlate the model compound absorption to the blood-to-lumen clearance of the mucosal marker for barrier integrity, 51Cr-EDTA. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and chitosan increased the absorption of the low permeation compounds but had no effect on the high permeation compound, ketoprofen. Caprate and N-acetylcysteine did not affect the absorption of any of the model compounds. The increase in absorption of the model compounds was highly correlated to an increased blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, independent of the AME. Thus, 51Cr-EDTA could be used as a general, sensitive, and validated marker molecule for absorption enhancement when developing novel formulations.

  • 10.
    Deyev, Sergey
    et al.
    Russian Acad Sci, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Inst Bioorgan Chem, Mol Immunol Lab, Moscow, Russia;Natl Res Tomsk Polytech Univ, Tomsk, Russia;Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Inst Engn Phys Biomed PhysBio, Bionanophoton Lab, Moscow, Russia.
    Vorobyeva, Anzhelika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Schulga, Alexey
    Russian Acad Sci, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Inst Bioorgan Chem, Mol Immunol Lab, Moscow, Russia.
    Proshkina, Galina
    Russian Acad Sci, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Inst Bioorgan Chem, Mol Immunol Lab, Moscow, Russia.
    Guler, Rezan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Prot Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lofblom, John
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Prot Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Garousi, Javad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Altai, Mohamed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Buijs, Jos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Chernov, Vladimir
    Russian Acad Sci, Canc Res Inst, Nucl Med Dept, Tomsk Natl Res Med Ctr, Tomsk, Russia.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Comparative Evaluation of Two DARPin Variants: Effect of Affinity, Size, and Label on Tumor Targeting Properties2019In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 995-1008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) are small engineered scaffold proteins that can be selected for binding to desirable molecular targets. High affinity and small size of DARPins render them promising probes for radionuclide molecular imaging. However, detailed knowledge on many factors influencing their imaging properties is still lacking. We have evaluated two human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-specific DARPins with different size and binding properties. DARPins 9_29-H-6 and G3-H-6 were radiolabeled with iodine-125 and tricarbonyl technetium-99m and evaluated in vitro. A side-by-side comparison of biodistribution and tumor targeting was performed. HER2-specific tumor accumulation of G3-H-6 was demonstrated. A combination of smaller size and higher affinity resulted in a higher tumor uptake of G3-H-6 in comparison to 9_29-H6. Technetium-99m labeled G3-H-6 demonstrated a better biodistribution profile than 9_29-H-6, with several-fold lower uptake in liver. Radioiodinated G3-H-6 showed the best tumor-to-organ ratios. The combined effect of affinity, molecular weight, scaffold composition, and nonresidualizing properties of iodine label provided radioiodinated G3-H-6 with high clinical potential for imaging of HER2.

  • 11.
    Dubbelboer, Ilse R
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lilienberg, Elsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Piquette-Miller, Micheline
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    The Effects of Lipiodol and Cyclosporin A on the Hepatobiliary Disposition of Doxorubicin in Pigs2014In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 1301-1313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doxorubicin (DOX) emulsified in Lipiodol (LIP) is used as local palliative treatment for unresectable intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma. The objective of this study was to examine the poorly understood effects of the main excipient in the drug delivery system, LIP, alone or together with cyclosporin A (CsA), on the in vivo liver disposition of DOX. The advanced, multi-sampling-site, acute pig model was used; samples were collected from three blood vessels (v. portae, v. hepatica and v. femoralis), bile and urine. The four treatment groups (TI-TIV) all received two intravenous 5 min infusions of DOX into an ear vein: at 0 and 200 min. Before the second dose, the pigs received a portal vein infusion of saline (TI), LIP (TII), CsA (TIII) or LIP and CsA (TIV). Concentrations of DOX and its active metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) were analyzed using UPLC-MS/MS. A multi-compartment model was developed to describe the distribution of DOX and DOXol in plasma, bile and urine. LIP did not affect the pharmacokinetics of DOX or DOXol. CsA (TIII and TIV) had no effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of DOX, but a 2-fold increase in exposure to DOXol and a significant decrease in hepatobiliary clearance of DOX and DOXol was observed. Model simulations supported that CsA inhibits 99% of canalicular biliary secretion of both DOX and DOXol, but does not affect the metabolism of DOX to DOXol. In conclusion, LIP did not interact with transporters, enzymes and/or biological membranes important for the hepatobiliary disposition of DOX.

  • 12.
    Dubbelboer, Ilse R
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lilienberg, Elsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Karalli, Amar
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Radiol, Stockholm.; Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol CLINTEC, Stockholm.
    Axelsson, Rimma
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Radiol, Stockholm.; Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol CLINTEC, Stockholm.
    Brismar, Torkel B
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Radiol, Stockholm.; Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol CLINTEC, Stockholm.
    Ebeling Barbier, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Norén, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Duraj, Frans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Mikael, Hedeland
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, Uppsala.
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, Uppsala.
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Stål, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Internal Med Huddinge, Unit Gastroenterol, Stockholm.; Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Digest Dis, Stockholm.
    Nyman, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Reply to "Comment on 'In Vivo Drug Delivery Performance of Lipiodol-Based Emulsion or Drug-Eluting Beads in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma'"2018In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 336-340Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Dubbelboer, Ilse R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lilienberg, Elsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    A Model -Based Approach To Assessing the Importance of Intracellular Binding Sites in Doxorubicin Disposition2017In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 686-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doxorubicin is an anticancer agent, which binds reversibly to topoisomerase I and II, intercalates to DNA base pairs, and generates free radicals. Doxorubicin has a high tissue:plasma partition coefficient and high intracellular binding to the nucleus and other subcellular compartments. The metabolite doxorubicinol has an extensive tissue distribution. This porcine study investigated whether the traditional implementation of tissue binding, described by the tissue:plasma partition coefficient (K-p,K-t),could be used to appropriately analyze and/or simulate tissue doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations in healthy pigs, when applying a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model approach, or whether intracellular binding is required in the semi-PBPK model. Two semi-PBPK models were developed and evaluated using doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations in healthy pig blood, bile, and urine and kidney and liver tissues. In the generic semi-PBPK model, tissue binding was described using the conventional K-p,K-t approach. In the binding-specific semi-PBPK model, tissue binding was described using intracellular binding sites. The best semi-PBPK model was validated against a second data set of healthy pig blood and bile concentrations. Both models could be used for analysis and simulations of biliary and urinary excretion of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol and plasma doxorubicinol concentrations in pigs, but the binding-specific model was better at describing plasma doxorubicin concentrations. Porcine tissue concentrations were 400- to 1250-fold better captured by the binding-specific model. This model adequately predicted plasma doxorubicin concentration time and biliary doxorubicin excretion profiles against the validation data set. The semi-PBPK models applied were similarly effective for analysis of plasma concentrations and biliary and urinary excretion of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol in healthy pigs. Inclusion of intracellular binding in the doxorubicin semi-PBPK models was important to accurately describe tissue concentrations during in vivo conditions.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Thorn, Helena
    AstraZeneca, Pharmaceut Technol & Dev Inhalat, Pepparedsleden 1, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Holmsten, Lisa
    AstraZeneca, Pharmaceut Technol & Dev Inhalat, Pepparedsleden 1, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden.
    Rubin, Katarina
    AstraZeneca, Innovat Med & Early Dev, Resp Inflammat & Autoimmun, Pepparedsleden 1, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Pulmonary Dissolution of Poorly Soluble Compounds Studied in an ex Vivo Rat Lung Model2019In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 3053-3064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many inhaled drugs are poorly water soluble, and the dissolution rate is often the rate-limiting step in the overall absorption process. To improve understanding of pulmonary drug dissolution, four poorly soluble inhalation compounds (AZD5423 (a developmental nonsteroidal glucocorticoid), budesonide, fluticasone furoate (FF), and fluticasone propionate (FP)) were administered as suspensions or dry powders to the well-established isolated perfused 4 rat lung (IPL) model. Two particle size distributions (d50 = 1.2 mu m and d50 = 2.8 mu m) were investigated for AZD5423. The pulmonary absorption rates of the drugs from the suspensions and dry powders were compared with historical absorption data for solutions to improve understanding of the effects of dissolution on the overall pulmonary absorption process for poorly soluble inhaled drugs. A physiologically based biopharmaceutical in silico model was used to analyze the experimental IPL data and to estimate a dissolution parameter (K-ex vivo). A similar in silico approach was applied to in vitro dissolution data from the literature to obtain an in vitro dissolution parameter (Kin vitro). When FF, FP, and the larger particles of AZD5423 were administered as suspensions, drug dissolution was the rate-limiting step in the overall absorption process. However, this was not the case for budesonide, which has the highest aqueous solubility (61 mu M), and the smaller particles of AZD5423, probably because of the increased surface area available for dissolution (d50 = 1.2 mu m). The estimated dissolution parameters were ranked in accordance with the solubility of the drugs, and there was good agreement between k(ex vivo) and k(in vitro). The dry powders of all the compounds were absorbed more slowly than the suspensions, indicating that wetting is an important parameter for the dissolution of dry powders. A wetting factor was introduced to the in silico model to explain the difference in absorption profiles between the suspensions and dry powders where AZD5423 had the poorest wettability followed by FP and FF. The IPL model in combination with an in silico model is a useful tool for investigating pulmonary dissolution and improving understanding of dissolution-related parameters for poorly soluble inhaled compounds.

  • 15.
    Fagerberg, Jonas H.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Al-Tikriti, Yassir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Ragnarsson, Gert
    Bergström, Christel A. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Ethanol Effects on Apparent Solubility of Poorly Soluble Drugs in Simulated Intestinal Fluid2012In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 1942-1952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol intake can lead to an unexpected and possibly problematic increase in the bioavailability of druglike compounds. In this work we investigated the effect of ethanol on the apparent solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble compounds in simulated intestinal fluid representing a preprandial state. A series of 22 structurally diverse, poorly soluble compounds were measured for apparent solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (37 degrees C) in phosphate buffer pH 6.5 (PhB6.5) and fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF, pH 6.5) with and without ethanol at 5% v/v or 20% v/v. The obtained data were used to understand for which molecules ethanol results in an increased apparent solubility and, therefore, may increase the amount of drug absorbed. In FaSSIF(20%ethanol) 59% of the compounds displayed >3-fold higher apparent solubility than in pure FaSSIF, whereas the effects of 5% ethanol on solubility, in most cases, were negligible. Acidic and neutral compounds were more solubilized by the addition of ethanol than by lecithin/taurocholate aggregates, whereas bases showed a more substance-specific response to the additives in the buffer. The stronger solubilizing capacity of ethanol as compared to the mixed lipid aggregates in FaSSIF was further identified through Spearman rank analyses, which showed a stronger relationship between FaSSIF(20%ethanol) and PhB6.5,20%ethanol (r(S) of 0.97) than FaSSIF(20%ethanol) and FaSSIF (r(S) of 0.86). No relationships were found between solubility changes in media containing ethanol and single physicochemical properties, but multivariate data analysis showed that inclusion of ethanol significantly reduced the negative effect of compound lipophilicity on solubility. For this data set the higher concentration of ethanol gave a dose number (Do) <1 for 30% of the compounds that showed incomplete dissolution in FaSSIF. Significant differences were shown in the melting point, lipophilicity, and dose profiles between the compounds having a Do < 1 and Do > 1, with the latter having higher absolute values in all three parameters. In conclusion, this study showed that significant effects of ethanol on apparent solubility in the preprandial state can be expected for lipophilic compounds. The results herein indicate that acidic and neutral compounds are more sensitive to the addition of ethanol than to the mixed lipid aggregates present in the fasted intestine.

  • 16.
    Garousi, Javad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Honarvar, Hadis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Andersson, Ken G.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Buijs, Jos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Ridgeview Instruments AB, SE-74020 Vange, Sweden.
    Löfblom, John
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frejd, Fredrik Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Affibody AB, SE-17163 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Comparative evaluation of Affibody molecules for radionuclide imaging of in vivo expression of carbonic anhydrase IX2016In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 13, no 11, p. 3676-3687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overexpression of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is documented for chronically hypoxic malignant tumors as well as for normoxic renal cell carcinoma. Radionuclide molecular imaging of CAIX would be useful for detection of hypoxic areas in malignant tumors, for patients' stratification of CAIX-targeted therapies and for discrimination of primary malignant and benign renal tumors. Earlier, we have reported feasibility of in vivo radionuclide based imaging of CAIX expressing tumors using Affibody molecules, small affinity proteins based on a non-immunoglobulin scaffold. In this study, we compared imaging properties of several anti-CAIX Affibody molecules having identical scaffold parts and competing for the same epitope on CAIX, but having different binding paratopes. Four variants were labeled using residualizing 99mTc and non-residualizing 125I labels. All radiolabeled variants demonstrated high-affinity detection of CAIX-expressing cell line SK-RC-52 in vitro and specific accumulation in SK-RC-52 xenografts in vivo. 125I-labeled conjugates demonstrated much lower radioactivity uptake in kidneys but higher radioactivity concentration in blood compared with 99mTc-labed counterparts. Although all variants cleared rapidly from blood and non-specific compartments, there was noticeably difference in their biodistribution. The best variant for imaging of expression of CAIX- in disseminated cancer was 99mTc-(HE)3-ZCAIX:2 providing tumor uptake of 16.3±0.9 %ID/g and tumor-to-blood ratio of 44±7 at 4 h after injection. For primary renal cell carcinoma, the most promising imaging candidate was 125I-ZCAIX:4 providing tumor-kidney ratio of 2.1±0.5. In conclusion, several clones of scaffold proteins should be evaluated to select the best variant for development of an imaging probe with optimal sensitivity for the intended application.

  • 17.
    Hu, Yang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Gaillard, Pieter J.
    2 BBB Med BV, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Rip, Jaap
    Nanomi BV, Oldenzaal, Netherlands.
    De lange, Elizabeth C.M.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Acad Ctr Drug Res, Div Syst Biomed & Pharmacol, Predict Pharmacol Grp, Leiden, Netherland.
    Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    In Vivo Quantitative Understanding of PEGylated Liposome’s Influence on Brain Delivery of Diphenhydramine2018In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 15, no 12, p. 5493-5500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the promising features of liposomes as brain drug delivery vehicles, it remains uncertain how they influence the brain uptake in vivo. In order to gain a better fundamental understanding of the interaction between liposomes and the blood–brain barrier (BBB), it is indispensable to test if liposomes affect drugs with different BBB transport properties (active influx or efflux) differently. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate how PEGylated (PEG) liposomes influence brain delivery of diphenhydramine (DPH), a drug with active influx at the BBB, in rats. The brain uptake of DPH after 30 min intravenous infusion of free DPH, PEG liposomal DPH, or free DPH + empty PEG liposomes was compared by determining the unbound DPH concentrations in brain interstitial fluid and plasma with microdialysis. Regular blood samples were taken to measure total DPH concentrations in plasma. Free DPH was actively taken up into the brain time-dependently, with higher uptake at early time points followed by an unbound brain-to-plasma exposure ratio (Kp,uu) of 3.0. The encapsulation in PEG liposomes significantly decreased brain uptake of DPH, with a reduction of Kp,uu to 1.5 (p < 0.05). When empty PEG liposomes were coadministered with free drug, DPH brain uptake had a tendency to decrease (Kp,uu 2.3), and DPH was found to bind to the liposomes. This study showed that PEG liposomes decreased the brain delivery of DPH in a complex manner, contributing to the understanding of the intricate interactions between drug, liposomes, and the BBB.

  • 18.
    Jing, Xiaona
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Pharm, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Univ Pk 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Foged, Camilla
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Pharm, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Univ Pk 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Martin-Bertelsen, Birte
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Pharm, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Univ Pk 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Yaghmur, Anan
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Pharm, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Univ Pk 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Knapp, Kolja M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Dept Drug Design & Pharmacol, Univ Pk 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Franzyk, Henrik
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Dept Drug Design & Pharmacol, Univ Pk 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Nielsen, Hanne M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Pharm, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Univ Pk 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Delivery of siRNA Complexed with Palmitoylated alpha-Peptide/beta-Peptoid Cell-Penetrating Peptidomimetics: Membrane Interaction and Structural Characterization of a Lipid-Based Nanocarrier System2016In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1739-1749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteolytically stable alpha-peptide/beta-peptoid peptidomimetics constitute promising cell-penetrating carrier candidates exhibiting superior cellular uptake as compared to commonly used cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). The aim of the present study was to explore the potential of these peptidomimetics for delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the cytosol by incorporation of a palmitoylated peptidomimetic construct into a cationic lipid-based nanocarrier system. The optimal construct was selected on the basis of the effect of palmitoylation and the influence of the length of the peptidomimetic on the interaction with model membranes and the cellular uptake. Palmitoylation enhanced the peptidomimetic adsorption to supported lipid bilayers as studied by ellipsometry. However, both palmitoylation and increased peptidomimetic chain length were found to be beneficial in the cellular uptake studies using fluorophore-labeled analogues. Thus, the longer palmitoylated peptidomimetic was chosen for further formulation of siRNA in a dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine/cholesteryl hemisuccinate (DOPE/CHEMS) nanocarrier system, and the resulting nanoparticles were found to mediate efficient gene silencing in vitro. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) revealed multilamellar, onion-like spherical vesicles, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis confirmed that the majority of the lipids in the nanocarriers were organized in lamellar structures, yet coexisted with a hexagonal phase, which is important for efficient nanocarrier-mediated endosomal escape of siRNA ensuring cytosolic delivery. The present work is a proof-of-concept for the use of alpha-peptides/beta-peptoid peptidomimetics in an efficient delivery system that may be more generally exploited for the intracellular delivery of biomacromolecular drugs.

  • 19.
    Keemink, Janneke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Martensson, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Bergström, Christel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lipolysis-Permeation Setup for Simultaneous Study of Digestion and Absorption in Vitro2019In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 921-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipid-based formulations (LBFs) are a delivery strategy to enhance intestinal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. LBF performance is typically evaluated by in vitro lipolysis studies, but these do not accurately predict the in vivo performance. One possible reason is the absence of an absorptive membrane driving sink conditions in the serosal compartment. To explore the impact of absorption under sink conditions on the performance evaluation, we developed a lipolysis-permeation setup that allows simultaneous investigation of intestinal digestion of an LBF and drug absorption. The setup consists of two chambers, an upper one for digestion (luminal), and a lower, receiving one (serosal), separated by a Caco-2 monolayer. Digestions were performed with immobilized lipase, instead of the pancreatic extract typically used during lipolysis, since the latter has proven incompatible with Caco-2 cells. Danazol-loaded LBFs were used to develop the setup, and fenofibrate-loaded LBFs were used to establish an in vitro in vivo correlation. As in regular lipolysis studies, our setup allows for the evaluation of (i) the extent of digestion and (ii) drug distribution in different phases present during lipolysis of drug-loaded LBFs (i.e., oil, aqueous, and solid phase). In addition, our setup can determine drug permeation across Caco-2 monolayers and hence, the absorptive flux of the compound. The presence of the absorptive monolayer and sink conditions tended to reduce aqueous drug concentrations and supersaturation in the digestion chamber. The drug transfer across the Caco-2 membrane accurately reflected in vivo drug exposure upon administration of three different LBFs loaded with fenofibrate, where the traditional lipolysis setup failed to predict in vivo performance. As the new setup reflects the dynamic processes occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, it is a valuable tool that can be used in the development of LBFs prior to in vivo studies.

  • 20.
    Larsson, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Alskär, Linda C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Bergström, Christel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Molecular Structuring and Phase Transition of Lipid-Based Formulations upon Water Dispersion: A Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation Approach2017In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 4145-4153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The internal molecular structure of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) is poorly understood. In this work we aimed at establishing coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations as a tool for rapid screening and investigation of the internal environment of these formulations. In order to study complex LBFs composed of different kinds of lipids we simulated a number of systems containing either medium-chain or long-chain lipids with varying proportions of tri-, di-, and monoglycerides. Structural and dynamic measurements and analyses identified that the internal environment in a mixture of lipids was locally ordered even in the absence of water, which might explain some of the previously reported effects on drug solubility in these systems. Further, phase changes occurring upon water dispersion are well captured with coarse-grained simulations. Based on these simulations we conclude that the coarse-grained methodology is a promising in silico approach for rapid screening of structures formed in complex formulations. More importantly it facilitates molecular understanding of interactions between excipients and water at a feasible time scale and, hence, opens up for future virtual drug formulation studies.

  • 21.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Human in Vivo Regional Intestinal Permeability: Importance for Pharmaceutical Drug Development2014In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 12-23Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both the development and regulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms have undergone significant improvements and development over the past 25 years, due primarily to the extensive application of the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS). The Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System, which was published in 2005, has also been a useful resource for predicting the influence of transporters in several pharmacokinetic processes. However, there remains a need for the pharmaceutical industry to develop reliable in vitro/in vivo correlations and in silica methods for predicting the rate and extent of complex gastrointestinal (GI) absorption, the bioavailability, and the plasma concentration time curves for orally administered drug products. Accordingly, a more rational approach is required, one in which high quality in vitro or in silico characterizations of active pharmaceutical ingredients and formulations are integrated into physiologically based in silica biopharmaceutics models to capture the full complexity of GI drug absorption. The need for better understanding of the in vivo GI process has recently become evident after an unsuccessful attempt to predict the GI absorption of BCS class II and IV drugs. Reliable data on the in vivo permeability of the human intestine (P-eff) from various intestinal regions is recognized as one of the key biopharmaceutical requirements when developing in silico GI biopharmaceutics Models with improved predictive accuracy. The P-eff values for human jejunum and ileum, based on historical open, single-pass, perfusion studies are presented in this review. The main objective of this review is to summarize and discuss the relevance and current status of these human in vivo regional intestinal permeability values.

  • 22.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lindahl, A.
    Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Van Peer, A.
    Janssen Pharmaceut NV, Janssen Res & Dev, Turnhoutseweg 30, B-2340 Beerse, Belgium..
    Ollier, C.
    Sanofi US, 55 Corp Dr, Bridgewater, NJ 08807 USA..
    Flanagan, T.
    AstraZeneca R&D, Macclesfield, Cheshire, England..
    Lionberger, R.
    US FDA, Off Res & Stand, Off Gener Drugs, Ctr Drug Evaluat & Res, 10903 New Hampshire Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20993 USA..
    Nordmark, A.
    Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Yamashita, S.
    Setsunan Univ, Fac Pharmaceut Sci, Nagaotoge Cho 45-1, Hirakata, Osaka 5730101, Japan..
    Yu, L.
    US FDA, Ctr Drug Evaluat & Res, Silver Spring, MD 20993 USA..
    Amidon, G. L.
    Univ Michigan, Coll Pharm, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Fischer, V.
    AbbVie, Drug Metab & Pharmacokinet, Res & Dev, N Chicago, IL 60064 USA..
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Zane, P.
    Sanofi US, 55 Corp Dr, Bridgewater, NJ 08807 USA..
    McAllister, M.
    GlaxoSmithKline, Pharmaceut Dev, New Frontiers Sci Pk, Harlow CM19 5AW, Essex, England..
    Abrahamsson, B.
    AstraZeneca R&D, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    In Vivo Predictive Dissolution (IPD) and Biopharmaceutical Modeling and Simulation: Future Use of Modern Approaches and Methodologies in a Regulatory Context2017In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 1307-1314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of OrBiTo, a project within Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI), is to streamline and optimize the development of orally administered drug products through the creation and efficient application of biopharmaceutics tools. This toolkit will include both experimental and computational Models developed on improved understanding of the highly dynamic gastrointestinal (GI) physiology relevant to the GI absorption of drug products in both fasted and fed states. A part of the annual OrBiTo meeting in 2015 was dedicated: to the presentation of the most recent progress in the development of the regulatory use of PBPK in silk() modeling, in vivo predictive dissolution (IPD) tests, and their application to biowaivers. There are still several areas for improvement of in vitro dissolution testing by means of generating results relevant for the intraluminal conditions in the GI tract. The major opportunity is probably in combining IPD testing and physiologically based in silico models where the in vitro data provide input to the absorption predictions. The OrBiTo project and other current research projects include-definition of test media representative for the more distal parts of the GI tract, models capturing supersaturation and precipitation phenomena, and influence of motility waves on shear and other forces of hydrodynamic origin, addressing the inter individual variability in composition and characteristics of GI fluids, food effects, definition of biorelevant buffer systems, and intestinal water volumes. In conclusion, there is currently a mismatch between the extensive industrial usage of modern in vivo predictive tools and very limited inclusion of such data in regulatory files. However, there is a great interest among all stakeholders to introduce recent progresses in prediction of in vivo GI drug absorption into regulatory context.

  • 23.
    Lilienberg, Elsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Dubbelboer, Ilse R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Karalli, Amar
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Radiol, Stockholm, Sweden.; Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Axelsson, Rimma
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Radiol, Stockholm, Sweden.; Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Brismar, Torkel B,
    Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Radiol, Stockholm, Sweden.; Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ebeling Barbier, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Norén, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Duraj, Frans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, S-75189 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Stål, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Internal Med Huddinge, Gastroenterol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.; Karolinska Univ Hosp Huddinge, Dept Digest Dis, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nyman, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    In vivo Drug Delivery Performance of Lipiodol-based Emulsion or Drug-eluting Beads in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma2017In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 448-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doxorubicin (DOX) delivered in a lipiodol-based emulsion (LIPDOX) or in drug-eluting beads (DEBDOX) is used as palliative treatment in patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo delivery performance of DOX from LIPDOX or DEBDOX in HCC patients using the local and systemic pharmacokinetics of DOX and its main metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol). Urinary excretion of DOX and DOXol, and their short-term safety and anti-tumor effects were also evaluated. In this open, prospective, non-randomized multi-center study, LIPDOX (n=13) or DEBDOX (n=12) were injected into the feeding arteries of the tumor. Local (vena cava/hepatic vein orifice) and systemic (peripheral vein) plasma concentrations of DOX and DOXol were determined in samples obtained up to 6 h and 7 days after treatment. Tumor response was assessed using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The Cmax and AUC0-24 h for DOX were 5.6-fold and 2.4-fold higher in LIPDOX vs DEBDOX recipients, respectively (p <0.001). After 6 h, the respective mean proportions of the dose remaining in the liver or drug-delivery system (DDS) were 49% for LIPDOX and 88% for DEBDOX. LIPDOX releases DOX faster than DEBDOX in HCC patients and provides more extensive local and systemic exposure (AUC) to DOX and DOXol initially (0-7 days). DEBDOX formulation has a release and distribution of DOX that is more restricted and rate controlled than LIPDOX.

  • 24.
    Lilienberg, Elsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Uppsala University.
    Dubbelboer, Ilse R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lipiodol does not affect the tissue distribution of intravenous doxorubicin infusion in pigsIn: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 25.
    Lilienberg, Elsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Ebeling-Barbier, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Nyman, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Bondesson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Axén, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lennernas, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Investigation of Hepatobiliary Disposition of Doxorubicin Following Intrahepatic Delivery of Different Dosage Forms2014In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 131-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unresectable, intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often treated palliatively in humans by doxorubicin (DOX). The drug is administered either as a drug-emulsified-in-Lipiodol (DLIP) or as drug loaded into drug eluting beads (DEB), and both formulations are administered intrahepatically. However, several aspects of their in vivo performance in the liver are still not well-understood. In this study, DLIP and DEB were investigated regarding the local and systemic pharmacokinetics (PK) of DOX and its primary metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol). An advanced PK-multisampling site acute in vivo pig model was used for simultaneous sampling in the portal, hepatic, and femoral veins and the bile duct. The study had a randomized, parallel design with four treatment groups (TI–TIV). TI (n = 4) was used as control and received an intravenous (i.v.) infusion of DOX as a solution. TII and TIII were given a local injection in the hepatic artery with DLIP (n = 4) or DEB (n = 4), respectively. TIV (n = 2) received local injections of DLIP in the hepatic artery and bile duct simultaneously. All samples were analyzed for concentrations of DOX and DOXol with UPLC-MS/MS. Compared to DLIP, the systemic exposure for DOX with DEB was reduced (p < 0.05), in agreement with a slower in vivo release. The approximated intracellular bioavailability of DOX during 6 h appeared to be lower for DEB than DLIP. Following i.v. infusion (55 min), DOX had a liver extraction of 41 (28–53)%, and the fraction of the dose eliminated in bile of DOX and DOXol was 20 (15–22)% and 4.2 (3.2–5.2)%, respectively. The AUCbile/AUCVP for DOX and DOXol was 640 (580–660) and 5000 (3900–5400), respectively. In conclusion, DLIP might initially deliver a higher hepatocellular concentration of DOX than DEB as a consequence of its higher in vivo release rate. Thus, DLIP delivery results in higher intracellular peak concentrations that might correlate with better anticancer effects, but also higher systemic drug exposure and safety issues.

  • 26.
    Lindbo, Sarah
    et al.
    School of Engineering in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Division of Protein Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Garousi, Javad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Vorobyeva, Anzhelika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Oroujeni, Maryam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Hober, Sophia
    School of Engineering in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Division of Protein Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Optimized Molecular Design of ADAPT-Based HER2-Imaging Probes Labeled with 111In and 68Ga2018In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 2674-2683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radionuclide molecular imaging is a promising tool for visualization of cancer associated molecular abnormalities in vivo and stratification of patients for specific therapies. ADAPT is a new type of small engineered proteins based on the scaffold of an albumin binding domain of protein G. ADAPTs have been utilized to select and develop high affinity binders to different proteinaceous targets. ADAPT6 binds to human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) with low nanomolar affinity and can be used for its in vivo visualization. Molecular design of 111In-labeled anti-HER2 ADAPT has been optimized in several earlier studies. In this study, we made a direct comparison of two of the most promising variants, having either a DEAVDANS or a (HE)3DANS sequence at the N-terminus, conjugated with a maleimido derivative of DOTA to a GSSC amino acids sequence at the C-terminus. The variants (designated DOTA-C59-DEAVDANS-ADAPT6-GSSC and DOTA-C61-(HE)3DANS-ADAPT6-GSSC) were stably labeled with 111In for SPECT and 68Ga for PET. Biodistribution of labeled ADAPT variants was evaluated in nude mice bearing human tumor xenografts with different levels of HER2 expression. Both variants enabled clear discrimination between tumors with high and low levels of HER2 expression. 111In-labeled ADAPT6 derivatives provided higher tumor-to-organ ratios compared to 68Ga-labeled counterparts. The best performing variant was DOTA-C61-(HE)3DANS-ADAPT6-GSSC, which provided tumor-to-blood ratios of 208 ± 36 and 109 ± 17 at 3 h for 111In and 68Ga labels, respectively.

  • 27.
    Lindh, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Karolinska Inst, Unit Toxicol Sci, Swetox, Forskargatan 20, SE-15136 Sodertalje, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Comp & Syst Sci, Forum 100, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden..
    Predicting the Rate of Skin Penetration Using an Aggregated Conformal Prediction Framework2017In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1571-1576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skin serves as a drug administration route, and skin permeability of chemicals is of significant interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. An aggregated conformal prediction (ACP) framework was used to build models, for predicting the permeation rate (log K-p) of chemical compounds through human skin. The conformal prediction method gives as an output the prediction range at a given level of confidence for each compound, which enables the user to make a more informed decision when, for example, suggesting the next compound to prepare, Predictive models were built using;both the random forest and the support vector machine methods and were based on experimentally derived permeability data on 211 diverse compounds. The derived models were of similar predictive quality as compared to earlier published models but have the extra advantage of not only presenting a single predicted value for each, compound but also a reliable, individually assigned prediction range. The models use calculated descriptors and can quickly predict the skin permeation rate of new compounds.

  • 28.
    Lindqvist, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Jönsson, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Exploring Factors Causing Low Brain penetration of the Opioid Peptide DAMGO through Experimental Methods and Modeling2016In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1258-1266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To advance the development of peptide analogues for improved treatment of pain, we need to learn more about the blood brain barrier transport of these substances. A low penetration into the brain, with an unbound brain to blood ratio, K-p,K-uu, of 0.08, is an important reason for the lack of effect of the enkephalin analogue DAMGO (H-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-MePhe-Gly-ol) according to earlier findings. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of efflux transporters, metabolism in the brain, and/or elimination through interstitial fluid bulk flow for the brain exposure of DAMGO. The in vivo brain distribution of DAMGO was evaluated using microdialysis in the rat. Data were analyzed with population modeling which resulted in a clearance into the brain of 1.1 and an efflux clearance 14 mu L/min/g_brain. The efflux clearance was thus much higher than the bulk flow known from the literature. Coadministration with the efflux transporter inhibitors cyclosporin A and elacridar in vivo did not affect K-p,K-uu. The permeability of DAMGO in the Caco-2 assay was very low, of the same size as mannitol. The efflux ratio was <2 and not influenced by cyclosporin A or elacridar. These results indicate that the well-known efflux transporters Pgp and Bcrp are not responsible for the higher efflux of DAMGO, which opens up for an important role of other transporters at the BBB.

  • 29.
    Lindqvist, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Rip, Jaap
    Gaillard, Pieter J
    Björkman, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Enhanced Brain Delivery of the Opioid Peptide DAMGO in Glutathione PEGylated Liposomes: A Microdialysis Study2013In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 1533-1541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutathione PEGylated (GSH-PEG) liposomes were evaluated for their ability to enhance and prolong blood-to-brain drug delivery of the opioid peptide DAMGO (H-Tyr-d-Ala-Gly-MePhe-Gly-ol). An intravenous loading dose of DAMGO followed by a 2 h constant rate infusion was administered to rats, and after a washout period of 1 h, GSH-PEG liposomal DAMGO was administered using a similar dosing regimen. DAMGO and GSH-PEG liposomal DAMGO were also administered as a 10 min infusion to compare the disposition of the two formulations. Microdialysis made it possible to determine free DAMGO in brain and plasma, while the GSH-PEG liposomal encapsulated DAMGO was measured with regular plasma sampling. The antinociceptive effect of DAMGO was determined with the tail-flick method. All samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. The short infusion of DAMGO resulted in a fast decline of the peptide concentration in plasma with a half-life of 9.2 ± 2.1 min. Encapsulation in GSH-PEG liposomes prolonged the half-life to 6.9 ± 2.3 h. Free DAMGO entered the brain to a limited extent with a steady state ratio between unbound drug concentrations in brain interstitial fluid and in blood (Kp,uu) of 0.09 ± 0.04. GSH-PEG liposomes significantly increased the brain exposure of DAMGO to a Kp,uu of 0.21 ± 0.17 (p < 0.05). By monitoring the released, active substance in both blood and brain interstitial fluid over time, we were able to demonstrate that GSH-PEG liposomes offer a promising platform for enhancing and prolonging the delivery of drugs to the brain.

  • 30.
    Loryan, Irena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hoppe, Edmund
    Grunenthal GmbH, D-52099 Aachen, Germany.
    Hansen, Klaus
    Grunenthal GmbH, D-52099 Aachen, Germany.
    Held, Felix
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Ctr, Chalmers Sci Pk, S-41288 Gothenburg, Sweden.; Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Math Sci, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.; Univ Gothenburg, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kless, Achim
    Grunenthal GmbH, D-52099 Aachen, Germany.
    Linz, Klaus
    Grunenthal GmbH, D-52099 Aachen, Germany.
    Marossek, Virginia
    Grunenthal GmbH, D-52099 Aachen, Germany.; Bayer AG, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Nolte, Bert
    Grunenthal GmbH, D-52099 Aachen, Germany.; Peter Greven Physioderm GmbH, Euskirchen, Germany.
    Ratcliffe, Paul
    Grunenthal GmbH, D-52099 Aachen, Germany.
    Saunders, Derek
    Grunenthal GmbH, D-52099 Aachen, Germany.
    Terlinden, Rolf
    Grunenthal GmbH, D-52099 Aachen, Germany.
    Wegert, Anita
    Grunenthal GmbH, D-52099 Aachen, Germany.; Mercachem, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Welbers, André
    Grunenthal GmbH, D-52099 Aachen, Germany.
    Will, Olaf
    Grunenthal GmbH, D-52099 Aachen, Germany.
    Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Quantitative Assessment of Drug Delivery to Tissues and Association with Phospholipidosis: A Case Study with Two Structurally Related Diamines in Development2017In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 4362-4373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drug induced phospholipidosis (PLD) may be observed in the preclinical phase of drug development and pose strategic questions. As lysosomes have a central role in pathogenesis of PLD, assessment of lysosomal concentrations is important for understanding the pharmacokinetic basis of PLD manifestation and forecast of potential clinical appearance. Herein we present a systematic approach to provide insight into tissue-specific PLD by evaluation of unbound intracellular and lysosomal (reflecting acidic organelles) concentrations of two structurally related diprotic amines, GRT1 and GRT2. Their intratissue distribution was assessed using brain and lung slice assays. GRT1 induced PLD both in vitro and in vivo. GRT1 showed a high intracellular accumulation that was more pronounced in the lung, but did not cause cerebral PLD due to its effective efflux at the blood-brain barrier. Compared to GRT1, GRT2 revealed higher interstitial fluid concentrations in lung and brain, but more than 30-fold lower lysosomal trapping capacity. No signs of PLD were seen with GRT2. The different profile of GRT2 relative to GRT1 is due to a structural change resulting in a reduced basicity of one amino group. Hence, by distinct chemical modifications, undesired lysosomal trapping can be separated from desired drug delivery into different organs. In summary, assessment of intracellular unbound concentrations was instrumental in delineating the intercompound and intertissue differences in PLD induction in vivo and could be applied for identification of potential lysosomotropic compounds in drug development.

  • 31.
    Loryan, Irena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sinha, Vikash
    Mackie, Claire
    van Peer, Achiel
    Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus
    Vermeulen, An
    Heald, Donald
    Margareta, Hammarlund-Udenaes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wassvik, Carola
    Molecular properties determining unbound intracellular and extracellular brain exposure of CNS drug candidates2015In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, p. 520-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work we sought to gain a mechanistic understanding of the physicochemical properties that influence the transport of unbound drug across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as well as the intra- and extracellular drug exposure in the brain. Interpretable molecular descriptors that significantly contribute to the three key neuropharmacokinetic properties related to BBB drug transport (Kp,uu,brain), intracellular accumulation (Kp,uu,cell) and binding and distribution in the brain (Vu,brain) for a set of 40 compounds were identified using partial least squares (PLS) analysis. The tailoring of drug properties for improved brain exposure includes decreasing the polarity and/or hydrogen bonding capacity. The design of CNS drug candidates with intracellular targets may benefit from an increase in basicity and/or the number of hydrogen bond donors. Applying this knowledge in drug discovery chemistry programs will allow designing compounds with more desirable CNS pharmacokinetic properties.

  • 32.
    Malm-Erjefalt, Monika
    et al.
    Novo Nordisk AS, DK-2860 Soborg, Denmark..
    Ekblom, Marianne
    Novo Nordisk AS, DK-2860 Soborg, Denmark..
    Vouis, Jan
    Quintiles AB, Phase Serv 1, SE-75323 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Zdravkovic, Milan
    Novo Nordisk AS, DK-2860 Soborg, Denmark..
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Effect on the Gastrointestinal Absorption of Drugs from Different Classes in the Biopharmaceutics Classification System, When Treating with Liraglutide2015In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 4166-4173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like other GLP-1 receptor agonists used for treatment of type 2 diabetes, liraglutide delays gastric emptying. In this clinical absorption study, the primary objective was to investigate the effect of liraglutide (at steady state) on the rate and/or extent of gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of concomitantly orally taken drugs from three classes of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). To provide a general prediction on liraglutide drugdrug absorption interaction, single-dose pharmacokinetics of drugs representing BCS classes II (low solubility-high permeability; atorvastatin 40 mg and griseofulvin 500 mg), III (high solubilitylow permeability; lisinopril 20 mg), and IV (low solubility-low permeability; digoxin 1 mg) were studied in healthy subjects at steady state of liraglutide 1.8 mg, or placebo, in a two-period crossover design. With liraglutide, the oral drugs atorvastatin, lisinopril, and digoxin showed delayed t(max) (by <= 2 h) and did not meet the criterion for bioequivalence for C-max (reduced C-max by 27-38%); griseofulvin had similar tmax and 37% increased C-max. Although the prespecified bioequivalence criterion was not met by all drugs, the overall plasma exposure (AUC) of griseofulvin, atorvastatin, lisinopril, and digoxin only exhibited minor changes and was not considered to be of clinical relevance.

  • 33.
    Mateus, André
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Matsson, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Artursson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Rapid Measurement of Intracellular Unbound Drug Concentrations2013In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 2467-2478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intracellular unbound drug concentrations determine affinity to targets in the cell interior. However, due to difficulties in measuring them, they are often overlooked in pharmacology. Here we present a simple experimental technique for the determination of unbound intracellular drug concentrations in cultured cells that is based on parallel measurements of cellular drug binding and steady-state intracellular drug concentrations. Binding in HEK293 cells was highly correlated with binding in liver-derived systems, whereas binding in plasma did not compare well with cellular binding. Compound lipophilicity increased drug binding, while negative charge and aromatic functional groups decreased binding. Intracellular accumulation of unbound drug was consistent with pH dependent subcellular sequestration, as confirmed by modeling and by inhibition of subcellular pH gradients. The approach developed here can be used to measure intracellular unbound drug concentrations in more complex systems, for example, cell lines with controlled expression of transporters and enzymes or primary cells.

  • 34.
    Matsson, Elin M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Eriksson, Ulf G.
    Palm, Johan E.
    Artursson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Karlgren, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lazorova, Lucia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Brannstrom, Marie
    Ekdahl, Anja
    Duner, Kristina
    Knutson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Schutzer, Kajs-Marie
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Combined in Vitro-in Vivo Approach To Assess the Hepatobiliary Disposition of a Novel Oral Thrombin Inhibitor2013In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 4252-4262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two clinical trials and a large set of in vitro transporter experiments were performed to investigate if the hepatobiliary disposition of the direct thrombin inhibitor prodrug AZD0837 is the mechanism for the drug-drug interaction with ketoconazole observed in a previous clinical study. In Study 1, [H-3]AZD0837 was administered to healthy male volunteers (n = 8) to quantify and identify the metabolites excreted in bile. Bile was sampled directly from the jejunum by duodenal aspiration via an oro-enteric tube. In Study 2, the effect of ketoconazole on the plasma and bile pharmacokinetics of AZD0837, the intermediate metabolite (AR-H069927), and the active form (AR-H067637) was investigated (n = 17). Co-administration with ketoconazole elevated the plasma exposure to AZD0837 and the active form approximately 2-fold compared to placebo, which may be explained by inhibited CYP3A4 metabolism and reduced biliary clearance, respectively. High concentrations of the active form was measured in bile with a bile-to-plasma AUC ratio of approximately 75, indicating involvement of transporter-mediated excretion of the compound. AZD0837 and its metabolites were further investigated as substrates of hepatic uptake and efflux transporters in vitro. Studies in MDCK-MDRI cell monolayers and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressing membrane vesicles identified AZD0837, the intermediate, and the active form as substrates of P-gp. The active form was also identified as a substrate of the multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE!) transporter and the organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), in HEK cells transfected with the respective transporter. Ketoconazole was shown to inhibit all of these three transporters; in particular, inhibition of P-gp and MATE1 occurred in a clinically relevant concentration range. In conclusion, the hepatobiliary transport pathways of AZD0837 and its metabolites were identified in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of the canalicular transporters P-gp and MATE1 may lead to enhanced plasma exposure to the active form, which could, at least in part, explain the clinical interaction with ketoconazole.

  • 35. Neve, Etienne P. A.
    et al.
    Artursson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus
    Karlgren, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    An Integrated in Vitro Model for Simultaneous Assessment of Drug Uptake, Metabolism, and Efflux2013In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 3152-3163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in vivo are to a large extent dependent on different transport and metabolism routes. Elucidation of this complex transport-metabolism interplay is a major challenge in drug development and at present no in vitro models suitable for this purpose are at hand. The aim of this study was to develop flexible, well-controlled, easy-to-use, integrated cell models, where drug transport and drug metabolism processes could be studied simultaneously. HEK293 cells stably transfected with the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) were subjected to either transient transfection or adenoviral infection to introduce the genes expressing cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), cytochrome b(5) (CYB5A), and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), in different combinations. Thereafter, the time and concentration dependent transport and metabolism of two well-characterized statins, atorvastatin (acid and lactone forms) and simvastatin (acid form), were determined in the different models. The results show that CYP3A4-dependent metabolism of the more hydrophilic atorvastatin acid was dependent on OATP1B1 uptake and influenced by MDR1 efflux. In contrast, the metabolism of the more lipophilic atorvastatin lactone was not affected by active transport, whereas the metabolism of simvastatin acid was less influenced by active transport than atorvastatin acid. Our results, together with the models being applicative for any combination of drug transporters and CYP metabolizing enzymes of choice, provide proof-of-concept for the potential of the new integrated cell models presented as valuable screening tools in drug discovery and development

  • 36.
    Orlova, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Bass, Tarek Z.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Prot Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rinne, Sara S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Leitao, Charles Dahlsson
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Prot Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosestedt, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Atterby, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Gudmundsdotter, Lindvi
    Affibody AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Frejd, Fredrik Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Affibody AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Löfhlom, John
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Prot Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Dept Prot Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evaluation of the Therapeutic Potential of a HER3-Binding Affibody Construct TAM-HER3 in Comparison with a Monoclonal Antibody, Seribantumab2018In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 3394-3403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor type 3 (HER3) is recognized to be involved in resistance to HER targeting therapies. A number of HER3-targeting monoclonal antibodies are under clinical investigation as potential cancer therapeutics. Smaller high-affinity scaffold proteins are attractive non-Fc containing alternatives to antibodies. A previous study indicated that anti-HER3 affibody molecules could delay the growth of xenografted HER3-positive tumors. Here, we designed a second-generation HER3-targeting construct (TAM-HER3), containing two HER3-specific affibody molecules bridged by an albumin-binding domain (ABD) for extension of blood circulation. Receptor blocking activity was demonstrated in vitro. In mice bearing BxPC-3 xenografts, the therapeutic efficacy of TAM-HER3 was compared to the HER3-specific monoclonal antibody seribantumab (MM-121). TAM-HER3 inhibited heregulin-induced phosphorylation in a panel of HER3-expressing cancer cells and was found to be equally as potent as seribantumab in terms of therapeutic efficacy in vivo and with a similar safety profile. Median survival times were 60 days for TAM-HER3, 54 days for seribantumab, and 41 days for the control group. No pathological changes were observed in cytopathological examination. The multimeric HER3-binding affibody molecule in fusion to ABD seems promising for further evaluation as candidate therapeutics for treatment of HER3-overexpressing tumors.

  • 37.
    Plum, Jakob
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Pharm, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Madsen, Cecilie M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Pharm, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Analyt Res & Dev, H Lundbeck A-S,Ottiliavej 9, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark..
    Teleki, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Bevernage, Jan
    Johnson & Johnson, Janssen Pharmaceut, Pharmaceut Sci, Beerse, Belgium.
    Mathews, Claudia da Costa
    Pfizer Ltd, Drug Product Design Pharmaceut Sci, Sandwich, UK.
    Karlsson, Eva M.
    AstraZeneca R&D, Pharmaceut Technol & Dev, Mölndal, Sweden..
    Carlert, Sara
    AstraZeneca R&D, Pharmaceut Sci, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Holm, Rene
    Biol & Pharmaceut Sci, H Lundbeck A-S, Valby, Denmark.
    Mueller, Thomas
    AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co KG, Ludwigshafen, Germany.
    Matthews, Wayne
    GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Prod Dev, Stevenage, UK.
    Sayers, Alice
    GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Prod Dev, Stevenage, UK.
    Ojala, Krista
    Orion Pharma, Espoo, Finland.
    Tsinsman, Konstantin
    Pion Inc, Billerica, USA.
    Lingamaneni, Ram
    Pion Inc, Billerica, USA.
    Bergström, Christel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Rades, Thomas
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Pharm, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Mullertz, Anette
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Pharm, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Bioneer FARMA, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Investigation of the Intra- and Interlaboratory Reproducibility of a Small Scale Standardized Supersaturation and Precipitation Method2017In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 4161-4169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high number of poorly water-soluble compounds in drug development has increased the need for enabling formulations to improve oral bioavailability. One frequently applied approach is to induce supersaturation at the absorptive site, e.g., the small intestine, increasing the amount of dissolved compound available for absorption. However, due to the stochastic nature of nucleation, supersaturating drug delivery systems may lead to inter- and intrapersonal variability. The ability to define a feasible range with respect to the supersaturation level is a crucial factor for a successful formulation. Therefore, an in vitro method is needed, from where the ability of a compound to supersaturate can be defined in a reproducible way. Hence, this study investigates the reproducibility of an in vitro small scale standardized supersaturation and precipitation method (SSPM). First an intralaboratory reproducibility study of felodipine was conducted, after which seven partners contributed with data for three model compounds; aprepitant, felodipine, and fenofibrate, to determine the interlaboratory reproducibility of the SSPM. The first part of the SSPM determines the apparent degrees of supersaturation (aDS) to investigate for each compound. Each partner independently determined the maximum possible aDS and induced 100, 87.5, 75, and 50% of their determined maximum possible aDS in the SSPM. The concentration time profile of the supersaturation and following precipitation was obtained in order to determine the induction time (t(ind)) for detectable precipitation. The data showed that the absolute values of t(ind) and aDS were not directly comparable between partners, however, upon linearization of the data a reproducible rank ordering of the three model compounds was obtained based on the beta-value, which was defined as the slope of the In(t(ind)) versus In(aDS)(-2) plot. Linear regression of this plot showed that aprepitant had the highest beta-value, 15.1, while felodipine and fenofibrate had comparable beta-values, 4.0 and 4.3, respectively. Of the five partners contributing with full data sets, 80% could obtain the same rank order for the three model compounds using the SSPM (aprepitant > felodipine approximate to fenofibrate). The alpha-value is dependent on the experimental setup and can be used as a parameter to evaluate the uniformity of the data set. This study indicated that the SSPM was able to obtain the same rank order of the beta-value between partners and, thus, that the SSPM may be used to classify compounds depending on their supersaturation propensity.

  • 38.
    Puris, Elena
    et al.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Pharm, POB 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.
    Gynther, Mikko
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Pharm, POB 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.
    de Lange, Elizabeth C. M.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Acad Ctr Drug Res, Div Syst Biomed & Pharmacol, Predict Pharmacol Grp, NL-2311 EZ Leiden, Netherlands.
    Auriola, Seppo
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Pharm, POB 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.
    Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Huttunen, Kristiina M.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Pharm, POB 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.
    Loryan, Irena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Mechanistic Study on the Use of the L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 for Brain Intracellular Delivery of Ketoprofen via Prodrug: A Novel Approach Supporting the Development of Prodrugs for Intracellular Targets2019In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 3261-3274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    L-Type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), selectively expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain parenchymal cells, mediates brain delivery of drugs and prodrugs such as L-dopa and gabapentin. Although knowledge about BBB transport of LAT1-utilizing prodrugs is available, there is a lack of quantitative information about brain intracellular delivery and influence of prodrugs on the transporter's physiological state. We studied the LAT1-mediated intrabrain distribution of a recently developed prodrug of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketoprofen as well as its impact on transporter protein expression and function (i.e., amino acid exchange) using brain slice method in mice and rats. The intrabrain distribution of the prodrug was 16 times higher than that of ketoprofen. LAT1 involvement in brain cellular barrier uptake of the prodrug was confirmed, reflected by a higher unbound brain intracellular compared to brain extracellular fluid concentration. The prodrug did not alter LAT1 protein expression and amino acid exchange. Integration of derived parameters with previously performed in vivo pharmacokinetic study using the Combinatory Mapping Approach allowed to estimate the brain extra- and intracellular levels of unbound ketoprofen, prodrug, and released parent drug. The overall efficiency of plasma to brain intracellular delivery of prodrug-released ketoprofen was 11 times higher than after ketoprofen dosing. In summary, this study provides quantitative information supporting the use of the LAT1-mediated prodrug approach for enhanced brain delivery of drugs with intracellular targets.

  • 39.
    Roos, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Dahlgren, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Berg, Staffan
    AstraZeneca R&D, S-43150 Molndal, Sweden..
    Westergren, Jan
    Wendelsbergs Berakningskemi AB, Kyrkvagen 7B, S-43535 Molnlycke, Sweden..
    Abrahamsson, Bertil
    AstraZeneca R&D, S-43150 Molndal, Sweden..
    Tannergren, Christer
    AstraZeneca R&D, S-43150 Molndal, Sweden..
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    In Vivo Mechanisms of Intestinal Drug Absorption from Aprepitant Nanoformulations2017In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 4233-4242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent decades there has been an increase in the proportion of BCS class II and IV drug candidates in industrial drug development. To overcome the biopharmaceutical challenges associated with the less favorable properties of solubility and/or intestinal permeation of these substances, the development of formulations containing nanosuspensions of the drugs has been suggested. The intestinal absorption of aprepitant from two nanosuspensions (20 mu M and 200 mu M total concentrations) in phosphate buffer, one nanosuspension (200 mu M) in fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF), and one solution (20 mu M) in FaSSIF was investigated in the rat single-pass intestinal perfusion model. The disappearance flux from the lumen (J(disapp)) was faster for formulations containing a total concentration of aprepitant of 200 mu M than for those containing 20 mu M, but was unaffected by the presence of vesicles. The flux into the systemic circulation (J(app)) and, subsequently, the effective diffusion constant (D-eff) were calculated using the plasma concentrations. J(app) was, like J(disapp), faster for the formulations containing higher total concentrations of aprepitant, but was also faster for those containing vesicles (ratios of 2 and 1.5). This suggests that aprepitant is retained in the lumen when presented as nanoparticles in the absence of vesicles. In conclusion, increased numbers of nanoparticles and the presence of vesicles increased the rate of transport and availability of aprepitant in plasma. This effect can be attributed to an increased rate of mass transport through the aqueous boundary layer (ABL) adjacent to the gut wall.

  • 40.
    Roos, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Dahlgren, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Tannergren, Christer
    AstraZeneca R&D, Pharmaceut Technol & Dev, S-43183 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Abrahamsson, Bertil
    AstraZeneca R&D, Pharmaceut Technol & Dev, S-43183 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Regional Intestinal Permeability in Rats: A Comparison of Methods2017In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 4252-4261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, the screening of new drug candidates for intestinal permeation is typically based on in vitro models which give no information regarding regional differences along the gut. When evaluation of intestinal permeability by region is undertaken, two preclinical rat models are commonly used, the Ussing chamber method and single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP). To investigate the robustness of in vivo predictions of human intestinal permeability, a set of four model compounds was systematically investigated in both these models, using tissue specimens and segments from the jejunum, ileum, and colon of rats from the same genetic strain. The influence of luminal pH was also determined at two pH levels. Ketoprofen had high and enalaprilat had low effective (P-eff) and apparent (P-app) permeability in all three regions and at both pH levels. Metoprolol had high P-eff in all regions and at both pHs and high P-app at both pHs and in all regions except the jejunum, where P-app was low. Atenolol had low P-eff in all regions and at both pHs, but had high P-app at pH 6.5 and low P-app at pH 7.4. There were good correlations between these rat in situ P-eff (SPIP) and human in vivo P-eff determined previously for the same compounds by both intestinal perfusion of the jejunum and regional intestinal dosing. The results of this study indicate that both investigated models are suitable for determining the regional permeability of the intestine; however, the SPIP model seems to be the more robust and accurate regional permeability model.

  • 41.
    Sjögren, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Bredberg, Ulf
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    The pharmacokinetics and hepatic disposition of repaglinide in pigs: mechanistic modeling of metabolism and transport2012In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 823-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The predictive power of using in vitro systems in combination with physiologically based pharmacolcinetic (PBPK) modeling to elucidate the relative importance of metabolism and carrier-mediated transport for the pharmacokinetics was evaluated using repaglinide as a model compound and pig as the test system. Repaglinide was chosen as model drug as previous studies in humans have shown that repaglinide is subject to both carrier-mediated influx to the liver cells and extensive hepatic metabolism. A multiple sampling site model in pig was chosen since it provides detailed in vivo information about the liver disposition. The underlying assumption was that both metabolism and carrier-mediated transport are also important for the hepatic disposition of repaglinide in pigs. Microsomes and primary hepatocytes were used for in vitro evaluation of enzyme kinetics and cellular disposition, respectively. In vitro data were generated both with and without metabolism inhibitors (ketoconazole, bezafibrate and trimethoprim) and transport inhibitors (diclofenac and quinine) providing input into a semi-PBPK model. In vivo data were also generated with and without the same enzyme and transporter inhibitors, alone and in combination. The pigs were given repaglinide as intravenous infusions with and without inhibitors in a sequential manner, i.e., a control phase and a test phase. Parameters describing the passive and carrier-mediated flux as well as metabolism were estimated in the control phase. The result from test phase was used to gain further knowledge of the findings from the control phase. The in vivo pig model enabled simultaneous sampling from plasma (pre- and postliver and peripheral) as well as from bile and urine. A semi-PBPK model consisting of 11 compartments (6 tissues + 5 sampling sites) was constructed for the mechanistic elucidation of the liver disposition, in vitro based in vivo predictions, sensitivity analyses and estimations of individual pharmacolcinetic parameters. Both in vitro and in vivo results showed that carrier-mediated influx was important for the liver disposition. The in vivo findings were supported by the result from the test phase where hepatic clearance (4.3 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) was decreased by 29% (metabolism inhibition), 43% (transport inhibition) and 57% (metabolism + transport inhibition). These effects were in good agreement with predicted levels. This study suggests that both metabolism and carrier-mediated uptake are of significant importance for the liver disposition of repaglinide in pigs.

  • 42.
    Sjögren, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Dahlgren, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Roos, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Lennernas, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Human in Vivo Regional Intestinal Permeability: Quantitation Using Site-Specific Drug Absorption Data2015In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 2026-2039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of information on regional intestinal permeability has been identified as a key aspect of successful pharmaceutical product development. This study presents the results and evaluation of an approach for the indirect estimation of site-specific in vivo intestinal effective permeability (P-eff) in humans. Plasma concentrationtime profiles from 15 clinical studies that administered drug solutions to specific intestinal regions were collected and analyzed. The intestinal absorption rate for each drug was acquired by deconvolution, using historical intravenous data as reference, and used with the intestinal surface area and the dose remaining in the lumen to estimate the Peff. Forty-three new Peff values were estimated (15 from the proximal small intestine, 11 from the distal small intestine, and 17 from the large intestine) for 14 active pharmaceutical ingredients representing a wide range of biopharmaceutical properties. A good correlation (r(2) = 0.96, slope = 1.24, intercept = 0.030) was established between these indirect jejunal P-eff estimates and jejunal P-eff measurements determined directly using the single-pass perfusion double balloon technique. On average, P-eff estimates from the distal small intestine and large intestine were 90% and 40%, respectively, of those from the proximal small intestine. These results support the use of the evaluated deconvolution method for indirectly estimating regional intestinal P-eff in humans. This study presents the first comprehensive data set of estimated human regional intestinal permeability values for a range of drugs. These biopharmaceutical data can be used to improve the accuracy of gastrointestinal absorption predictions used in drug development decision-making.

  • 43.
    Sjögren, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Tammela, Teuvo L.
    Lennernas, Bo
    Taari, Kimmo
    Isotalo, Taina
    Malmsten, Lars-Ake
    Axen, Niklas
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Pharmacokinetics of an Injectable Modified-Release 2-Hydroxyflutamide Formulation in the Human Prostate Gland Using a Semiphysiologically Based Biopharmaceutical Model2014In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 3097-3111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The local distribution of 2-hydroxyflutamide (2-HOF) in prostate tissue after a single intraprostatic injection of a novel parenteral modified-release (MR) formulation in patients with localized prostate cancer was estimated using a semiphysiologically based biopharmaceutical model. Plasma concentration-time profiles for 2-HOF were acquired from a phase II study in 24 patients and the dissolution of the MR formulation was investigated in vitro. Human physiological values and the specific physicochemical properties of 2-HOF were obtained from the literature or calculated via established algorithms. A compartmental modeling approach was adopted for tissue and blood in the prostate gland, where the compartments were modeled as a series of concentric spherical shells contouring the centrally positioned depot formulation. Discrete fluid connections between the blood compartments were described by the representative flow of blood, whereas the mass transport of drug from tissue to tissue and tissue to blood was described by a one-dimensional diffusion approximation. An empirical dissolution approach was adopted for the release of 2-HOF from the formulation. The model adequately described the plasma concentration time profiles of 2-HOF.. Predictive simulations indicated that the local tissue concentration of 2-HOF within a distance of 5 mm from the depot formulation was approximately 40 times higher than that of unbound 2-HOF in plasma. The simulations also indicated that spreading the formulation throughout the prostate gland would expose more of the gland and increase the overall release rate of 2-HOF from the given dose. The increased release rate would initially increase the tissue and plasma concentrations but would also reduce the terminal half-life of 2-HOF in plasma. Finally, an in vitro in vivo correlation of the release of 2-HOF from the parenteral MR formulation was established. This study shows that intraprostatic 2-HOF concentrations are significantly higher than systemic plasma concentrations and that increased distribution of 2-HOF throughout the gland, using strategic imaging-guided administration, is possible. This novel parenteral MR formulation, thus, facilitates good pharmacological effect while minimizing the risk of side effects.

  • 44.
    Sjögren, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Thorn, Helena
    AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Pharmaceut Technol & Dev, Pepparedsleden 1, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Tannergren, Christer
    AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Pharmaceut Technol & Dev, Pepparedsleden 1, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    In Silico Modeling of Gastrointestinal Drug Absorption: Predictive Performance of Three Physiologically Based Absorption Models2016In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1763-1778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gastrointestinal (GI) drug absorption is a complex process determined by formulation, physicochemical and biopharmaceutical factors, and GI physiology. Physiologically based in silico absorption models have emerged as a widely used and promising supplement to traditional in vitro assays and preclinical in vivo studies. However, there remains a lack of comparative studies between different models. The aim of this study was to explore the strengths and limitations of the in silico absorption models Simcyp 13.1, GastroPlus 8.0, and GI-Sim 4.1, with respect to their performance in predicting human intestinal drug absorption. This was achieved by adopting an a priori modeling approach and using well-defined input data for 12 drugs associated with incomplete GI absorption and related challenges in predicting the extent of absorption. This approach better mimics the real situation during formulation development where predictive in silico models would be beneficial. Plasma concentration-time profiles for 44 oral drug administrations were calculated by convolution of model predicted absorption-time profiles and reported pharmacokinetic parameters. Model performance was evaluated by comparing the predicted plasma concentration-time profiles, C-max, t(max), and exposure (AUC) with observations from clinical studies. The overall prediction accuracies for AUC, given as the absolute average fold error (AAFE) values, were 2.2, 1.6, and 1.3 for Simcyp, GastroPlus, and GI-Sim, respectively. The corresponding AAFE values for C-max were 2.2, 1.6, and 1.3, respectively, and those for t(max) were 1.7, 1.5, and 1.4, respectively. Simcyp was associated with underprediction of AUC and C-max; the accuracy decreased with decreasing predicted J(abs). A tendency for underprediction was also observed for GastroPlus, but there was no correlation with predicted f(abs). There were no obvious trends for over- or underprediction for GI-Sim. The models performed similarly in capturing dependencies on dose and particle size. In conclusion, it was shown that all three software packages are useful to guide formulation development. However, as a consequence of the high fraction of inaccurate predictions (prediction error >2-fold) and the clear trend toward decreased accuracy with decreased predicted f(abs) observed with Simcyp, the results indicate that GI-Sim and GastroPlus perform better than Simcyp in predicting the intestinal absorption of the incompletely absorbed drugs when a higher degree of accuracy is needed. In addition, this study suggests that modeling and simulation research groups should perform systematic model evaluations using their own input data to maximize confidence in model performance and output.

  • 45.
    Sjögren, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Thorn, Helena
    AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Pharmaceut Technol & Dev, Pepparedsleden 1, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Tannergren, Christer
    AstraZeneca R&D Gothenburg, Pharmaceut Technol & Dev, Pepparedsleden 1, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Reply to "Comment on 'In Silico Modeling of Gastrointestinal Drug Absorption: Predictive Performance of Three Physiologically Based Absorption Models'"2017In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 340-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a reply to the comment on "In Silico Modeling of Gastrointestinal Drug Absorption: Predictive Performance of Three Physiologically Based Absorption Models" by Turner and other Simcyp associates. In the reply we address the major concerns raised by Turner et al. regarding the methodology to compare the predictive performance of the different absorption models and at the same time ensure that the systemic pharmacokinetic input was exactly the same for the different models; the selection of the human effective permeability value of fexofenadine; the adoption of model default values and settings; and how supersaturation/precipitation was handled. In addition, we also further discuss aspects related to differences in in silk() models and the potential implications of such differences. Our original report should be viewed as the starting point in a thorough and transparent review of absorption prediction models with the overall aim of improving their application as validated tools for bridging studies of active pharmaceutical ingredients from various sources and origins in a regulatory context. With this reply we encourage other independent investigators to perform further model evaluations of commercial as well as other existing or recently implemented models. This will boost the overall progression of physiologically based biopharmaceutical models for predicting and simulating intestinal drug absorption both in research and development and in a regulatory context.

  • 46. Smith, Dennis
    et al.
    Artursson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Avdeef, Alex
    Di, Li
    Ecker, Gerhard F.
    Faller, Bernard
    Houston, J. Brian
    Kansy, Manfred
    Kerns, Edward H.
    Kramer, Stefanie D.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    van de Waterbeemd, Han
    Sugano, Kiyohiko
    Testa, Bernard
    Passive Lipoidal Diffusion and Carrier-Mediated Cell Uptake Are Both Important Mechanisms of Membrane Permeation in Drug Disposition2014In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 1727-1738Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, it has been proposed that drug permeation is essentially carrier-mediated only and that passive lipoidal diffusion is negligible. This opposes the prevailing hypothesis of drug permeation through biological membranes, which integrates the contribution of multiple permeation mechanisms, including both carrier-mediated and passive lipoidal diffusion, depending on the compound's properties, membrane properties, and solution properties. The prevailing hypothesis of drug permeation continues to be successful for application and prediction in drug development. Proponents of the carrier-mediated only concept argue against passive lipoidal diffusion. However, the arguments are not supported by broad pharmaceutics literature. The carrier-mediated only concept lacks substantial supporting evidence and successful applications in drug development.

  • 47.
    Strand, Joanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences. Rudbecklaboratoriet.
    Varasteh, Zohreh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET Platform.
    Eriksson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET Platform.
    Abrahmsen, Lars
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET Platform.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Gallium-68-Labeled Affibody Molecule for PET Imaging of PDGFRβ Expression in Vivo2014In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 3957-3964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor involved, for example, in angiogenesis. Overexpression and excessive signaling of PDGFRβ has been observed in multiple malignant tumors and fibrotic diseases, making this receptor a pharmaceutical target for monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Successful targeted therapy requires identification of responding patients. Radionuclide molecular imaging would enable determination of the PDGFRβ status in all lesions using a single noninvasive repeatable procedure. Recently, we have demonstrated that the affibody molecule Z09591 labeled with 111In can specifically target PDGFRβ-expressing tumors in vivo. The use of positron emission tomography (PET) as an imaging technique would provide superior resolution, sensitivity, and quantitation accuracy. In this study, a DOTA-conjugated Z09591 was labeled with the generator-produced positron emitting radionuclide 68Ga (T1/2 = 67.6 min, Eβ + max = 1899 keV, 89% β+). 68Ga-DOTA-Z09591 retained the capacity to specifically bind to PDGFRβ-expressing U-87 MG glioma cells. The half-maximum inhibition concentration (IC50) of 68Ga-DOTA-Z09591 (6.6 ± 1.4 nM) was somewhat higher than that of 111In-DOTA-Z09591 (1.4 ± 1.2 nM). 68Ga-DOTA-Z09591 demonstrated specific (saturable) targeting of U-87 MG xenografts in immunodeficient mice. The tumor uptake at 2 h after injection was 3.7 ± 1.7% IA/g, which provided a tumor-to-blood ratio of 8.0 ± 3.1. The only organ with higher accumulation of radioactivity was the kidney. MicroPET imaging provided high-contrast imaging of U-87 MG xenografts. In conclusion, the 68Ga-labeled affibody molecule Z09591 is a promising candidate for further development as a probe for imaging PDGFRβ expression in vivo using PET.

  • 48.
    Summer, Dominik
    et al.
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Nucl Med, Anichstr 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Garousi, Javad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Oroujeni, Maryam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Andersson, Ken G.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vorobyeva, Anzhelika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Löfblom, John
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Decristoforo, Clemens
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Nucl Med, Anichstr 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Cyclic versus Noncyclic Chelating Scaffold for Zr-89-Labeled ZEGFR:2377 Affibody Bioconjugates Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Overexpression2018In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 175-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconium-89 is an emerging radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET) especially for biomolecules with slow e pharmacokinetics as due to its longer half-life, in comparison to fluorine 18 and gallium-68, imaging at late time points is feasible. Desferrioxamine B (DFO), a linear bifunctional chelator (BFC) is mostly used for this radionuclide so far but shows limitations regarding stability. Our group recently reported on fusarinine C (FSC) with similar zirconium-89 complexing properties but potentially higher stability related to its cyclic structure. This study was designed to compare FSC and DFO head-to head as bifunctional chelators for "Zr-radiolabeled EGFR-targeting ZEGFR:2377 affibody bioconjugates. FSC-ZEGFR:2377 and DFOZEGFR:2377 were evaluated regarding radiolabeling, in vitro stability, specificity, cell uptake, receptor affinity, biodistribution, and microPET-CT imaging. Both conjugates were efficiently labeled with zirconium-89 at room temperature but radiochemical yields increased substantially at elevated temperature, 85 degrees C. Both 89Zr-FSC-ZEGFR:2377 and Zr-89-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 revealed remarkable specificity, affinity and slow cell-line dependent internalization. Radiolabeling at 85 degrees C showed comparable results in A431 tumor xenografted mice with minor differences regarding blood clearance, tumor and liver uptake. In comparison 89ZrDFO-ZEGFR:2377, radiolabeled at room temperature, showed a significant difference regarding tumor-to-organ ratios. MicroPET-CT imaging studies of Zr-89-FSC-ZEGFR:2377 as well as Zr-89-DFO-ZEGFR:2377 confirmed these findings. In summary we were able to show that FSC is a suitable alternative to DFO for radiolabeling of biomolecules with zirconium-89. Furthermore, our findings indicate that Zr-89-radiolabeling of DFO conjugates at higher temperature reduces off-chelate binding leading to significantly improved tumor-to-organ ratios and therefore enhancing image contrast.

  • 49.
    Thörn, Helena Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Sjögren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Dickinson, Paul Alfred
    AstraZeneca R&D Alderley Park, Macclesfield, UK.
    Lennernäs, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Binding processes determine the stereoselective intestinal and hepatic extraction of verapamil in vivo2012In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 9, no 11, p. 3034-3045Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms that might explain the observed route-dependent stereoselective pharmacokinetics (PK) of R/S-verapamil (R/S-VER) following oral and intravenous (iv) administration, by using a novel pig-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model suitable for investigations of first-pass extraction in the gut (EG) and the liver (EH). The PBPK model consisted of eight tissue compartments and was designed to simultaneously model the plasma concentration–time (PCT) profiles from three sampling sites after intrajejunal (ij) or iv administration of VER. The PBPK model successfully described the observed PCT profiles and EH over time for R- and S-VER. Extensive tissue binding to gut mucosa, liver, and lungs was an important determinant of the observed PK data. The stereoselective PK of VER was explained by a combination of several processes, including enantioselective plasma protein binding, blood-to-plasma partition, and gut mucosa and liver tissue distribution. The absence of stereoselectivity after iv dosing indicates that the first-pass tissue binding effect is an important factor in determining the steroselective PK of R/S-VER after oral administration. Additionally a combination of extensive liver tissue binding and a metabolite inhibition mechanism explained the time-dependent EH for both R- and S-VER. An in vitroin vivocorrelation of absorption needs to consider these processes because tissue binding may confound analysis of a drug’s biopharmaceutical properties when using classical deconvolution or convolution techniques. In conclusion, a combination of PK data from multiple plasma sampling sites and a PBPK modeling approach provided a mechanistic understanding of processes involved in the intestinal absorption and first-pass extraction ofR- and S-VER.

  • 50.
    Treyer, Andrea
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Mateus, André
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Wisniewski, Jacek R.
    Max Planck Inst Biochem, Dept Prote & Signal Transduct, Biochem Prote Grp, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany.
    Boriss, Hinnerk
    Sovicell GmbH, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Matsson, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Uppsala Univ, Dept Pharm, S-75123 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Artursson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Intracellular Drug Bioavailability: Effect of Neutral Lipids and Phospholipids2018In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 2224-2233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intracellular unbound drug concentrations are the pharmacologically relevant concentrations for targets inside cells. Intracellular drug concentrations are determined by multiple processes, including the extent of drug binding to intracellular structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of neutral lipid (NL) and phospholipid (PL) levels on intracellular drug disposition. The NL and/or PL content of 3T3-L1 cells were enhanced, resulting in phenotypes (in terms of morphology and proteome) reminiscent of adipocytes (high NL and PL) or mild phospholipidosis (only high PL). Intracellular bioavailability (F-ic) was then determined for 23 drugs in these cellular models and in untreated wild-type cells. A higher PL content led to higher intracellular drug binding and a lower F-ic. The induction of NL did not further increase drug binding but led to altered F-ic due to increased lysosomal pH. Further, there was a good correlation between binding to beads coated with pure PL and intracellular drug binding. In conclusion, our results suggest that PL content is a major determinant of drug binding in cells and that PL beads may constitute a simple alternative to estimating this parameter. Further, the presence of massive amounts of intracellular NLs did not influence drug binding significantly.

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