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  • 1.
    Agåker, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Andersson, Joakim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Englund, J.C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Rausch, Joachim
    Giessen University.
    Rubensson, Jan-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Nordgren, Joseph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet2011In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 5, p. 248-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Barty, Anton
    et al.
    Caleman, Carl
    Aquila, Andrew
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Lomb, Lukas
    White, Thomas A.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Arnlund, David
    Bajt, Sasa
    Barends, Thomas R. M.
    Barthelmess, Miriam
    Bogan, Michael J.
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Bozek, John D.
    Coffee, Ryan
    Coppola, Nicola
    Davidsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    DePonte, Daniel P.
    Doak, R. Bruce
    Ekeberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Elser, Veit
    Epp, Sascha W.
    Erk, Benjamin
    Fleckenstein, Holger
    Foucar, Lutz
    Fromme, Petra
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Gumprecht, Lars
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hampton, Christina Y.
    Hartmann, Robert
    Hartmann, Andreas
    Hauser, Guenter
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Holl, Peter
    Hunter, Mark S.
    Johansson, Linda
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Kimmel, Nils
    Kirian, Richard A.
    Liang, Mengning
    Maia, Filipe R. N. C.
    Malmerberg, Erik
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Nass, Karol
    Neutze, Richard
    Reich, Christian
    Rolles, Daniel
    Rudek, Benedikt
    Rudenko, Artem
    Scott, Howard
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Schulz, Joachim
    Seibert, M. Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Shoeman, Robert L.
    Sierra, Raymond G.
    Soltau, Heike
    Spence, John C. H.
    Stellato, Francesco
    Stern, Stephan
    Strueder, Lothar
    Ullrich, Joachim
    Wang, X.
    Weidenspointner, Georg
    Weierstall, Uwe
    Wunderer, Cornelia B.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Self-terminating diffraction gates femtosecond X-ray nanocrystallography measurements2012In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 35-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray free-electron lasers have enabled new approaches to the structural determination of protein crystals that are too small or radiation-sensitive for conventional analysis(1). For sufficiently short pulses, diffraction is collected before significant changes occur to the sample, and it has been predicted that pulses as short as 10 fs may be required to acquire atomic-resolution structural information(1-4). Here, we describe a mechanism unique to ultrafast, ultra-intense X-ray experiments that allows structural information to be collected from crystalline samples using high radiation doses without the requirement for the pulse to terminate before the onset of sample damage. Instead, the diffracted X-rays are gated by a rapid loss of crystalline periodicity, producing apparent pulse lengths significantly shorter than the duration of the incident pulse. The shortest apparent pulse lengths occur at the highest resolution, and our measurements indicate that current X-ray free-electron laser technology(5) should enable structural determination from submicrometre protein crystals with atomic resolution.

  • 3.
    Freitag, Marina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Teuscher, Joel
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Saygili, Yasemin
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Zhang, Xiaoyu
    East China Univ Sci & Technol.
    Giordano, Fabrizio
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne.
    Liska, Paul
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne.
    Hua, Jianli
    East China Univ Sci & Technol.
    Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne.
    Moser, Jacques-E.
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne .
    Grätzel, Michael
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne.
    Dye-sensitized solar cells for efficient power generation under ambient lighting2017In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 372-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar cells that operate efficiently under indoor lighting are of great practical interest as they can serve as electric power sources for portable electronics and devices for wireless sensor networks or the Internet of Things. Here, we demonstrate a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) that achieves very high power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) under ambient light conditions. Our photosystem combines two judiciously designed sensitizers, coded D35 and XY1, with the copper complex Cu(II/I)(tmby) as a redox shuttle (tmby, 4,4', 6,6'-tetramethyl-2,2'-bipyridine), and features a high open-circuit photovoltage of 1.1 V. The DSC achieves an external quantum efficiency for photocurrent generation that exceeds 90% across the whole visible domain from 400 to 650 nm, and achieves power outputs of 15.6 and 88.5 mu W cm(-2) at 200 and 1,000 lux, respectively, under illumination from a model Osram 930 warm-white fluorescent light tube. This translates into a PCE of 28.9%.

  • 4. Gorkhover, Tais
    et al.
    Ulmer, Anatoli
    Ferguson, Ken
    Bucher, Max
    Maia, Filipe R.N.C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics. NERSC, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA..
    Bielecki, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics. European XFEL GmbH, Schenefeld, Germany.
    Ekeberg, Tomas
    Center for Free- Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Hantke, Max F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Daurer, Benedikt J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Nettelblad, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics. ELI Beamlines, Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Science, Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Barty, Anton
    Bruza, Petr
    Carron, Sebastian
    Hasse, Dirk
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Krzywinski, Jacek
    Larsson, Daniel S D
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Morgan, Andrew
    Mühlig, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Müller, Maria
    Okamoto, Kenta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Pietrini, Alberto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Rupp, Daniela
    Sauppe, Mario
    van der Schot, Gijs
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Seibert, Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Sellberg, Jonas A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics. Biomedical and X-ray Physics, Department of Applied Physics, AlbaNova University Center, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svenda, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Swiggers, Michelle
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Westphal, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Williams, Garth
    Zani, Alessandro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Faigel, Gyula
    Möller, Thomas
    Hajdu, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics. European XFEL GmbH, Schenefeld, Germany; ELI Beamlines, Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Science, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Femtosecond X-ray Fourier holography imaging of free-flying nanoparticles2018In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 150-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrafast X-ray imaging on individual fragile specimens such as aerosols 1 , metastable particles 2 , superfluid quantum systems 3 and live biospecimens 4 provides high-resolution information that is inaccessible with conventional imaging techniques. Coherent X-ray diffractive imaging, however, suffers from intrinsic loss of phase, and therefore structure recovery is often complicated and not always uniquely defined4,5. Here, we introduce the method of in-flight holography, where we use nanoclusters as reference X-ray scatterers to encode relative phase information into diffraction patterns of a virus. The resulting hologram contains an unambiguous three-dimensional map of a virus and two nanoclusters with the highest lateral resolution so far achieved via single shot X-ray holography. Our approach unlocks the benefits of holography for ultrafast X-ray imaging of nanoscale, non-periodic systems and paves the way to direct observation of complex electron dynamics down to the attosecond timescale.

  • 5.
    Hantke, Max F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hasse, Dirk
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Maia, Filipe R. N. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Ekeberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    John, Katja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Svenda, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Loh, N. Duane
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Larsson, Daniel S.D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Gijs, van der Schot
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Carlsson, Gunilla H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Ingelman, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Westphal, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Liang, Mengning
    Stellato, Francesco
    DePonte, Daniel P.
    Hartmann, Robert
    Kimmel, Nils
    Kirian, Richard A.
    Seibert, M. Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Mühlig, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Schorb, Sebastian
    Ferguson, Ken
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Carron, Sebastian
    Bozek, John D.
    Rolles, Daniel
    Rudenko, Artem
    Epp, Sascha
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Barty, Anton
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Andersson, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser2014In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 943-949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We overcome two of the most daunting challenges in single-particle diffractive imaging: collecting many high-quality diffraction patterns on a small amount of sample and separating components from mixed samples. We demonstrate this on carboxysomes, which are polyhedral cell organelles that vary in size and facilitate up to 40% of Earth's carbon fixation. A new aerosol sample-injector allowed us to record 70,000 low-noise diffraction patterns in 12 min with the Linac Coherent Light Source running at 120 Hz. We separate different structures directly from the diffraction data and show that the size distribution is preserved during sample delivery. We automate phase retrieval and avoid reconstruction artefacts caused by missing modes. We attain the highest-resolution reconstructions on the smallest single biological objects imaged with an X-ray laser to date. These advances lay the foundations for accurate, high-throughput structure determination by flash-diffractive imaging and offer a means to study structure and structural heterogeneity in biology and elsewhere.

  • 6. Hickstein, Daniel D.
    et al.
    Dollar, Franklin J.
    Grychtol, Patrik
    Ellis, Jennifer L.
    Knut, Ronny
    Hernández-García, Carlos
    Zusin, Dmitriy
    Gentry, Christian
    Shaw, Justin M.
    Fan, Tingting
    Dorney, Kevin M.
    Becker, Andreas
    Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka
    Kapteyn, Henry C.
    Murnane, Margaret M.
    Durfee, Charles G.
    Non-collinear generation of angularly isolated circularly polarized high harmonics2015In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 9, no 11, p. 743-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We generate angularly isolated beams of circularly polarized extreme ultraviolet light through the first implementation of non-collinear high harmonic generation with circularly polarized driving lasers. This non-collinear technique offers numerous advantages over previous methods, including the generation of higher photon energies, the separation of the harmonics from the pump beam, the production of both left and right circularly polarized harmonics at the same wavelength and the capability of separating the harmonics without using a spectrometer. To confirm the circular polarization of the beams and to demonstrate the practicality of this new light source, we measure the magnetic circular dichroism of a 20 nm iron film. Furthermore, we explain the mechanisms of non-collinear high harmonic generation using analytical descriptions in both the photon and wave models. Advanced numerical simulations indicate that this non-collinear mixing enables the generation of isolated attosecond pulses with circular polarization.

  • 7. Kfir, Ofer
    et al.
    Grychtol, Patrik
    Turgut, Emrah
    Knut, Ronny
    Zusin, Dmitriy
    Popmintchev, Dimitar
    Popmintchev, Tenio
    Nembach, Hans
    Shaw, Justin M.
    Fleischer, Avner
    Kapteyn, Henry
    Murnane, Margaret
    Cohen, Oren
    Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics2015In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 99-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet and X-ray radiation is useful for analysing the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of materials. To date, such radiation has only been available at large-scale X-ray facilities such as synchrotrons. Here, we demonstrate the first bright, phase-matched, extreme ultraviolet circularly-polarized high harmonics source. The harmonics are emitted when bi-chromatic counter-rotating circularly-polarized laser pulses field-ionize a gas in a hollow-core waveguide. We use this new light source for magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the M-shell absorption edges of Co. We show that phase-matching of circularly-polarized harmonics is unique and robust, producing a photon flux comparable to linearly polarized high harmonic sources. This work represents a critical advance towards the development of table-top systems for element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatial and temporal resolution.

  • 8.
    Oppeneer, Peter. M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Materials Optics: Lighting Up Antiferromagnets2017In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 74-76Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Weak coupling of light to the microscopic magnetic order in antiferromagnetic materials makes their optical characterization notoriously difficult. Now, a table-top magneto-optical technique has been developed for detecting the vector direction of antiparallel-aligned magnetic moments in a metallic antiferromagnet

  • 9.
    Seifert, T.
    et al.
    Fritz Haber Inst Max Planck Soc, Dept Phys Chem, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Jaiswal, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55128 Mainz, Germany.;Singulus Technol AG, D-63796 Kahl Am Main, Germany..
    Martens, U.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Phys, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany..
    Hannegan, J.
    Univ Maryland Baltimore Cty, Dept Phys, Baltimore, MD 21250 USA..
    Braun, L.
    Fritz Haber Inst Max Planck Soc, Dept Phys Chem, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Maldonado, Pablo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Freimuth, F.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Adv Simulat, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;JARA, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Kronenberg, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55128 Mainz, Germany..
    Henrizi, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55128 Mainz, Germany..
    Radu, I.
    Tech Univ Berlin, Inst Opt & Atom Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Mat & Energie, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Beaurepaire, E.
    Inst Phys & Chim Mat Strasbourg, F-67200 Strasbourg, France..
    Mokrousov, Y.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Peter Grunberg Inst, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Adv Simulat, D-52425 Julich, Germany.;JARA, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Oppeneer, Peter M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Jourdan, M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55128 Mainz, Germany..
    Jakob, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55128 Mainz, Germany..
    Turchinovich, D.
    Max Planck Inst Polymer Res, D-55128 Mainz, Germany..
    Hayden, L. M.
    Wolf, M.
    Fritz Haber Inst Max Planck Soc, Dept Phys Chem, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Muenzenberg, M.
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Phys, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany..
    Klaeui, M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55128 Mainz, Germany..
    Kampfrath, T.
    Fritz Haber Inst Max Planck Soc, Dept Phys Chem, D-14195 Berlin, Germany..
    Efficient metallic spintronic emitters of ultrabroadband terahertz radiation2016In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 10, no 7, p. 483-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Terahertz electromagnetic radiation is extremely useful for numerous applications, including imaging and spectroscopy. It is thus highly desirable to have an efficient table-top emitter covering the 1-30 THz window that is driven by a low-cost, low-power femtosecond laser oscillator. So far, all solid-state emitters solely exploit physics related to the electron charge and deliver emission spectra with substantial gaps. Here, we take advantage of the electron spin to realize a conceptually new terahertz source that relies on three tailored fundamental spintronic and photonic phenomena in magnetic metal multilayers: ultrafast photoinduced spin currents, the inverse spin-Hall effect and a broadband Fabry-Perot resonance. Guided by an analytical model, this spintronic route offers unique possibilities for systematic optimization. We find that a 5.8-nm-thick W/CoFeB/Pt trilayer generates ultrashort pulses fully covering the 1-30 THz range. Our novel source outperforms laser-oscillator-driven emitters such as ZnTe(110) crystals in terms of bandwidth, terahertz field amplitude, flexibility, scalability and cost.

  • 10. Shapiro, David A.
    et al.
    Yu, Young-Sang
    Tyliszczak, Tolek
    Cabana, Jordi
    Celestre, Rich
    Chao, Weilun
    Kaznatcheev, Konstantin
    David, KilcoyneA. L.
    Maia, Filipe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Meng, Y. Shirley
    Warwick, Tony
    Yang, Lee Lisheng
    Padmore, Howard A.
    Chemical composition mapping with nanometre resolution by soft X-ray microscopy2014In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 765-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with exquisite chemical, electronic and bond orientation contrast1, 2, 3, 4, 5. The development of diffraction-based methods such as ptychography has, in principle, removed the resolution limit imposed by the characteristics of the X-ray optics6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Here, using soft X-ray ptychography, we demonstrate the highest-resolution X-ray microscopy ever achieved by imaging 5 nm structures. We quantify the performance of our microscope and apply the method to the study of delithiation in a nanoplate of LiFePO4, a material of broad interest in electrochemical energy storage11, 12. We calculate chemical component distributions using the full complex refractive index and demonstrate enhanced contrast, which elucidates a strong correlation between structural defects and chemical phase propagation. The ability to visualize the coupling of the kinetics of a phase transformation with the mechanical consequences is critical to designing materials with ultimate durability.

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