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  • 1.
    Ahlskog, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Moral Enhancement Should Target Self-Interest and Cognitive Capacity2017In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 363-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current suggestions for capacities that should be targeted for moral enhancement has centered on traits like empathy, fairness or aggression. The literature, however, lacks a proper model for understanding the interplay and complexity of moral capacities, which limits the practicability of proposed interventions. In this paper, I integrate some existing knowledge on the nature of human moral behavior and present a formal model of prosocial motivation. The model provides two important results regarding the most friction-free route to moral enhancement. First, we should consider decreasing self-interested motivation rather than increasing prosociality directly. Second, this should be complemented with cognitive enhancement. These suggestions are tested against existing and emerging evidence on cognitive capacity, mindfulness meditation and the effects of psychedelic drugs and are found to have sufficient grounding for further theoretical and empirical exploration. Furthermore, moral effects of the latter two are hypothesized to result from a diminished sense of self with subsequent reductions in self-interest.

  • 2.
    Dussauge, Isabelle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Kaiser, Anelis
    Neuroscience and Sex/Gender2012In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 211-215Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    The Ethical Pain: Detection of pain and suffering in patients with disorders of consciousness2013In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 265-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intriguing issue of pain and suffering in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs), particularly in Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome/Vegetative State (UWS/VS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS), is assessed from a theoretical point of view, through an overview of recent neuroscientific literature, in order to sketch an ethical analysis. In conclusion, from a legal and ethical point of view, formal guidelines and a situationist ethics are proposed in order to best manage the critical scientific uncertainty about pain and suffering in DOCs and ensure the best possible care for the patient.

  • 4.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Alleva, Enrico
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Chiarotti, Flavia
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Macrì, Simone
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    Clinicians’ attitudes towards patients with disorders of consciousness: a survey2014In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 93-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notwithstanding fundamental methodological advancements, scientific information about disorders of consciousness (DOCs)—e.g. Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS) and Minimally Conscious State (MCS)—is incomplete. The possibility to discriminate between different levels of consciousness in DOC states entails treatment strategies and ethical concerns. Here we attempted to investigate Italian clinicians’ and basic scientists’ opinions regarding some issues emerging from the care and the research on patients with DOCs. From our survey emerged that Italian physicians working with patients with DOCs give a central role to ethics. Current Italian regulation regarding basic research conducted in patients with DOCs apparently risks to be inadequate to support scientific advancement, and would deserve a different assessment compared to ordinary treatments. We think the results of our survey deserve attention from an international audience because they exemplify the difficulty to define a shared approach to the issues related to patients with DOCs and the necessity to better assess both the ordinary and experimental treatment of patients with DOCs at the ethical and legal level.

  • 5.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Biogem Genetic Research Institute, Via Camporeale, 83031, Ariano Irpino, AV, Italy .
    Petrini, C
    The Impact of Neuroscience and Genetics on the Law: A Recent Italian Case2012In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 317-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of genetic testing and neuroscientific evidence in legal trials raises several issues. Often their interpretation is controversial: the same evidence can be used to sustain both the prosecution’s and defense’s argument. A recent Italian case confirms such concerns and stresses other relevant related questions.

  • 6.
    Farisco, Michele
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Petrini, Carlo
    Italian National Institute of Health.
    On the Stand: Another Episode of Neuroscience and Law Discussion From Italy2014In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 243-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After three proceedings in which neuro-science was a relevant factor for the final verdict inItalian courts, for the first time a recent case puts inquestion the legal relevance of neuroscientific evidence.This decision deserves international attention in itsunderlining that the uncertainty still affecting neuroscien-tific knowledge can have a significant impact on thelaw. It urges the consideration of such uncertainty andthe development of a shared management of it.

  • 7.
    Salles, Arleen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Programa de Neuroetica, Centro de Investigaciones Filosoficas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Evers, Kathinka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Farisco, Michele
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Biogem Genetic Research Centre, Ariano Irpino, Italy.
    Neuroethics and Philosophy in Responsible Research and Innovation: The Case of the Human Brain Project2019In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 201-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is an important ethical, legal, and political theme for the European Commission. Although variously defined, it is generally understood as an interactive process that engages social actors, researchers, and innovators who must be mutually responsive and work towards the ethical permissibility of the relevant research and its products. The framework of RRI calls for contextually addressing not just research and innovation impact but also the background research process, specially the societal visions underlying it and the norms and priorities that shape scientific agendas. This requires the integration of anticipatory, inclusive, and responsive dimensions, and the nurturing of a certain type of reflexivity among a variety of stakeholders, from scientists to funders. In this paper, we do not address potential limitations but focus on the potential contribution of philosophical reflection to RRI in the context of the Ethics and Society subproject of the Human Brain Project (HBP). We show how the type of conceptual analysis provided by philosophically oriented approaches theoretically and ethically broadens research and innovation within the HBP. We further suggest that overt inclusion of philosophical reflection can promote the aims and objectives of RRI.

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