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  • 1. Anderson, Bruce
    et al.
    Alexandersson, Ronny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Johnson, Steven D
    Evolution and coexistence of pollination ecotypes in an African Gladiolus (Iridaceae)2010In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 960-972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollinator-mediated selection has been suggested as a key driver of speciation in plants. We examined the potential role of hawkmoth pollinators in driving allopatric divergence and maintaining sympatric coexistence of morphotypes in the African iris Gladiolus longicollis. Floral tube length in this species varies from 35 mm to 130 mm across its geographic range and reflects the prevailing tongue lengths of local hawkmoth assemblages. The distribution of floral tube lengths is bimodal with two relatively discrete categories—long (about 90 mm) or short (about 50 mm)—that match the bimodal distribution of hawkmoth tongue lengths in eastern South Africa. At a contact site between these two floral morphs, we found few individuals of intermediate length, suggesting limited gene flow between morphs despite their interfertility. A difference in flowering phenology appears to be the main isolating barrier between morphs at this site. Long- and short-tubed morphs differed markedly in the chemical composition of their floral fragrance, a trait that could be used as a cue for morph-specific foraging by hawkmoths. Positive directional selection on tube length was found to occur in both morphs.

  • 2. Antoniazza, Sylvain
    et al.
    Burri, Reto
    Fumagalli, Luca
    Goudet, Jérôme
    Roulin, Alexandre
    Local adaptation maintains clinal variation in melanin-based coloration of European barn owls (Tyto alba).2010In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 64, no 7, p. 1944-1954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological parameters vary in space, and the resulting heterogeneity of selective forces can drive adaptive population divergence. Clinal variation represents a classical model to study the interplay of gene flow and selection in the dynamics of this local adaptation process. Although geographic variation in phenotypic traits in discrete populations could be remainders of past adaptation, maintenance of adaptive clinal variation requires recurrent selection. Clinal variation in genetically determined traits is generally attributed to adaptation of different genotypes to local conditions along an environmental gradient, although it can as well arise from neutral processes. Here, we investigated whether selection accounts for the strong clinal variation observed in a highly heritable pheomelanin-based color trait in the European barn owl by comparing spatial differentiation of color and of neutral genes among populations. Barn owl's coloration varies continuously from white in southwestern Europe to reddish-brown in northeastern Europe. A very low differentiation at neutral genetic markers suggests that substantial gene flow occurs among populations. The persistence of pronounced color differentiation despite this strong gene flow is consistent with the hypothesis that selection is the primary force maintaining color variation among European populations. Therefore, the color cline is most likely the result of local adaptation.

  • 3. Archer, C. R.
    et al.
    Zajitschek, Felix
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Sakaluk, S. K.
    Royle, N. J.
    Hunt, J.
    Sexual selection affects the evolution of lifespan and ageing in the decorated cricket gryllodes sigillatus2012In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, no 10, p. 3088-3100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work suggests that sexual selection can influence the evolution of ageing and lifespan by shaping the optimal timing and relative costliness of reproductive effort in the sexes. We used inbred lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, to estimate the genetic (co)variance between age-dependent reproductive effort, lifespan, and ageing within and between the sexes. Sexual selection theory predicts that males should die sooner and age more rapidly than females. However, a reversal of this pattern may be favored if reproductive effort increases with age in males but not in females. We found that male calling effort increased with age, whereas female fecundity decreased, and that males lived longer and aged more slowly than females. These divergent life-history strategies were underpinned by a positive genetic correlation between early-life reproductive effort and ageing rate in both sexes, although this relationship was stronger in females. Despite these sex differences in life-history schedules, age-dependent reproductive effort, lifespan, and ageing exhibited strong positive intersexual genetic correlations. This should, in theory, constrain the independent evolution of these traits in the sexes and may promote intralocus sexual conflict. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection to the evolution of sex differences in ageing and lifespan in G. sigillatus.

  • 4.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Assortative mating by fitness and sexually antagonistic genetic variation2011In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, no 7, p. 2111-2116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent documentations of sexually antagonistic genetic variation in fitness have spurred an interest in the mechanisms that may act to maintain such variation in natural populations. Using individual-based simulations, I show that positive assortative mating by fitness increases the amount of sexually antagonistic genetic variance in fitness, primarily by elevating the equilibrium frequency of heterozygotes, over most of the range of sex-specific selection and dominance. Further, although the effects of assortative mating by fitness on the protection conditions of polymorphism in sexually antagonistic loci were relatively minor, it widens the protection conditions under most reasonable scenarios (e. g., under heterozygote superiority when fitness is averaged across the sexes) but can also somewhat narrow the protection conditions under other circumstances. The near-ubiquity of assortative mating in nature suggests that it may contribute to upholding standing sexually antagonistic genetic variation in fitness.

  • 5.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sexual conflict and sexual selection: Lost in the chase2004In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 1383-1388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Danielsson, I
    Copulatory behavior, genital morphology, and male fertilization success in water striders1999In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Dowling, Damian K.
    Eady, Paul
    Gay, Laurene
    Tregenza, Tom
    Tuda, Midori
    Hosken, David J.
    Genetic architecture of metabolic rate: environment specific epistasis between mitochondrial and nuclear genes in an insect2010In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 64, no 12, p. 3354-3363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation is involved in adaptive evolutionary change is currently being reevaluated. In particular, emerging evidence suggests that mtDNA genes coevolve with the nuclear genes with which they interact to form the energy producing enzyme complexes in the mitochondria. This suggests that intergenomic epistasis between mitochondrial and nuclear genes may affect whole-organism metabolic phenotypes. Here, we use crossed combinations of mitochondrial and nuclear lineages of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus and assay metabolic rate under two different temperature regimes. Metabolic rate was affected by an interaction between the mitochondrial and nuclear lineages and the temperature regime. Sequence data suggests that mitochondrial genetic variation has a role in determining the outcome of this interaction. Our genetic dissection of metabolic rate reveals a high level of complexity, encompassing genetic interactions over two genomes, and genotype x genotype x environment interactions. The evolutionary implications of these results are twofold. First, because metabolic rate is at the root of life histories, our results provide insights into the complexity of life-history evolution in general, and thermal adaptation in particular. Second, our results suggest a mechanism that could contribute to the maintenance of nonneutral mtDNA polymorphism.

  • 8.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Fricke, C
    Arnqvist, G
    Patterns of divergence in the effects of mating on female reproductive performance in flour beetles2002In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 111-120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rowe, L
    Correlated evolution of male and female morphologies in water striders2002In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 936-947Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Aronsen, Tonje
    et al.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Mobley, Kenyon B.
    Ratikainen, Irja I.
    Rosenqvist, Gunilla
    Sex Ratio And Density Affect Sexual Selection In A Sex-Role Reversed Fish2013In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, no 11, p. 3243-3257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how demographic processes influence mating systems is important to decode ecological influences on sexual selection in nature. We manipulated sex ratio and density in experimental populations of the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle. We quantified sexual selection using the Bateman gradient (beta'ss), the opportunity for selection (I), and sexual selection (Is), and the maximum standardized sexual selection differential (s(max)). We also measured selection on body length using standardized selection differentials (s') and mating differentials (m'), and tested whether the observed I and Is differ from values obtained by simulating random mating. We found that I, Is, and s'(max), but not beta'(ss), were higher for females under female than male bias and the opposite for males, but density did not affect these measures. However, higher density decreased sexual selection (m similar to but not s') on female length, but selection on body length was not affected by sex ratio. Finally, Is but not I was higher than expected from random mating, and only for females under female bias. This study demonstrates that both sex ratio and density affect sexual selection and that disentangling interrelated demographic processes is essential to a more complete understanding of mating behavior and the evolution of mating systems.

  • 11.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Lindell, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Zhang, Yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Sætre, Glenn-Peter
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    A high-density scan of the Z chromosome in ficedula flycatchers reveals candidate loci for diversifying selection2010In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 64, no 12, p. 3461-3475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical and empirical data suggest that genes located on sex chromosomes may play an important role both for sexually selected traits and for traits involved in the build-up of hybrid incompatibilities. We investigated patterns of genetic variation in 73 genes located on the Z chromosomes of two species of the flycatcher genus Ficedula, the pied flycatcher and the collared flycatcher. Sequence data were evaluated for signs of selection potentially related to genomic differentiation in these young sister species, which hybridize despite reduced fitness of hybrids. Seven loci were significantly more divergent between the two species than expected under neutrality and they also displayed reduced nucleotide diversity, consistent with having been influenced by directional selection. Two of the detected candidate regions contain genes that are associated with plumage coloration in birds. Plumage characteristics play an important role in species recognition in these flycatchers suggesting that the detected genes may have been involved in the evolution of sexual isolation between the species.

  • 12. Barnes, Ian
    et al.
    Duda, Anna
    Pybus, Oliver G.
    Thomas, Mark G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Ancient urbanization predicts genetic resistance to tuberculosis2011In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 842-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A link between urban living and disease is seen in recent and historical records, but the presence of this association in prehistory has been difficult to assess. If the transition to urban living does result in an increase in disease-based mortality, we might expect to see evidence of increased disease resistance in longer-term urbanized populations, as the result of natural selection. To test this, we determined the frequency of an allele (SLC11A1 1729 + 55del4) associated with natural resistance to intracellular pathogens such as tuberculosis and leprosy. We found a highly significantly correlation with duration of urban settlement-populations with a long history of living in towns are better adapted to resisting these infections. This correlation remains strong when we correct for autocorrelation in allele frequencies due to shared population history. Our results therefore support the interpretation that infectious disease loads became an increasingly important cause of human mortality after the advent of urbanization, highlighting the importance of population density in determining human health and the genetic structure of human populations.

  • 13.
    Bastiaans, Eric
    et al.
    Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, Wageningen.
    Debets, Alfons J. M.
    Aanen, Duur K.
    Experimental demonstration of the benefits of somatic fusion and the consequences for allorecognition2015In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 1091-1099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allorecognition, the ability to distinguish “self” from “nonself” based on allelic differences at allorecognition loci, is common in all domains of life. Allorecognition restricts the opportunities for social parasitism, and is therefore crucial for the evolution of cooperation. However, the maintenance of allorecognition diversity provides a paradox. If allorecognition is costly relative to cooperation, common alleles will be favored. Thus, the cost of allorecognition may reduce the genetic variation upon which allorecognition crucially relies, a prediction now known as “Crozier’s paradox.” We establish the relative costs of allorecognition, and their consequences for the short-term evolution of recognition labels theoretically predicted by Crozier. We use fusion among colonies of the fungus Neurospora crassa, regulated by highly variable allorecognition genes, as an experimental model system. We demonstrate that fusion among colonies is mutually beneficial, relative to absence of fusion upon allorecognition. This benefit is due not only to absence of mutual antagonism, which occurs upon allorecognition, but also to an increase in colony size per se. We then experimentally demonstrate that the benefit of fusion selects against allorecognition diversity, as predicted by Crozier. We discuss what maintains allorecognition diversity.

  • 14.
    Bergek, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Cryptic barriers to dispersal within a lake allow genetic differentiation of Eurasian perch2007In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 2035-2041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene flow between coexisting or nearby populations normally prevents genetic divergence and local adaptation. Despite this, there are an increasing number of reports of sympatric sister taxa, indicating potential divergence and speciation in the face of gene flow. A large number of such reported cases involve lake-dwelling fish, which are expected to run into few physical barriers to dispersal within their aquatic habitat. However, such cases may not necessarily reflect sympatric speciation if cryptic dispersal barriers are common in lakes and other aquatic systems. In this study, we examined genetic differentiation in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) from nine locations in a single, small lake (24 km(2)), using microsatellites. We detected significant genetic differentiation in all but two pairwise comparisons. These patterns were not consistent with divergence by distance or the existence of kin groups. Instead, they suggest that cryptic barriers to dispersal exist within the lake, allowing small-scale genetic divergence. Such an observation suggests that allopatric (or parapatric) divergence may be possible, even in small, apparently homogenous environments such as lakes. This has important consequences for how we currently view evidence from nature for sympatric speciation.

  • 15.
    Berger, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Berg, Elena C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Widegren, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Multivariate intralocus sexual conflict in seed beetles2014In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, no 12, p. 3457-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) is pervasive because males and females experience differences in selection but share much of the same genome. Traits with integrated genetic architecture should be reservoirs of sexually antagonistic genetic variation for fitness, but explorations of multivariate IaSC are scarce. Previously, we showed that upward artificial selection on male life span decreased male fitness but increased female fitness compared with downward selection in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Here, we use these selection lines to investigate sex-specific evolution of four functionally integrated traits (metabolic rate, locomotor activity, body mass, and life span) that collectively define a sexually dimorphic life-history syndrome in many species. Male-limited selection for short life span led to correlated evolution in females toward a more male-like multivariate phenotype. Conversely, males selected for long life span became more female-like, implying that IaSC results from genetic integration of this suite of traits. However, while life span, metabolism, and body mass showed correlated evolution in the sexes, activity did not evolve in males but, surprisingly, did so in females. This led to sexual monomorphism in locomotor activity in short-life lines associated with detrimental effects in females. Our results thus support the general tenet that widespread pleiotropy generates IaSC despite sex-specific genetic architecture.

  • 16.
    Berger, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Grieshop, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lind, Martin I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Goenaga, Julieta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Intralocus Sexual Conflict and Environmental Stress2014In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 68, no 8, p. 2184-2196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) occurs when selection at a given locus favors different alleles in males and females, placing a fundamental constraint on adaptation. However, the relative impact of IaSC on adaptation may become reduced in stressful environments that expose conditionally deleterious mutations to selection. The genetic correlation for fitness between males and females (r(MF)) provides a quantification of IaSC across the genome. We compared IaSC at a benign (29 degrees C) and a stressful (36 degrees C) temperature by estimating r(MF)s in two natural populations of the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus using isofemale lines. In one population, we found substantial IaSC under benign conditions signified by a negative r(MF) (-0.51) and, as predicted, a significant reduction of IaSC under stress signified by a reversed and positive r(MF) (0.21). The other population displayed low IaSC at both temperatures (r(MF): 0.38; 0.40). In both populations, isofemale lines harboring alleles beneficial to males but detrimental to females at benign conditions tended to show overall low fitness under stress. These results offer support for low IaSC under stress and suggest that environmentally sensitive and conditionally deleterious alleles that are sexually selected in males mediate changes in IaSC. We discuss implications for adaptive evolution in sexually reproducing populations.

  • 17.
    Berger, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Postma, Erik
    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.
    Walters, Richard J.
    Quantitative genetic divergence and standing genetic (CO)variance in thermal reaction norms along latitude2013In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, no 8, p. 2385-2399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the potential to adapt to warmer climate is constrained by genetic trade-offs, our understanding of how selection and mutation shape genetic (co)variances in thermal reaction norms is poor. Using 71 isofemale lines of the fly Sepsis punctum, originating from northern, central, and southern European climates, we tested for divergence in juvenile development rate across latitude at five experimental temperatures. To investigate effects of evolutionary history in different climates on standing genetic variation in reaction norms, we further compared genetic (co) variances between regions. Flies were reared on either high or low food resources to explore the role of energy acquisition in determining genetic trade-offs between different temperatures. Although the latter had only weak effects on the strength and sign of genetic correlations, genetic architecture differed significantly between climatic regions, implying that evolution of reaction norms proceeds via different trajectories at high latitude versus low latitude in this system. Accordingly, regional genetic architecture was correlated to region-specific differentiation. Moreover, hot development temperatures were associated with low genetic variance and stronger genetic correlations compared to cooler temperatures. We discuss the evolutionary potential of thermal reaction norms in light of their underlying genetic architectures, evolutionary histories, and the materialization of trade-offs in natural environments.

  • 18.
    Berglund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Egg competition in a sex-role reversed pipefish: subdominant females trade reproduction for growth1991In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 770-774Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Comparative analyses in birds: what is in a correlation?2002In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 56, p. 1883-1884Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Evolution, phylogeny, sexual dimorphism and mating system in the grackles (Quiscalus spp, Icterinae)1991In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 45, p. 608-621Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Phenotypic variation in growth trajectories in finches1993In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 47, p. 1506-1514Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The stability of the G-matrix: The role of spatial heterogeneity2015In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 1953-1958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal stability of the genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) has been discussed for a long time in the evolutionary literature. A common assumption in all studies, including empirical ones, is that spatial heterogeneity is minor such that the population can be represented by a single mean and variance. We use the well-established allocation-acquisition model to analyze the effect of relaxing of this assumption, simulating a case where the population is divided into patches with a variance in quality between patches. This variance can in turn differ between years. We found that changes in spatial variance in patch quality over years can make the G-matrix vary substantially over years and that the estimated genetic correlations, evolvability, and response to selection are different dependent on whether spatial heterogeneity is taken into account or not. This will have profound implications for our ability to predict evolutionary change and understanding of the evolutionary process.

  • 23.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Merilä, Juha
    Baker, Alan J
    Historical demography and present day population structure of the Greenfinch (Carduelis chloris) - an analysis of mtDNA control-region sequences1997In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 51, p. 946-956Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bolund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hayward, Adam
    Pettay, Jenni E.
    Lummaa, Virpi
    Effects of the demographic transition on the genetic variances and covariances of human life-history traits2015In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 747-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent demographic transitions to lower mortality and fertility rates in most human societies have led to changes and even quick reversals in phenotypic selection pressures. This can only result in evolutionary change if the affected traits are heritable, but changes in environmental conditions may also lead to subsequent changes in the genetic variance and covariance (the G matrix) of traits. It currently remains unclear if there have been concomitant changes in the G matrix of life-history traits following the demographic transition. Using 300 years of genealogical data from Finland, we found that four key life-history traits were heritable both before and after the demographic transition. The estimated heritabilities allow a quantifiable genetic response to selection during both time periods, thus facilitating continued evolutionary change. Further, the G matrices remained largely stable but revealed a trend for an increased additive genetic variance and thus evolutionary potential of the population after the transition. Our results demonstrate the validity of predictions of evolutionary change in human populations even after the recent dramatic environmental change, and facilitate predictions of how our biology interacts with changing environments, with implications for global public health and demography.

  • 25.
    Boughman, Janette W.
    et al.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Integrat Biol, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Svanbäck, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Synergistic selection between ecological niche and mate preference primes diversification2017In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 6-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological niche and mate preferences have independently been shown to be important for the process of speciation. Here, we articulate a novel mechanism by which ecological niche use and mate preference can be linked to promote speciation. The degree to which individual niches are narrow and clustered affects the strength of divergent natural selection and population splitting. Similarly, the degree to which individual mate preferences are narrow and clustered affects the strength of divergent sexual selection and assortative mating between diverging forms. This novel perspective is inspired by the literature on ecological niches; it also explores mate preferences and how they may contribute to speciation. Unlike much comparative work, we do not search for evolutionary patterns using proxies for adaptation and sexual selection, but rather we elucidate how ideas from niche theory relate to mate preference, and how this relationship can foster speciation. Recognizing that individual and population niches are conceptually and ecologically linked to individual and population mate preference functions will significantly increase our understanding of rapid evolutionary diversification in nature. It has potential to help solve the difficult challenge of testing the role of sexual selection in the speciation process. We also identify ecological factors that are likely to affect individual niche and individual mate preference in synergistic ways and as a consequence to promote speciation. The ecological niche an individual occupies can directly affect its mate preference. Clusters of individuals with narrow, differentiated niches are likely to have narrow, differentiated mate preference functions. Our approach integrates ecological and sexual selection research to further our understanding of diversification processes. Such integration may be necessary for progress because these processes seem inextricably linked in the natural world.

  • 26.
    Burri, Reto
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Antoniazza, Sylvain
    Univ Lausanne, Biophore, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Swiss Ornithol Inst, CH-6204 Sempach, Switzerland..
    Gaigher, Arnaud
    Univ Lausanne, Biophore, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Lab Conservat Biol, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Ducrest, Anne-Lyse
    Univ Lausanne, Biophore, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Simon, Celine
    Univ Lausanne, Biophore, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Fumagalli, Luca
    Univ Lausanne, Biophore, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Lab Conservat Biol, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Goudet, Jerome
    Univ Lausanne, Biophore, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Roulin, Alexandre
    Univ Lausanne, Biophore, Dept Ecol & Evolut, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    The genetic basis of color-related local adaptation in a ring-like colonization around the Mediterranean2016In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 140-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncovering the genetic basis of phenotypic variation and the population history under which it established is key to understand the trajectories along which local adaptation evolves. Here, we investigated the genetic basis and evolutionary history of a clinal plumage color polymorphism in European barn owls (Tyto alba). Our results suggest that barn owls colonized the Western Palearctic in a ring-like manner around the Mediterranean and meet in secondary contact in Greece. Rufous coloration appears to be linked to a recently evolved nonsynonymous-derived variant of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, which according to quantitative genetic analyses evolved under local adaptation during or following the colonization of Central Europe. Admixture patterns and linkage disequilibrium between the neutral genetic background and color found exclusively within the secondary contact zone suggest limited introgression at secondary contact. These results from a system reminiscent of ring species provide a striking example of how local adaptation can evolve from derived genetic variation.

  • 27. Cayetano, Luis
    et al.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Brooks, Robert C.
    Bonduriansky, Russell
    Evolution of male and female genitalia following release from sexual selection2011In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 2171-2183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the key functions of the genitalia in sexual interactions and fertilization, the role of sexual selection and conflict in shaping genital traits remains poorly understood. Seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus) males possess spines on the intromittent organ, and females possess a thickened reproductive tract wall that also bears spines. We investigated the role of sexual selection and conflict by imposing monogamous mating on eight replicate populations of this naturally polygamous insect, while maintaining eight other populations under polygamy. To establish whether responses to mating system manipulation were robust to ecological context, we simultaneously manipulated life-history selection (early/late reproduction). Over 18-21 generations, male genital spines evolved relatively reduced length in large males (i.e., shallower static allometry) in monogamous populations. Two nonintromittent male genital appendages also evolved in response to the interaction of mating system and ecology. In contrast, no detectable evolution occurred in female genitalia, consistent with the expectation of a delayed response in defensive traits. Our results support a sexually antagonistic role for the male genital spines, and demonstrate the evolution of static allometry in response to variation in sexual selection opportunity. We argue that further advances in the study of genital coevolution will require a much more detailed understanding of the functions of male and female genital traits.

  • 28.
    Collet, Julie M.
    et al.
    UCL, Res Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England.;Univ Queensland, Sch Biol Sci, St Lucia, Qld, Australia..
    Fuentes, Sara
    UCL, Res Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England..
    Hesketh, Jack
    UCL, Res Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England..
    Hill, Mark S.
    UCL, Res Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England..
    Innocenti, Paolo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Morrow, Edward H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Sussex, Sch Life Sci, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Fowler, Kevin
    UCL, Res Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England..
    Reuter, Max
    UCL, Res Dept Genet Evolut & Environm, London, England..
    Rapid evolution of the intersexual genetic correlation for fitness in Drosophila melanogaster2016In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 781-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual antagonism (SA) arises when male and female phenotypes are under opposing selection, yet genetically correlated. Until resolved, antagonism limits evolution toward optimal sex-specific phenotypes. Despite its importance for sex-specific adaptation and existing theory, the dynamics of SA resolution are not well understood empirically. Here, we present data from Drosophila melanogaster, compatible with a resolution of SA. We compared two independent replicates of the LHM population in which SA had previously been described. Both had been maintained under identical, controlled conditions, and separated for around 200 generations. Although heritabilities of male and female fitness were similar, the intersexual genetic correlation differed significantly, being negative in one replicate (indicating SA) but close to zero in the other. Using population sequencing, we show that phenotypic differences were associated with population divergence in allele frequencies at nonrandom loci across the genome. Large frequency changes were more prevalent in the population without SA and were enriched at loci mapping to genes previously shown to have sexually antagonistic relationships between expression and fitness. Our data suggest that rapid evolution toward SA resolution has occurred in one of the populations and open avenues toward studying the genetics of SA and its resolution.

  • 29.
    Corl, Ammon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    The genomic signature of sexual selection in the genetic diversity of the sex chromosomes and autosomes2012In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 2138-2149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genomic levels of variation can help reveal the selective and demographic forces that have affected a species during its history. The relative amount of genetic diversity observed on the sex chromosomes as compared to the autosomes is predicted to differ among monogamous and polygynous species. Many species show departures from the expectation for monogamy, but it can be difficult to conclude that this pattern results from variation in mating system because forces other than sexual selection can act upon sex chromosome genetic diversity. As a critical test of the role of mating system, we compared levels of genetic diversity on the Z chromosome and autosomes of phylogenetically independent pairs of shorebirds that differed in their mating systems. We found general support for sexual selection shaping sex chromosome diversity because most polygynous species showed relatively reduced genetic variation on their Z chromosomes as compared to monogamous species. Differences in levels of genetic diversity between the sex chromosomes and autosomes may therefore contribute to understanding the long-term history of sexual selection experienced by a species.

  • 30.
    Cramer, Emily R. A.
    et al.
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, N-0318 Oslo, Norway.;Smithsonian Migratory Bird Ctr, POB 37012 MRC5503, Washington, DC 20008 USA.;Cornell Lab Ornithol, Ithaca, NY 14850 USA..
    Ålund, Murielle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    McFarlane, S. Eryn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Johnsen, Arild
    Univ Oslo, Nat Hist Museum, N-0318 Oslo, Norway..
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Females discriminate against heterospecific sperm in a natural hybrid zone2016In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 1844-1855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When hybridization is maladaptive, species-specific mate preferences are selectively favored, but low mate availability may constrain species-assortative pairing. Females paired to heterospecifics may then benefit by copulating with multiple males and subsequently favoring sperm of conspecifics. Whether such mechanisms for biasing paternity toward conspecifics act as important reproductive barriers in socially monogamous vertebrate species remains to be determined. We use a combination of long-term breeding records from a natural hybrid zone between collared and pied flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis and F. hypoleuca), and an in vitro experiment comparing conspecific and heterospecific sperm performance in female reproductive tract fluid, to evaluate the potential significance of female cryptic choice. We show that the females most at risk of hybridizing (pied flycatchers) frequently copulate with multiple males and are able to inhibit heterospecific sperm performance. The negative effect on heterospecific sperm performance was strongest in pied flycatcher females that were most likely to have been previously exposed to collared flycatcher sperm. We thus demonstrate that a reproductive barrier acts after copulation but before fertilization in a socially monogamous vertebrate. While the evolutionary history of this barrier is unknown, our results imply that there is opportunity for it to be accentuated via a reinforcement-like process.

  • 31.
    Dordevic, Mirko
    et al.
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Biol Res, Dept Evolutionary Biol, Despota Stefana Blvd 142, Belgrade 11060, Serbia..
    Stojkovic, Biljana
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Biol Res, Dept Evolutionary Biol, Despota Stefana Blvd 142, Belgrade 11060, Serbia.;Univ Belgrade, Fac Biol, Inst Zool, Studentskitrg 16, Belgrade 11000, Serbia..
    Savkovic, Uros
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Biol Res, Dept Evolutionary Biol, Despota Stefana Blvd 142, Belgrade 11060, Serbia..
    Immonen, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Tucic, Nikola
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Biol Res, Dept Evolutionary Biol, Despota Stefana Blvd 142, Belgrade 11060, Serbia..
    Lazarevic, Jelica
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Biol Res, Dept Insect Physiol & Biochem, Despota Stefana Blvd 142, Belgrade 11060, Serbia..
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis and the evolution of mitochondrial bioenergetics, ageing, and life history in seed beetles2017In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 274-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of mitochondrial DNA for the evolution of life-history traits remains debated. We examined mitonuclear effects on the activity of the multisubunit complex of the electron transport chain (ETC) involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) across lines of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus selected for a short (E) or a long (L) life for more than >160 generations. We constructed and phenotyped mitonuclear introgression lines, which allowed us to assess the independent effects of the evolutionary history of the nuclear and the mitochondrial genome. The nuclear genome was responsible for the largest share of divergence seen in ageing. However, the mitochondrial genome also had sizeable effects, which were sex-specific and expressed primarily as epistatic interactions with the nuclear genome. The effects of mitonuclear disruption were largely consistent with mitonuclear coadaptation. Variation in ETC activity explained a large proportion of variance in ageing and life-history traits and this multivariate relationship differed somewhat between the sexes. In conclusion, mitonuclear epistasis has played an important role in the laboratory evolution of ETC complex activity, ageing, and life histories and these are closely associated. The mitonuclear architecture of evolved differences in life-history traits and mitochondrial bioenergetics was sex-specific.

  • 32.
    Dowling, Damian K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Chávez-Abiega, Katia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Temperature-specific outcomes of cytoplasmic-nuclear interactions on egg-to-adult development time in seed beetles2007In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 194-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes coordinates cellular energy production and is fundamental to life among eukaryotes. Therefore, there is potential for strong selection to shape the interactions between the two genomes. Several studies have now demonstrated that epistatic interactions between cytoplasmic and nuclear genes for fitness can occur both at a "within" and "across" population level. Genotype-by-environment interactions are common for traits that are encoded by nuclear genes, but the effects of environmental heterogeneity on traits that are partly encoded by cytoplasmic genes have received little attention despite the fact that there are reasons to believe that phenotypic effects of cytoplasmic genetic variation may often be environment specific. Consequently, the importance of environmental heterogeneity to the outcomes of cyto-nuclear fitness interactions and to the maintenance of mitochondrial polymorphism is unclear. Here, we assess the influence of temperature on cyto-nuclear effects on egg-to-adult development time in seed beetles (Callosobruchus maculatus). We employed an "across-population" design, sourcing beetles from five distinct populations and using backcrossing to create orthogonal combinations of distinct introgression lines, fixed for their cytoplasmic and nuclear lineages. We then assayed development times at two different temperatures and found sizeable cyto-nuclear effects in general, as well as temperature- and block-specific cyto-nuclear effects. These results demonstrate that environmental factors such as temperature do exert selection on cytoplasmic genes by favoring specific cyto-nuclear genetic combinations, and are consistent with the suggestion that complex genotype-by-environment interactions may promote the maintenance of polymorphism in mitochondrial genes.

  • 33.
    Edelaar, Pim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Siepielski, Adam M.
    Clobert, Jean
    Matching habitat choice causes directed gene flow: A neglected dimension in evolution and ecology2008In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 62, p. 2462-2472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gene flow among populations is typically thought to be antagonistic to population differentiation and local adaptation. However,this assumes that dispersing individuals disperse randomly with respect to their ability to use the environment. Yet dispersingindividuals often sample and compare environments and settle in those environments that best match their phenotype, causingdirected gene flow, which can in fact promote population differentiation and adaptation. We refer to this process as “matchinghabitat choice.” Although this process has been acknowledged by several researchers, no synthesis or perspective on its potentiallywidespread importance exists. Here we synthesize empirical and theoretical studies, and offer a new perspective that matchinghabitat choice can have significant effects on important and controversial topics. We discuss the potential implications of matchinghabitat choice for the degree and rate of local adaptation, the evolution of niche width, adaptive peak shifts, speciation in thepresence of gene flow, and on our view and interpretation of measures of natural selection. Because of its potential importance forsuch a wide range of topics, we call for heightened empirical and theoretical attention for this neglected dimension in evolutionaryand ecological studies.

  • 34.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    A selection model of molecular evolution incorporating the effective population size.2009In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 301-305Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Engen, Steinar
    et al.
    Ringsby, Thor Harald
    Saether, Bernt-Erik
    Lande, Russell
    Jensen, Henrik
    Lillegård, Magnar
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Effective size of fluctuating populations with two sexes and overlapping generations2007In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 1873-1885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We derive formulas that can be applied to estimate the effective population size N(e) for organisms with two sexes reproducing once a year and having constant adult mean vital rates independent of age. Temporal fluctuations in population size are generated by demographic and environmental stochasticity. For populations with even sex ratio at birth, no deterministic population growth and identical mean vital rates for both sexes, the key parameter determining N(e) is simply the mean value of the demographic variance for males and females considered separately. In this case Crow and Kimura's generalization of Wright's formula for N(e) with two sexes, in terms of the effective population sizes for each sex, is applicable even for fluctuating populations with different stochasticity in vital rates for males and females. If the mean vital rates are different for the sexes then a simple linear combination of the demographic variances determines N(e), further extending Wright's formula. For long-lived species an expression is derived for N(e) involving the generation times for both sexes. In the general case with nonzero population growth and uneven sex ratio of newborns, we use the model to investigate numerically the effects of different population parameters on N(e). We also estimate the ratio of effective to actual population size in six populations of house sparrows on islands off the coast of northern Norway. This ratio showed large interisland variation because of demographic differences among the populations. Finally, we calculate how N(e) in a growing house sparrow population will change over time.

  • 36. Evans, Simon R.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Divergent Patterns of Age-dependence in Ornamental and Reproductive Traits in the Collared Flycatcher2011In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 1623-1636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual ornaments are predicted to honestly signal individual condition. We might therefore expect ornament expression to show a senescent decline, in parallel with late-life deterioration of other characters. Conversely, life-history theory predicts the reduced residual reproductive value of older individuals will favor increased investment in sexually attractive traits. Using a 25-year dataset of more than 5000 records of breeding collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) of known age, we quantify cross-sectional patterns of age-dependence in ornamental plumage traits and report long-term declines in expression that mask highly significant positive age-dependency. We partition this population-level age-dependency into its between- and within-individual components and show expression of ornamental white plumage patches exhibits within-individual increases with age in both sexes, consistent with life-history theory. For males, ornament expression also covaries with life span, such that, within a cohort, ornamentation indicates survival. Finally, we compared longitudinal age-dependency of reproductive traits and ornamental traits in both sexes, to assess whether these two trait types exhibit similar age-dependency. These analyses revealed contrasting patterns: reproductive traits showed within-individual declines in late-life females consistent with senescence; ornamental traits showed the opposite pattern in both males and females. Hence, our results for both sexes suggest that age-dependent ornament expression is consistent with life-history models of optimal signaling and, unlike reproductive traits, proof against senescence.

  • 37. Fitzpatrick, J. L.
    et al.
    Almbro, M.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, A.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Simmons, L. W.
    Male Contest Competition And The Coevolution Of Weaponry And Testes In Pinnipeds2012In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, no 11, p. 3595-3604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Male reproductive success is influenced by competitive interactions during precopulatory and postcopulatory selective episodes. Consequently, males can gain reproductive advantages during precopulatory contest competition by investing in weaponry and during postcopulatory sperm competition by investing in ejaculates. However, recent theory predicts male expenditure on weaponry and ejaculates should be subject to a trade-off, and should vary under increasing risk and intensity of sperm competition. Here, we provide the first comparative analysis of the prediction that expenditure on weaponry should be negatively associated with expenditure on testes mass. Specifically, we assess how sexual selection influences the evolution of primary and secondary sexual traits among pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses). Using recently developed comparative methods, we demonstrate that sexual selection promotes rapid divergence in body mass, sexual size dimorphism (SSD), and genital morphology. We then show that genital length appears to be positively associated with the strength of postcopulatory sexual selection. However, subsequent analyses reveal that both genital length and testes mass are negatively associated with investment in precopulatory weaponry. Thus, our results are congruent with recent theoretical predictions of contest-based sperm competition models. We discuss the possible role of trade-offs and allometry in influencing patterns of reproductive trait evolution in pinnipeds.

  • 38.
    Fricke, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Rapid adaptation to a novel host in a seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus): the role of sexual selection2007In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 440-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid diversification is common among herbivorous insects and is often the result of host shifts, leading to the exploitation of novel food sources. This, in turn, is associated with adaptive evolution of female oviposition behavior and larval feeding biology. Although natural selection is the typical driver of such adaptation, the role of sexual selection is less clear. In theory, sexual selection can either accelerate or impede adaptation. To assess the independent effects of natural and sexual selection on the rate of adaptation, we performed a laboratory natural selection experiment in a herbivorous bruchid beetle (Callosobruchus maculatus). We established replicated selection lines where we varied natural (food type) and sexual (mating system) selection in a 2 × 2 orthogonal design, and propagated our lines for 35 generations. In half of the lines, we induced a host shift whereas the other half was kept on the ancestral host. We experimentally enforced monogamy in half of the lines, whereas the other half remained polygamous. The beetles rapidly adapted to the novel host, which primarily involved increased host acceptance by females and an accelerated rate of larval development. We also found that our mating system treatment affected the rate of adaptation, but that this effect was contingent upon food type. As beetles adapted to the novel host, sexual selection reinforced natural selection whereas populations residing close to their adaptive peak (i.e., those using their ancestral host) exhibited higher fitness in the absence of sexual selection. We discuss our findings in light of current sexual selection theory and suggest that the net evolutionary effect of reproductive competition may critically depend on natural selection. Sexual selection may commonly accelerate adaptation under directional natural selection whereas sexual selection, and the associated load brought by sexual conflict, may tend to depress population fitness under stabilizing natural selection.

  • 39.
    Fritzsche, Karoline
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Homage To Bateman: Sex Roles Predict Sex Differences In Sexual Selection2013In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, no 7, p. 1926-1936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classic sex role theory predicts that sexual selection should be stronger in males in taxa showing conventional sex roles and stronger in females in role reversed mating systems. To test this very central prediction and to assess the utility of different measures of sexual selection, we estimated sexual selection in both sexes in four seed beetle species with divergent sex roles using a novel experimental design. We found that sexual selection was sizeable in females and the strength of sexual selection was similar in females and males in role-reversed species. Sexual selection was overall significantly stronger in males than in females and residual selection formed a substantial component of net selection in both sexes. Furthermore, sexual selection in females was stronger in role-reversed species compared to species with conventional sex roles. Variance-based measures of sexual selection (the Bateman gradient and selection opportunities) were better predictors of sexual dimorphism in reproductive behavior and morphology across species compared to trait-based measures (selection differentials). Our results highlight the importance of using assays that incorporate components of fitness manifested after mating. We suggest that the Bateman gradient is generally the most informative measure of the strength of sexual selection in comparisons across sexes and/or species.

  • 40.
    Gioti, Anastasia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Stajich, Jason E.
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Neurospora and the dead-end hypothesis: genomic consequences of selfing in the model genus2013In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, no 12, p. 3600-3616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is becoming increasingly evident that adoption of different reproductive strategies, such as sexual selfing and asexuality, greatly impacts genome evolution. In this study, we test theoretical predictions on genomic maladaptation of selfing lineages using empirical data from the model fungus Neurospora. We sequenced the genomes of four species representing distinct transitions to selfing within the history of the genus, as well as the transcriptome of one of these, and compared with available data from three outcrossing species. Our results provide evidence for a relaxation of purifying selection in protein-coding genes and for a reduced efficiency of transposable element silencing by Repeat Induced Point mutation. A reduction in adaptive evolution was also identified in the form of reduced codon usage bias in highly expressed genes of selfing Neurospora, but this result may be confounded by mutational bias. Potentially counteracting these negative effects, the nucleotide substitution rate and the spread of transposons is reduced in selfing species. We suggest that differences in substitution rate relate to the absence, in selfing Neurospora, of the asexual pathway producing conidia. Our results support the dead-end theory and show that Neurospora genomes bear signatures of both sexual and asexual reproductive mode.

  • 41.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Fitzpatrick, John L.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Sexual selection determines parental care patterns in cichlid fishes2008In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 2015-2026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a massive research effort, our understanding of why, in most vertebrates, males compete for mates and females care for offspring remains incomplete. Two alternative hypotheses have been proposed to explain the direction of causality between parental care and sexual selection. Traditionally, sexual selection has been explained as a consequence of relative parental investment, where the sex investing less will compete for the sex investing more. However, a more recent model suggests that parental care patterns result from sexual selection acting on one sex favoring mating competition and lower parental investment. Using species-level comparative analyses on Tanganyikan cichlid fishes we tested these alternative hypotheses employing a proxy of sexual selection based on mating system, sexual dichromatism, and dimorphism data. First, while controlling for female reproductive investment, we found that species with intense sexual selection were associated with female-only care whereas species with moderate sexual selection were associated with biparental care. Second, using contingency analyses, we found that, contrary to the traditional view, evolutionary changes in parental care type are dependent on the intensity of sexual selection. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that sexual selection determines parental care patterns in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes.

  • 42.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Distinct Evolutionary Patterns of Brain and Body Size During Adaptive Radiation2009In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 2266-2274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Morphological traits are often genetically and/or phenotypically correlated with each other and such covariation can have an important influence on the evolution of individual traits. The strong positive relationship between brain size and body size in vertebrates has attracted a lot of interest, and much debate has surrounded the study of the factors responsible for the allometric relationship between these two traits. Here, we use comparative analyses of the Tanganyikan cichlid adaptive radiation to investigate the patterns of evolution for brain size and body size separately. We found that body size exhibited recent bursts of rapid evolution, a pattern that is consistent with divergence linked to ecological specialization. Brain weight on the other hand, showed no bursts of divergence but rather evolved in a gradual manner. Our results thus show that even highly genetically correlated traits can present markedly different patterns of evolution, hence interpreting patterns of evolution of traits from correlations in extant taxa can be misleading. Furthermore, our results suggest, contrary to expectations from theory, that brain size does not play a key role during adaptive radiation.

  • 43. Gosden, Thomas P.
    et al.
    Shastri, Krishna-Lila
    Innocenti, Paolo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Chenoweth, Stephen F.
    The b-matrix harbors significant and sex-specific constraints on the evolution of multicharacter sexual dimorphism2012In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 2106-2116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent to which sexual dimorphism can evolve within a population depends on an interaction between sexually divergent selection and constraints imposed by a genetic architecture that is shared between males and females. The degree of constraint within a population is normally inferred from the intersexual genetic correlation, rmf. However, such bivariate correlations ignore the potential constraining effect of genetic covariances between other sexually coexpressed traits. Using the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, a species that exhibits mutual mate preference for blends of homologous contact pheromones, we tested the impact of between-sex between-trait genetic covariances using an extended version of the genetic variancecovariance matrix, G, that includes Lande's (1980) between-sex covariance matrix, B. We find that including B greatly reduces the degree to which male and female traits are predicted to diverge in the face of divergent phenotypic selection. However, the degree to which B alters the response to selection differs between the sexes. The overall rate of male trait evolution is predicted to decline, but its direction remains relatively unchanged, whereas the opposite is found for females. We emphasize the importance of considering the B-matrix in microevolutionary studies of constraint on the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

  • 44. Grieshop, Karl
    et al.
    Polak, Michal
    The Precopulatory Function of Male Genital Spines in Drosophila Ananassae [Doleschall] (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Revealed by Laser Surgery2012In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, no 8, p. 2637-2645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    That male genital morphology evolves via postcopulatory sexual selection is a widely held view. In contrast, the precopulatory sexual selection hypothesis for genital evolution has received less attention. Here, we test the hypothesis that male genital spines of Drosophila ananassae promote competitive male copulation success. Using laser surgery to manipulate trait size, we demonstrate that incremental reductions of spine length progressively reduce male copulation success: males without spines failed entirely to copulate because of an inability to couple the genitalia together, whereas males with halfway ablated and blunted spines suffered reductions in copulation success of 87% and 13%, respectively. The decrease in copulation success resulting from spine length reduction was markedly stronger in sexually competitive environments than in noncompetitive environments, and females expressed resistance behaviors similarly toward competing male treatments, demonstrating directly the role of genital spines in promoting competitive copulation success. Because these spines are widespread within Drosophila, and because genital traits with precopulatory function are being discovered in a growing number of animal taxa, precopulatory sexual selection may have a more pervasive role in genital evolution than previously recognized.

  • 45. Hall, D.
    et al.
    Luquez, V.
    Garcia, V. M.
    St Onge, K. R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Functional Genomics.
    Jansson, S.
    Ingvarsson, P. K.
    ADAPTIVE POPULATION DIFFERENTIATIONIN PHENOLOGY ACROSS A LATITUDINALGRADIENT IN EUROPEAN ASPEN (POPULUSTREMULA, L.): A COMPARISON OF NEUTRALMARKERS, CANDIDATE GENES ANDPHENOTYPIC TRAITS2007In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 61, p. 2849-2860Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Hangartner, Sandra
    et al.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Räsänen, Katja
    Adaptive Divergence in Moor Frog (Rana Arvalis) Populations Along an Acidification Gradient: Inferences from QST-FST Correlations2012In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 867-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microevolutionary responses to spatial variation in the environment seem ubiquitous, but the relative role of selection and neutral processes in driving phenotypic diversification remain often unknown. The moor frog (Rana arvalis) shows strong phenotypic divergence along an acidification gradient in Sweden. We here used correlations among population pairwise estimates of quantitative trait (PST or QST from common garden estimates of embryonic acid tolerance and larval life-history traits) and neutral genetic divergence (FST from neutral microsatellite markers), as well as environmental differences (pond pH, predator density, and latitude), to test whether this phenotypic divergence is more likely due to divergent selection or neutral processes. We found that trait divergence was more strongly correlated with environmental differences than the neutral marker divergence, suggesting that divergent natural selection has driven phenotypic divergence along the acidification gradient. Moreover, pairwise PSTs of embryonic acid tolerance and QSTs of metamorphic size were strongly correlated with breeding pond pH, whereas pairwise QSTs of larval period and growth rate were more strongly correlated with geographic distance/latitude and predator density, respectively. We suggest that incorporating measurements of environmental variation into QSTFST studies can improve our inferential power about the agents of natural selection in natural populations.

  • 47. Heckel, G
    et al.
    Burri, Reto
    Fink, S
    Desmet, J F
    Excoffier, L
    Genetic structure and colonization processes in European populations of the common vole, Microtus arvalis2005In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 59, no 10, p. 2231-2242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of genetic differentiation within and between evolutionary lineages of the common vole (Microtusarvalis) in Europe was examined by analyzing mitochondrial sequences from the control region (mtDNA) and 12nuclear microsatellite loci (nucDNA) for 338 voles from 18 populations. The distribution of evolutionary lineagesand the affinity of populations to lineages were determined with additional sequence data from the mitochondrialcytochrome b gene. Our analyses demonstrated very high levels of differentiation between populations (overall FST:mtDNA 70%; nucDNA 17%). The affinity of populations to evolutionary lineages was strongly reflected in mtDNAbut not in nucDNA variation. Patterns of genetic structure for both markers visualized in synthetic genetic mapssuggest a postglacial range expansion of the species into the Alps, as well as a potentially more ancient colonizationfrom the northeast to the southwest of Europe. This expansion is supported by estimates for the divergence timesbetween evolutionary lineages and within the western European lineage, which predate the last glacial maximum(LGM). Furthermore, all measures of genetic diversity within populations increased significantly with longitude andshowed a trend toward increase with latitude. We conclude that the detected patterns are difficult to explain only byrange expansions from separate LGM refugia close to the Mediterranean. This suggests that someM. arvalis populationspersisted during the LGM in suitable habitat further north and that the gradients in genetic diversity may representtraces of a more ancient colonization of Europe by the species.

  • 48.
    Hooper, Amy K.
    et al.
    Univ New South Wales, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Spagopoulou, Foteini
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Wylde, Zachariah
    Univ New South Wales, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Bonduriansky, Russell
    Univ New South Wales, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Ontogenetic timing as a condition-dependent life history trait: High-condition males develop quickly, peak early, and age fast2017In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 671-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-population variation in ageing remains poorly understood. In males, condition-dependent investment in secondary sexual traits may incur costs that limit ability to invest in somatic maintenance. Moreover, males often express morphological and behavioral secondary sexual traits simultaneously, but the relative effects on ageing of investment in these traits remain unclear. We investigated the condition dependence of male life history in the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. Using a fully factorial design, we manipulated male early-life condition by varying nutrient content of the larval diet and, subsequently, manipulated opportunity for adult males to interact with rival males. We found that high-condition males developed more quickly and reached their reproductive peak earlier in life, but also experienced faster reproductive ageing and died sooner than low-condition males. By contrast, interactions with rival males reduced male lifespan but did not affect male reproductive ageing. High-condition in early life is therefore associated with rapid ageing in T. angusticollis males, even in the absence of damaging male-male interactions. Our results show that abundant resources during the juvenile phase are used to expedite growth and development and enhance early-life reproductive performance at the expense of late-life performance and survival, demonstrating a clear link between male condition and ageing.

  • 49. Hough, Josh
    et al.
    Immler, Simone
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Barrett, Spencer C. H.
    Otto, Sarah P.
    Evolutionarily Stable Sex Ratios And Mutation Load2013In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, no 7, p. 1915-1925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequency-dependent selection should drive dioecious populations toward a 1:1 sex ratio, but biased sex ratios are widespread, especially among plants with sex chromosomes. Here, we develop population genetic models to investigate the relationships between evolutionarily stable sex ratios, haploid selection, and deleterious mutation load. We confirm that when haploid selection acts only on the relative fitness of X- and Y-bearing pollen and the sex ratio is controlled by the maternal genotype, seed sex ratios evolve toward 1:1. When we also consider haploid selection acting on deleterious mutations, however, we find that biased sex ratios can be stably maintained, reflecting a balance between the advantages of purging deleterious mutations via haploid selection, and the disadvantages of haploid selection on the sex ratio. Our results provide a plausible evolutionary explanation for biased sex ratios in dioecious plants, given the extensive gene expression that occurs across plant genomes at the haploid stage.

  • 50.
    Husby, Arild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Nussey, Dan H.
    Visser, Marcel E.
    Wilson, Alastair J.
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Kruuk, Loeske E. B.
    Contrasting patterns of phenotypic plasticity in reproductive traits in two great tit (Parus major) populations2010In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 2221-2237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenotypic plasticity is an important mechanism via which populations can respond to changing environmental conditions, but we know very little about how natural populations vary with respect to plasticity. Here we use random-regression animal models to understand the multivariate phenotypic and genetic patterns of plasticity variation in two key life-history traits, laying date and clutch size, using data from long-term studies of great tits in The Netherlands (Hoge Veluwe [HV]) and UK (Wytham Woods [WW]). We show that, while population-level responses of laying date and clutch size to temperature were similar in the two populations, between-individual variation in plasticity differed markedly. Both populations showed significant variation in phenotypic plasticity (IxE) for laying date, but IxE was significantly higher in HV than in WW. There were no significant genotype-by-environment interactions (GxE) for laying date, yet differences in GxE were marginally nonsignificant between HV and WW. For clutch size, we only found significant IxE and GxE in WW but no significant difference between populations. From a multivariate perspective, plasticity in laying date was not correlated with plasticity in clutch size in either population. Our results suggest that generalizations about the form and cause of any response to changing environmental conditions across populations may be difficult.

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