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  • 1.
    Boström, Jannika E.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Haller, Nicola K.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Solvegatan 35, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Dimitrova, Marina
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Kelber, Almut
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Solvegatan 35, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    The flicker fusion frequency of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) revisited2017Inngår i: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 203, nr 1, s. 15-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While color vision and spatial resolution have been studied in many bird species, less is known about the temporal aspects of bird vision. High temporal resolution has been described in three species of passerines but it is unknown whether this is specific to passerines, to small actively flying birds, to insectivores or to birds living in bright habitats. Temporal resolution of vision is commonly tested by determining the flicker fusion frequency (FFF), at which the eye can no longer distinguish a flickering light from a constant light of equal intensity at different luminances. Using a food reward, we trained the birds to discriminate a constant light from a flickering light, at four different luminances between 750 and 7500 cd/m(2). The highest FFF found in one bird at 3500 cd/m(2) was 93 Hz. Three birds had higher FFF (82 Hz) at 7500 cd/m(2) than at 3500 cd/m(2). Six human subjects had lower FFF than the birds at 1500 but similar FFF at 750 cd/m(2). These results indicate that high temporal resolution is not a common trait for all small and active birds living in bright light habitats. Whether it is typical for passerines or for insectivorous birds remains to be tested.

  • 2.
    Dyakova, Olga
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Fysiologi.
    Müller, Martin M
    Egelhaaf, Martin
    Nordström, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Fysiologi.
    Image statistics of the environment surrounding freely behaving hoverflies2019Inngår i: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 205, nr 3, s. 373-385Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural scenes are not as random as they might appear, but are constrained in both space and time. The 2-dimensional spatial constraints can be described by quantifying the image statistics of photographs. Human observers perceive images with naturalistic image statistics as more pleasant to view, and both fly and vertebrate peripheral and higher order visual neurons are tuned to naturalistic image statistics. However, for a given animal, what is natural differs depending on the behavior, and even if we have a broad understanding of image statistics, we know less about the scenes relevant for particular behaviors. To mitigate this, we here investigate the image statistics surrounding Episyrphus balteatus hoverflies, where the males hover in sun shafts created by surrounding trees, producing a rich and dense background texture and also intricate shadow patterns on the ground. We quantified the image statistics of photographs of the ground and the surrounding panorama, as the ventral and lateral visual field is particularly important for visual flight control, and found differences in spatial statistics in photos where the hoverflies were hovering compared to where they were flying. Our results can, in the future, be used to create more naturalistic stimuli for experimenter-controlled experiments in the laboratory.

  • 3.
    Håstad, Olle
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi, Evolutionär organismbiologi.
    Partridge, Julian
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol.
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Ultraviolet photopigment sensitivity and ocular media transmittance in gulls, with an evolutionary perspective2009Inngår i: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 195, nr 6, s. 585-590Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gulls (Laridae excluding Sternidae) appear to be the only shorebirds (Charadriiformes) that have a short wavelength sensitive type 1 (SWS1) cone pigment opsin tuned to ultraviolet (UV) instead of violet. However, the apparent UV-sensitivity has only been inferred indirectly, via the interpretation that the presence of cysteine at the key amino acid position 90 in the SWS1 opsin confers UV sensitivity. Unless the cornea and the lens efficiently transmit UV to the retina, gulls might in effect be similar to violet-sensitive birds in spectral sensitivity even if they have an ultraviolet sensitive (UVS) SWS1 visual pigment. We report that the spectral transmission of the cornea and lens of great black-backed Larus marinus and herring gulls L. argentatus allow UV-sensitivity, having a λ value, 344 nm, similar to the ocular media of UV sensitive birds. By molecular sequencing of the second α-helical transmembrane region of the SWS1 opsin gene we could also infer that 15 herring gulls and 16 yellow-legged gulls L. michahellis, all base-pair identical, are genetically UV-sensitive.

  • 4.
    Thyselius, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Fysiologi.
    Nordström, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Fysiologi. Flinders Univ S Australia, Ctr Neurosci, Anat & Histol, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.
    Hoverfly locomotor activity is resilient to external influence and intrinsic factors2016Inngår i: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 202, nr 1, s. 45-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hoverflies are found across the globe, with approximately 6000 species described worldwide. Many hoverflies are being used in agriculture and some are emerging as model species for laboratory experiments. As such it is valuable to know more about their activity. Like many other dipteran flies, Eristalis hoverflies have been suggested to be strongly diurnal, but this is based on qualitative visualization by human observers. To quantify how hoverfly activity depends on internal and external factors, we here utilize a locomotor activity monitoring system. We show that Eristalis hoverflies are active during the entire light period when exposed to a 12 h light:12 h dark cycle, with a lower activity if exposed to light during the night. We show that the hoverflies' locomotor activity is stable over their lifetime and that it does not depend on the diet provided. Surprisingly, we find no difference in activity between males and females, but the activity is significantly affected by the sex of an accompanying conspecific. Finally, we show that female hoverflies are more resilient to starvation than males. In summary, Eristalis hoverflies are resilient to a range of internal and external factors, supporting their use in long-term laboratory experiments.

  • 5.
    Ödeen, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Hart, Nathan S.
    School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane.
    Håstad, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi, Evolutionär organismbiologi.
    Assessing the use of genomic DNA as a predictor of the maximum absorbance wavelength of avian SWS1 opsin visual pigments2009Inngår i: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 195, nr 2, s. 167-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, in vitro mutation studies have made it possible to predict the wavelengths of maximum absorbance (λmax) of avian UV/violet sensitive visual pigments (SWS1) from the identity of a few key amino acid residues in the opsin gene. Given that the absorbance spectrum of a cone's visual pigment and of its pigmented oil droplet can be predicted from just the λmax, it may become possible to predict the entire spectral sensitivity of a bird using genetic samples from live birds or museum specimens. However, whilst this concept is attractive, it must be validated to assess the reliability of the predictions of λmax from opsin amino acid sequences. In this paper, we have obtained partial sequences covering three of the known spectral tuning sites in the SWS1 opsin and predicted λmax of all bird species for which the spectral absorbance has been measured using microspectrophotometry. Our results validate the use of molecular data from genomic DNA to predict the gross differences in λmax between the violet- and ultraviolet-sensitive subtypes of SWS1 opsin. Additionally, we demonstrate that a bird, the bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus L., can have more than one SWS1 visual pigment in its retina.

  • 6.
    Ödeen, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och evolution, Zooekologi.
    Håstad, Olle
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysiologi och utvecklingsbiologi, Evolutionär organismbiologi.
    Pollinating birds differ in spectral sensitivity2010Inngår i: Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, ISSN 0340-7594, E-ISSN 1432-1351, Vol. 196, nr 2, s. 91-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollinating animals and their angiosperm hosts often show strong co-adaptation in traits that increase the likelihood of a successful transfer of pollen and nutrient rewards. One such adaptation is the reported colour difference caused by unequal distribution of anthocyanidin pigments amongst plant species visited by hummingbirds and passerines. This phenomenon has been suggested to reflect possible differences in the colour vision of these pollinating birds. The presence of any such difference in colour vision would arguably affect the ecological and evolutionary interactions between flowers and their visitors, accentuating differences in floral displays and attractiveness of plants to the favoured avian pollinators. We have tested for differences in colour vision, as indicated by the amino acid present at certain key positions in the short-wavelength-sensitive type 1 (SWS1) visual pigment opsin, between the major groups of pollinating birds: the non-passerine Trochilidae (hummingbirds), the passerine Meliphagidae (honeyeaters) and Nectariniidae (sunbirds) plus five other Passerida passerine families. The results reveal gross spectral sensitivity differences between hummingbirds and honeyeaters, on the one hand, and the Passerida species, on the other.

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