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  • 1.
    Abbott, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Bedhomme, Stéphanie
    Evolutionary Systems Virology Group, University of Valencia.
    Chippindale, Adam K.
    Biology Department, Queen's University.
    Sexual conflict in wing size and shape in Drosophila melanogaster2010In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 1989-1997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intralocus sexual conflict occurs when opposing selection pressures operate on loci expressed in both sexes, constraining the evolution of sexual dimorphism and displacing one or both sexes from their optimum. We eliminated intralocus conflict in Drosophila melanogaster by limiting transmission of all major chromosomes to males, thereby allowing them to win the intersexual tug-of-war. Here, we show that this male-limited (ML) evolution treatment led to the evolution (in both sexes) of masculinized wing morphology, body size, growth rate, wing loading, and allometry. In addition to more male-like size and shape, ML evolution resulted in an increase in developmental stability for males. However, females expressing ML chromosomes were less developmentally stable, suggesting that being ontogenetically more male-like was disruptive to development. We suggest that sexual selection over size and shape of the imago may therefore explain the persistence of substantial genetic variation in these characters and the ontogenetic processes underlying them.

  • 2.
    Abbott, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Svensson, Erik I.
    Lund University.
    Phenotypic and genetic variation in emergence and development time of a trimorphic damselfly2005In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 1464-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although colour polymorphisms in adult organisms of many taxa are often adaptive in the context of sexual selection or predation, genetic correlations between colour and other phenotypic traits expressed early in ontogeny could also play an important role in polymorphic systems. We studied phenotypic and genetic variation in development time among female colour morphs in the polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans in the field and by raising larvae in a common laboratory environment. In the field, the three different female morphs emerged at different times. Among laboratory-raised families, we found evidence of a significant correlation between maternal morph and larval development time in both sexes. This suggests that the phenotypic correlation between morph and emergence time in the field has a parallel in a genetic correlation between maternal colour and offspring development time. Maternal colour morph frequencies could thus potentially change as correlated responses to selection on larval emergence dates. The similar genetic correlation in male offspring suggests that sex-limitation in this system is incomplete, which may lead to an ontogenetic sexual conflict between selection for early male emergence (protandry) and emergence times associated with maternal morph.

  • 3. Abbott, R.
    et al.
    Albach, D.
    Ansell, S.
    Arntzen, J. W.
    Baird, S. J. E.
    Bierne, N.
    Boughman, J.
    Brelsford, A.
    Buerkle, C. A.
    Buggs, R.
    Butlin, R. K.
    Dieckmann, U.
    Eroukhmanoff, F.
    Grill, A.
    Cahan, S. H.
    Hermansen, J. S.
    Hewitt, G.
    Hudson, A. G.
    Jiggins, C.
    Jones, J.
    Keller, B.
    Marczewski, T.
    Mallet, J.
    Martinez-Rodriguez, P.
    Möst, M.
    Mullen, S.
    Nichols, R.
    Nolte, A. W.
    Parisod, C.
    Pfennig, K.
    Rice, A. M.
    Ritchie, M. G.
    Seifert, B.
    Smadja, C. M.
    Stelkens, R.
    Szymura, J. M.
    Väinölä, R.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Zinner, D.
    Hybridization and speciation2013In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 229-246Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybridization has many and varied impacts on the process of speciation. Hybridization may slow or reverse differentiation by allowing gene flow and recombination. It may accelerate speciation via adaptive introgression or cause near-instantaneous speciation by allopolyploidization. It may have multiple effects at different stages and in different spatial contexts within a single speciation event. We offer a perspective on the context and evolutionary significance of hybridization during speciation, highlighting issues of current interest and debate. In secondary contact zones, it is uncertain if barriers to gene flow will be strengthened or broken down due to recombination and gene flow. Theory and empirical evidence suggest the latter is more likely, except within and around strongly selected genomic regions. Hybridization may contribute to speciation through the formation of new hybrid taxa, whereas introgression of a few loci may promote adaptive divergence and so facilitate speciation. Gene regulatory networks, epigenetic effects and the evolution of selfish genetic material in the genome suggest that the Dobzhansky-Muller model of hybrid incompatibilities requires a broader interpretation. Finally, although the incidence of reinforcement remains uncertain, this and other interactions in areas of sympatry may have knock-on effects on speciation both within and outside regions of hybridization.

  • 4.
    Ah-King, Malin
    et al.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Tullberg, Birgitta S.
    Zoologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    The influence of territoriality and mating system for the evolution of male care, a phylogenetic study on fish2005In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolution of male care is still poorly understood. Using phylogeneticallymatched-pairs comparisons we tested for effects of territoriality and matingsystem on male care evolution in fish. All origins of male care were found inpair-spawning species (with or without additional males such as sneakers) andnone were found in group-spawning species. However, excluding groupspawners, male care originated equally often in pair-spawning species withadditional males as in strict pair-spawning species. Evolution of male care wasalso significantly related to territoriality. Yet, most pair-spawning taxa withmale care are also territorial, making their relative influence difficult toseparate. Furthermore, territoriality also occurs in group-spawning species.Hence, territoriality is not sufficient for male care to evolve. Rather, we arguethat it is the combination of territoriality and pair spawning with sequentialpolygyny that favours the evolution of male care, and we discuss our results inrelation to paternity assurance and sexual selection.

  • 5.
    Akiyama, Reiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Conflicting selection on the timing of germination in a natural population of Arabidopsis thaliana2014In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 193-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing of germination is a key life-history trait that may strongly influence plant fitness and that sets the stage for selection on traits expressed later in the life cycle. In seasonal environments, the period favourable for germination and the total length of the growing season are limited. The optimal timing of germination may therefore be governed by conflicting selection through survival and fecundity. We conducted a field experiment to examine the effects of timing of germination on survival, fecundity and overall fitness in a natural population of the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana in north-central Sweden. Seedlings were transplanted at three different times in late summer and in autumn covering the period of seed germination in the study population. Early germination was associated with low seedling survival, but also with high survival and fecundity among established plants. The advantages of germinating early more than balanced the disadvantage and selection favoured early germination. The results suggest that low survival among early germinating seeds is the main force opposing the evolution of earlier germination and that the optimal timing of germination should vary in space and time as a function of the direction and strength of selection acting during different life-history stages.

  • 6. Alho, J. S.
    et al.
    Herczeg, G.
    Laugen, A. T.
    Raesaenen, K.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Merila, J.
    Allen's rule revisited: quantitative genetics of extremity length in the common frog along a latitudinal gradient2011In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecogeographical rules linking climate to morphology have gained renewed interest because of climate change. Yet few studies have evaluated to what extent geographical trends ascribed to these rules have a genetic, rather than environmentally determined, basis. This applies especially to Allen's rule, which states that the relative extremity length decreases with increasing latitude. We studied leg length in the common frog (Rana temporaria) along a 1500 km latitudinal gradient utilizing wild and common garden data. In the wild, the body size-corrected femur and tibia lengths did not conform to Allen's rule but peaked at mid-latitudes. However, the ratio of femur to tibia length increased in the north, and the common garden data revealed a genetic cline consistent with Allen's rule in some trait and treatment combinations. While selection may have shortened the leg length in the north, the genetic trend seems to be partially masked by environmental effects.

  • 7.
    Amcoff, Mirjam
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, A.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Evolution of egg dummies in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes: the roles of parental care and sexual selection2013In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 2369-2382Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual selection has been suggested to be an important driver of speciation in cichlid fishes of the Great Lakes of Africa, and the presence of male egg dummies is proposed to have played a key role. Here, we investigate how mouthbrooding and egg dummies have evolved in Tanganyikan cichlids, the lineage which seeded the other African radiations, with a special emphasis on the egg dummies. Using modern phylogenetic comparative analyses and a phylogeny including 86% of the 200 described species, we provide formal evidence demonstrating correlated evolution between mouthbrooding and egg dummies in Tanganyikan cichlids. These results concur with existing evidence, suggesting that egg dummies have evolved through sensory exploitation. We also demonstrate that there is a strong evolutionary correlation between the presence of egg dummies and both pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection. Moreover, egg dummy evolution was contingent on the intensity of pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection in Tanganyikan cichlids. In sum, our results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis of egg dummies evolving through sensory exploitation and highlight the role of sexual selection in favouring the evolution and maintenance of this trait.

  • 8.
    Appelgren, A.
    et al.
    Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, Villeurbanne, France.;Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Ecol Lab, Bern, Switzerland.;Ctr IRD, MIVEGEC UMR CNRS IRD UM 5290, Montpellier, France..
    McCoy, K. D.
    Ctr IRD, MIVEGEC UMR CNRS IRD UM 5290, Montpellier, France..
    Richner, H.
    Univ Bern, Inst Ecol & Evolut, Evolutionary Ecol Lab, Bern, Switzerland..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, Villeurbanne, France.
    Relative fitness of a generalist parasite on two alternative hosts: a cross-infestation experiment to test host specialization of the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank)2016In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 1091-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Host range is a key element of a parasite's ecology and evolution and can vary greatly depending on spatial scale. Generalist parasites frequently show local population structure in relation to alternative sympatric hosts (i.e. host races) and may thus be specialists at local scales. Here, we investigated local population specialization of a common avian nest-based parasite, the hen flea Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank), exploiting two abundant host species that share the same breeding sites, the great tit Parus major (Linnaeus) and the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis (Temminck). We performed a cross-infestation experiment of fleas between the two host species in two distinct study areas during a single breeding season and recorded the reproductive success of both hosts and parasites. In the following year, hosts were monitored again to assess the long-term impact of cross-infestation. Our results partly support the local specialization hypothesis: in great tit nests, tit fleas caused higher damage to their hosts than flycatcher fleas, and in collared flycatcher nests, flycatcher fleas had a faster larval development rates than tit fleas. However, these results were significant in only one of the two studied areas, suggesting that the location and history of the host population can modulate the specialization process. Caution is therefore called for when interpreting single location studies. More generally, our results emphasize the need to explicitly account for host diversity in order to understand the population ecology and evolutionary trajectory of generalist parasites.

  • 9.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Population differentiation in the swordtail characin (Corynopoma riisei): a role for sensory drive?2010In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 1907-1918Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensory drive, where the efficacy of a sexual signal depends on the environment in which it is employed, is a potential mechanism behind divergent evolution of secondary sexual traits. Male swordtail characins are equipped with a narrow and transparent extension of the gill cover with a flag-like structure at its tip. This opercular flag mimics a prey item and is employed by males as a 'lure' to attract the attention of females during mating attempts. We conducted a study of genetic and morphological differentiation across swordtail characin populations throughout their native range in Trinidad. The morphology of the opercular flag varied across populations and several aspects of this variation match the predicted hallmarks of sensory drive. First, morphological differentiation of the flag across populations was unrelated to genetic similarity at neutral genetic markers. Second, the shape of the flag covaried with those aspects of body shape that should reflect adaptation to different feeding regimes. Third, and most importantly, the shape of the flag covaried across populations with those environmental characteristics that should most closely reflect differences in local prey abundance. Overall, our results are consistent with a scenario where the evolution of this male sexual signal tracks food-related shifts in female sensory biases across populations, thus providing at least provisional support for a role for sensory drive in population differentiation.

  • 10.
    Berger, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Walters, R. J.
    Blanckenhorn, W. U.
    Experimental evolution for generalists and specialists reveals multivariate genetic constraints on thermal reaction norms2014In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 1975-1989Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory predicts the emergence of generalists in variable environments and antagonistic pleiotropy to favour specialists in constant environments, but empirical data seldom support such generalist-specialist trade-offs. We selected for generalists and specialists in the dung fly Sepsis punctum (Diptera: Sepsidae) under conditions that we predicted would reveal antagonistic pleiotropy and multivariate trade-offs underlying thermal reaction norms for juvenile development. We performed replicated laboratory evolution using four treatments: adaptation at a hot (31 degrees C) or a cold (15 degrees C) temperature, or under regimes fluctuating between these temperatures, either within or between generations. After 20 generations, we assessed parental effects and genetic responses of thermal reaction norms for three correlated life-history traits: size at maturity, juvenile growth rate and juvenile survival. We find evidence for antagonistic pleiotropy for performance at hot and cold temperatures, and a temperature-mediated trade-off between juvenile survival and size at maturity, suggesting that trade-offs associated with environmental tolerance can arise via intensified evolutionary compromises between genetically correlated traits. However, despite this antagonistic pleiotropy, we found no support for the evolution of increased thermal tolerance breadth at the expense of reduced maximal performance, suggesting low genetic variance in the generalist-specialist dimension.

  • 11.
    Berner, D.
    et al.
    Univ Basel, Inst Zool, CH-4051 Basel, Switzerland..
    Thibert-Plante, Xavier
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Univ Tennessee, Natl Inst Math & Biol Synth, Knoxville, TN USA.;Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, IceLab, Umea, Sweden..
    How mechanisms of habitat preference evolve and promote divergence with gene flow2015In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 1641-1655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat preference may promote adaptive divergence and speciation, yet the conditions under which this is likely are insufficiently explored. We use individual-based simulations to study the evolution and consequence of habitat preference during divergence with gene flow, considering four different underlying genetically based behavioural mechanisms: natal habitat imprinting, phenotype-dependent, competition-dependent and direct genetic habitat preference. We find that the evolution of habitat preference generally requires initially high dispersal, is facilitated by asymmetry in population sizes between habitats, and is hindered by an increasing number of underlying genetic loci. Moreover, the probability of habitat preference to emerge and promote divergence differs greatly among the underlying mechanisms. Natal habitat imprinting evolves most easily and can allow full divergence in parameter ranges where no divergence is possible in the absence of habitat preference. The reason is that imprinting represents a one-allele mechanism of assortative mating linking dispersal behaviour very effectively to local selection. At the other extreme, direct genetic habitat preference, a two-allele mechanism, evolves under restricted conditions only, and even then facilitates divergence weakly. Overall, our results indicate that habitat preference can be a strong reproductive barrier promoting divergence with gene flow, but that this is highly contingent on the underlying preference mechanism.

  • 12.
    Bilde, Trine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Coates, K.S.
    Birkhofer, K.
    Bird, T.
    Maklakov, Alexei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Lubin, Y.
    Aviles, L.
    Survival benefits select for group living in a social spider despite reproductive costs2007In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 2412-2426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system to investigate the costs and benefits of group living: they occur in groups of various sizes and individuals are relatively short-lived, therefore life history traits and Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) can be estimated as a function of group size. Sociality in spiders has originated repeatedly in phylogenetically distant families and appears to be accompanied by a transition to a system of continuous intra-colony mating and extreme inbreeding. The benefits of group living in such systems should therefore be substantial. We investigated the effect of group size on fitness components of reproduction and survival in the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola in two populations in Namibia. In both populations, the major benefit of group living was improved survival of colonies and late-instar juveniles with increasing colony size. By contrast, female fecundity, female body size and early juvenile survival decreased with increasing group size. Mean individual fitness, estimated as LRS and calculated from five components of reproduction and survival, was maximized for intermediate- to large-sized colonies. Group living in these spiders thus entails a net reproductive cost, presumably because of an increase in intra-colony competition with group size. This cost is traded off against survival benefits at the colony level, which appear to be the major factor favouring group living. In the field, many colonies occur at smaller size than expected from the fitness curve, suggesting ecological or life history constraints on colony persistence which results in a transient population of relatively small colonies.

  • 13.
    Bilde, Trine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Schilling, N.
    Inbreeding avoidance in spiders: Evidence for rescue effect in fecundity of female spiders with outbreeding opportunity2007In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 1237-1242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection by inbreeding depression should favour mating biases that reduce the risk of fertilization by related mates. However, equivocal evidence for inbreeding avoidance questions the strength of inbreeding depression as a selective force in the evolution of mating biases. Lack of inbreeding avoidance can be because of low risk of inbreeding, variation in tolerance to inbreeding or high costs of outbreeding. We examined the relationship between inbreeding depression and inbreeding avoidance adaptations under two levels of inbreeding in the spider Oedothorax apicatus, asking whether preference for unrelated sperm via pre- and/or post-copulatory mechanisms could restore female fitness when inbreeding depression increases. Using inbred isofemale lines we provided female spiders with one or two male spiders of different relatedness in five combinations: one male sib; one male nonsib; two male sibs; two male nonsibs; one male sib and one male nonsib. We assessed the effect of mating treatment on fecundity and hatching success of eggs after one and three generations of inbreeding. Inbreeding depression in F1 was not sufficient to detect inbreeding avoidance. In F3, inbreeding depression caused a major decline in fecundity and hatching rates of eggs. This effect was mitigated by complete recovery in fecundity in the sib-nonsib treatment, whereas no rescue effect was detected in the hatching success of eggs. The rescue effect is best explained by post-mating discrimination against kin via differential allocation of resources. The natural history of O. apicatus suggests that the costs of outbreeding may be low which combined with high costs of inbreeding should select for avoidance mechanisms. Direct benefits of post-mating inbreeding avoidance and possibly low costs of female multiple mating can favour polyandry as an inbreeding avoidance mechanism.

  • 14.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    A phylogenetic interpretation of sexual dimorphism in body size and ornament in relation to matings system in birds1990In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 3, p. 171-183Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Avian systematics goes molecular1999In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 12, p. 191-192Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Coming of age in Fringillid birds - heterochrony in the ontogeny of secondary sexual characters1991In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 4, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Pining for the cones1999In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 12, p. 204-205Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Processes generating macroevolutionary patterns of morphological variation in birds1994In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 7, p. 727-742Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Speciation in birds - a complete picture2002In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 15, p. 1095-1096Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The unpredictable impact of hybridization2013In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 274-275Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Variation in growth in the Blue tit (Parus caeruleus)1997In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 10, p. 139-155Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Subtle but ubiquitous selection on body size in a natural population of collared flycatchers over 33years2017In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 1386-1399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the magnitude and long-term patterns of selection in natural populations is of importance, for example, when analysing the evolutionary impact of climate change. We estimated univariate and multivariate directional, quadratic and correlational selection on four morphological traits (adult wing, tarsus and tail length, body mass) over a time period of 33years (approximate to 19000 observations) in a nest-box breeding population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). In general, selection was weak in both males and females over the years regardless of fitness measure (fledged young, recruits and survival) with only few cases with statistically significant selection. When data were analysed in a multivariate context and as time series, a number of patterns emerged; there was a consistent, but weak, selection for longer wings in both sexes, selection was stronger on females when the number of fledged young was used as a fitness measure, there were no indications of sexually antagonistic selection, and we found a negative correlation between selection on tarsus and wing length in both sexes but using different fitness measures. Uni- and multivariate selection gradients were correlated only for wing length and mass. Multivariate selection gradient vectors were longer than corresponding vector of univariate gradients and had more constrained direction. Correlational selection had little importance. Overall, the fitness surface was more or less flat with few cases of significant curvature, indicating that the adaptive peak with regard to body size in this species is broader than the phenotypic distribution, which has resulted in weak estimates of selection.

  • 23.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Husby, Arild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rapid and unpredictable changes of the G-matrix in a natural bird population over 25 years2013In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the genetic variances and covariances of traits (the G-matrix) is fundamental for the understanding of evolutionary dynamics of populations. Despite its essential importance in evolutionary studies, empirical tests of the temporal stability of the G-matrix in natural populations are few. We used a 25-year-long individual-based field study on almost 7000 breeding attempts of the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) to estimate the stability of the G-matrix over time. Using animal models to estimate G for several time periods, we show that the structure of the time-specific G-matrices changed significantly over time. The temporal changes in the G-matrix were unpredictable, and the structure at one time period was not indicative of the structure at the next time period. Moreover, we show that the changes in the time-specific G-matrices were not related to changes in mean trait values or due to genetic drift. Selection, differences in acquisition/allocation patterns or environment-dependent allelic effects are therefore likely explanations for the patterns observed, probably in combination. Our result cautions against assuming constancy of the G-matrix and indicates that even short-term evolutionary predictions in natural populations can be very challenging.

  • 24.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Linden, Mats
    Sexual size dimorphism in the Great tit (Parus major) in relation to history and current selection1993In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 6, p. 397-415Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Merilä, Juha
    Morphological differentiation in Carduelis finches1993In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 6, p. 359-373Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Merilä, Juha
    Population divergence and morphometric integration in the greenfinch (Carduelis chloris)- evolution against the trajectory of least resistance1999In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 12, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Senar, Juan Carlos
    Sex differences in survival selection in serins (Carduelis serinus)2001In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 14, p. 841-849Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Spong, Göran
    Creel, Scott
    Stone, Jon
    Genetic structure of a population of lions (Panthera leo) in the Selous Game Reserve: implications for the evolution of sociality2002In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 15, p. 945-953-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Booksmythe, I.
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Rundle, H. D.
    Univ Ottawa, Dept Biol, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sexual dimorphism in epicuticular compounds despite similar sexual selection in sex role-reversed seed beetles2017In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 30, no 11, p. 2005-2016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual selection imposed by mating preferences is often implicated in the evolution of both sexual dimorphism and divergence between species in signalling traits. Epicuticular compounds (ECs) are important signalling traits in insects and show extensive variability among and within taxa. Here, we investigate whether variation in the multivariate EC profiles of two sex role-reversed beetle species, Megabruchidius dorsalis and Megabruchidius tonkineus, predicts mate attractiveness and mating success in males and females. The two species had highly distinct EC profiles and both showed significant sexual dimorphism in ECs. Age and mating status in both species were also distinguishable by EC profile. Males and females of both species showed significant association between their EC profile and attractiveness, measured both as latency to mating and as success in mate-choice trials. Remarkably, the major multivariate vector describing attractiveness was correlated in both species, both sexes, and in both choice and no-choice experiments such that increased attractiveness was in all cases associated with a similar multivariate modification of EC composition. Furthermore, in both sexes this vector of attractiveness was associated with more male-like EC profiles, as well as those characterizing younger and nonvirgin individuals, which might reflect a general preference for individuals of high condition in both sexes. Despite significant sexual selection on EC composition, however, we found no support for the proposition that sexual selection is responsible for divergence in ECs between these species.

  • 30.
    Booksmythe, Isobel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Fritzsche, Karoline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sperm competition generates evolution of increased paternal investment in a sex role-reversed seed beetle2014In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 2841-2849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When males provide females with resources at mating, they can become the limiting sex in reproduction, in extreme cases leading to the reversal of typical courtship roles. The evolution of male provisioning is thought to be driven by male reproductive competition and selection for female fecundity enhancement. We used experimental evolution under male- or female-biased sex ratios and limited or unlimited food regimes to investigate the relative roles of these routes to male provisioning in a sex role-reversed beetle, Megabruchidius tonkineus, where males provide females with nutritious ejaculates. Males evolving under male-biased sex ratios transferred larger ejaculates than did males from female-biased populations, demonstrating a sizeable role for reproductive competition in the evolution of male provisioning. Although larger ejaculates elevated female lifetime offspring production, we found little evidence of selection for larger ejaculates via fecundity enhancement: males evolving under resource-limited and unlimited conditions did not differ in mean ejaculate size. Resource limitation did, however, affect the evolution of conditional ejaculate allocation. Our results suggest that the resource provisioning that underpins sex role reversal in this system is the result of male-male reproductive competition rather than of direct selection for males to enhance female fecundity.

  • 31.
    Candolin, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Salesto, Tiina
    Evers, Maren
    Changed environmental conditions weaken sexual selection in sticklebacks2007In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 20, p. 233-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental heterogeneity can cause the intensity and direction of selection to vary in time and space. Yet, the effects of human-induced environmental changes on sexual selection and the expression of mating traits of native species are poorly known. Currently, the breeding habitats of the three-spined sticklebackGasterosteus aculeatus are changing in the Baltic Sea because of eutrophication and increased growth of algae. Here we show that enhanced growth of filamentous algae increases the costs of mating by inducing an increase in the time and energy spent on courtship and mate choice. This is not followed by a concomitant increase in mate attraction, but instead the strength of selection on male red nuptial coloration and courtship activity is relaxed. Thus, the high investment into the costly sexually selected traits is maladaptive under the new conditions, and the mating system mediates a negative effect of the environmental change on the population. We attribute these environmentally induced changes in the benefit of the mating traits and in the strength of sexual selection to reduced visibility in dense vegetation. Anthropogenic disturbances hence affect the selection pressures that mould the species, which could have long-term effects on the viability and evolution of the populations. 

  • 32.
    Chen, Hwei -Yen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Spagopoulou, Foteini
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Maklakov, Alexei A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Evolution of male age-specific reproduction under differential risks and causes of death: males pay the cost of high female fitness2016In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 848-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classic theories of ageing evolution predict that increased extrinsic mortality due to an environmental hazard selects for increased early reproduction, rapid ageing and short intrinsic lifespan. Conversely, emerging theory maintains that when ageing increases susceptibility to an environmental hazard, increased mortality due to this hazard can select against ageing in physiological condition and prolong intrinsic lifespan. However, evolution of slow ageing under high-condition-dependent mortality is expected to result from reallocation of resources to different traits and such reallocation may be hampered by sex-specific trade-offs. Because same life-history trait values often have different fitness consequences in males and females, sexually antagonistic selection can preserve genetic variance for lifespan and ageing. We previously showed that increased condition-dependent mortality caused by heat shock leads to evolution of long-life, decelerated late-life mortality in both sexes and increased female fecundity in the nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we used these cryopreserved lines to show that males evolving under heat shock suffered from reduced early-life and net reproduction, while mortality rate had no effect. Our results suggest that heat-shock resistance and associated long-life trade-off with male, but not female, reproduction and therefore sexually antagonistic selection contributes to maintenance of genetic variation for lifespan and fitness in this population.

  • 33.
    Cherif, E.
    et al.
    Ctr IRD, UMR DIADE, IRD CIRAD Palm Grp F2F, 911 Ave Agropolis, F-34394 Montpellier, France.;Univ Tunis El Manar, Fac Sci Tunis, Lab Genet Mol Immunol & Biotechnol, El Manar, Tunisia..
    Zehdi-Azouzi, S.
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Fac Sci Tunis, Lab Genet Mol Immunol & Biotechnol, El Manar, Tunisia..
    Crabos, A.
    Ctr IRD, UMR DIADE, IRD CIRAD Palm Grp F2F, 911 Ave Agropolis, F-34394 Montpellier, France..
    Castillo, K.
    Ctr IRD, UMR DIADE, IRD CIRAD Palm Grp F2F, 911 Ave Agropolis, F-34394 Montpellier, France..
    Chabrillange, N.
    Ctr IRD, UMR DIADE, IRD CIRAD Palm Grp F2F, 911 Ave Agropolis, F-34394 Montpellier, France..
    Pintaud, J. -C
    Salhi-Hannachi, A.
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Fac Sci Tunis, Lab Genet Mol Immunol & Biotechnol, El Manar, Tunisia..
    Glemin, Sylvain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Unite Mixte Rech 5554 Univ Montpellier CNRS IRD E, Inst Sci Evolut Montpellier, Montpellier, France..
    Aberlenc-Bertossi, F.
    Ctr IRD, UMR DIADE, IRD CIRAD Palm Grp F2F, 911 Ave Agropolis, F-34394 Montpellier, France..
    Evolution of sex chromosomes prior to speciation in the dioecious Phoenix species2016In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 1513-1522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the driving forces and molecular processes underlying dioecy and sex chromosome evolution, leading from hermaphroditism to the occurrence of male and female individuals, is of considerable interest in fundamental and applied research. The genus Phoenix, belonging to the Arecaceae family, consists uniquely of dioecious species. Phylogenetic data suggest that the genus Phoenix has diverged from a hermaphroditic ancestor which is also shared with its closest relatives. We have investigated the cessation of recombination in the sex-determination region within the genus Phoenix as a whole by extending the analysis of P.dactylifera SSR sex-related loci to eight other species within the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of a date palm sex-linked PdMYB1 gene in these species has revealed that sex-linked alleles have not clustered in a species-dependent way but rather in X and Y-allele clusters. Our data show that sex chromosomes evolved from a common autosomal origin before the diversification of the extant dioecious species.

  • 34. Cichon, M.
    et al.
    Sendecka, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Genetic and environmental variation in immune response of collared flycatcher nestlings2006In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1701-1706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at partitioning genetic and environmental contribution to the phenotypic variance in nestling immune function measured with the hypersensitivity test after inoculation with phytohaemagglutinin. A cross-fostering experiment with artificial enlargement of some broods was conducted. Variation in nestling immune response was related to their common origin, which suggests heritable component of cell-mediated immunity. A common rearing environment also explained a significant part of variation. However, deterioration of rearing conditions as simulated by enlargement of brood size did not affect nestling immunocompetence, although it affected nestling body mass. Variation in body mass explained some of the variation in immune response related to rearing environment, which means that growth is more sensitive to the shifts in rearing conditions than the development of immune function. Heritable variation in immune response suggests that there should be potential for selection to operate and the micro evolutionary changes in immunity of flycatcher nestlings are possible.

  • 35.
    Dahl, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Orizaola, German
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Geographic variation in corticosterone response to chronic predator stress in tadpoles2012In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1066-1076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic stress often affects growth and development negatively, and these effects are often mediated via glucocorticoid hormones, which elevate during stress. We investigated latitudinal variation in corticosterone (CORT) response to chronic predator stress in Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500-km latitudinal cline in Sweden tadpoles, in a laboratory experiment. We hypothesized that more time-constrained high-latitude populations have evolved a lower CORT response to chronic stress to maintain higher growth under stressful conditions. Southern tadpoles had higher CORT content in response to predators after 1 day of exposure, whereas there was no increase in CORT in the northern populations. Two weeks later, there were no predator-induced CORT elevations. Artificially elevated CORT levels strongly decreased growth, development and survival in both northern and southern tadpoles. We suggest that the lower CORT response in high-latitude populations can be connected with avoidance of CORT-mediated reduction in growth and development, but also discuss other possible explanations.

  • 36.
    Davis, Robert
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of York.
    Baldauf, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Mayhew, Peter
    University of York, Department of Biology.
    Eusociality and the success of the termites: insights from a supertree of dictyopteran families.2009In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1750-1761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sociality in insects may negatively impact on species richness. We tested whether termites have experienced shifts in diversification rates through time. Supertree methods were used to synthesize family-level relationships within termites, cockroaches and mantids. A deep positive shift in diversification rate is found within termites, but not in the cockroaches from which they evolved. The shift is responsible for most of their extant species richness suggesting that eusociality is not necessarily detrimental to species richness, and may sometimes have a positive effect. Mechanistic studies of speciation and extinction in eusocial insects are advocated.

  • 37. Dinca, V.
    et al.
    Wiklund, C.
    Lukhtanov, V. A.
    Kodandaramaiah, U.
    Noren, K.
    Dapporto, L.
    Wahlberg, N.
    Vila, R.
    Friberg, Magne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Reproductive isolation and patterns of genetic differentiation in a cryptic butterfly species complex2013In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 2095-2106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular studies of natural populations are often designed to detect and categorize hidden layers of cryptic diversity, and an emerging pattern suggests that cryptic species are more common and more widely distributed than previously thought. However, these studies are often decoupled from ecological and behavioural studies of species divergence. Thus, the mechanisms by which the cryptic diversity is distributed and maintained across large spatial scales are often unknown. In 1988, it was discovered that the common Eurasian Wood White butterfly consisted of two species (Leptidea sinapis and Leptidea reali), and the pair became an emerging model for the study of speciation and chromosomal evolution. In 2011, the existence of a third cryptic species (Leptidea juvernica) was proposed. This unexpected discovery raises questions about the mechanisms preventing gene flow and about the potential existence of additional species hidden in the complex. Here, we compare patterns of genetic divergence across western Eurasia in an extensive data set of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences with behavioural data on inter- and intraspecific reproductive isolation in courtship experiments. We show that three species exist in accordance with both the phylogenetic and biological species concepts and that additional hidden diversity is unlikely to occur in Europe. The Leptidea species are now the best studied cryptic complex of butterflies in Europe and a promising model system for understanding the formation of cryptic species and the roles of local processes, colonization patterns and heterospecific interactions for ecological and evolutionary divergence.

  • 38. Dowling, D. K.
    et al.
    Maklakov, A. A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Friberg, U.
    Hailer, F.
    Applying the genetic theories of ageing to the cytoplasm: cytoplasmic genetic covariation for fitness and lifespan2009In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 818-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two genetic models exist to explain the evolution of ageing - mutation accumulation (MA) and antagonistic pleiotropy (AP). Under MA, a reduced intensity of selection with age results in accumulation of late-acting deleterious mutations. Under AP, late-acting deleterious mutations accumulate because they confer beneficial effects early in life. Recent studies suggest that the mitochondrial genome is a major player in ageing. It therefore seems plausible that the MA and AP models will be relevant to genomes within the cytoplasm. This possibility has not been considered previously. We explore whether patterns of covariation between fitness and ageing across 25 cytoplasmic lines, sampled from a population of Drosophila melanogaster, are consistent with the genetic associations predicted under MA or AP. We find negative covariation for fitness and the rate of ageing, and positive covariation for fitness and lifespan. Notably, the direction of these associations is opposite to that typically predicted under AP.

  • 39.
    Dowling, Damian K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Friberg, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    A comparison of nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic effects on sperm competitiveness and female remating in a seed beetle2007In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 2113-2125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely assumed that male sperm competitiveness evolves adaptively. However, recent studies have found a cytoplasmic genetic component to phenotypic variation in some sperm traits presumed important in sperm competition. As cytoplasmic genes are maternally transmitted, they cannot respond to selection on sperm and this constraint may affect the scope in which sperm competitiveness can evolve adaptively. We examined nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic contributions to sperm competitiveness, using populations of Callosobruchus maculatus carrying orthogonal combinations of nuclear and cytoplasmic lineages. Our design also enabled us to examine genetic contributions to female remating. We found that sperm competitiveness and remating are primarily encoded by nuclear genes. In particular, a male's sperm competitiveness phenotype was contingent on an interaction between the competing male genotypes. Furthermore, cytoplasmic effects were detected on remating but not sperm competitiveness, suggesting that cytoplasmic genes do not generally play a profound evolutionary role in sperm competition.

  • 40.
    Dowling, Damian K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Larkeson Nowastawski, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Arnqvist, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Effects of cytoplasmic genes on sperm viability and sperm morphology in a seed beetle: Implications for sperm competition theory?2007In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 358-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sperm competition theory predicts that sperm traits influencing male fertilizing ability will evolve adaptively. However, it has been suggested that some sperm traits may be at least partly encoded by mitochondrial genes. If true, this may constrain the adaptive evolution of such traits because mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is maternally inherited and there is thus no selection on mtDNA in males. Phenotypic variation in such traits may nevertheless be high because mutations in mtDNA that have deleterious effects on male traits, but neutral or beneficial effects in females, may be maintained by random processes or selection in females. We used backcrossing to create introgression lines of seed beetles (Callosobruchus maculatus), carrying orthogonal combinations of distinct lineages of cytoplasmic and nuclear genes, and then assayed sperm viability and sperm length in all lines. We found sizeable cytoplasmic effects on both sperm traits and our analyses also suggested that the cytoplasmic effects varied across nuclear genetic backgrounds. We discuss some potential implications of these findings for sperm competition theory.

  • 41. Dreiss, A N
    et al.
    Antoniazza, S
    Burri, Reto
    Fumagalli, L
    Sonnay, C
    Frey, C
    Goudet, J
    Roulin, Alexandre
    Local adaptation and matching habitat choice in female barn owls with respect to melanic coloration.2012In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 103-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local adaptation is a major mechanism underlying the maintenance of phenotypic variation in spatially heterogeneous environments. In the barn owl (Tyto alba), dark and pale reddish-pheomelanic individuals are adapted to conditions prevailing in northern and southern Europe, respectively. Using a long-term dataset from Central Europe, we report results consistent with the hypothesis that the different pheomelanic phenotypes are adapted to specific local conditions in females, but not in males. Compared to whitish females, reddish females bred in sites surrounded by more arable fields and less forests. Colour-dependent habitat choice was apparently beneficial. First, whitish females produced more fledglings when breeding in wooded areas, whereas reddish females when breeding in sites with more arable fields. Second, cross-fostering experiments showed that female nestlings grew wings more rapidly when both their foster and biological mothers were of similar colour. The latter result suggests that mothers should particularly produce daughters in environments that best match their own coloration. Accordingly, whiter females produced fewer daughters in territories with more arable fields. In conclusion, females displaying alternative melanic phenotypes bred in habitats providing them with the highest fitness benefits. Although small in magnitude, matching habitat selection and local adaptation may help maintain variation in pheomelanin coloration in the barn owl.

  • 42. Drobniak, S. M.
    et al.
    Wiejaczka, D.
    Arct, A.
    Dubiec, A.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Cichon, M.
    Sex-specific heritability of cell-mediated immune response in the blue tit nestlings (Cyanistes caeruleus)2010In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1286-1292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we aimed at estimating sex-specific heritabilities of cell-mediated immune response (CMI) in the blue tit nestlings (Cyanistes caeruleus). To separate genetic and environmental components of the phenotypic variance in CMI (measured using phytohaemagglutinin assay), we performed a cross-fostering experiment. Additionally, controlled environmental variation was introduced by enlarging some broods. Our analyses revealed a significant genetic component (as approximated by the nest-of-origin term) of the phenotypic variance in immune response. More importantly, these genetic effects differed between sexes and experimentally manipulated brood sizes, as indicated by significant genotype-by-sex and genotype-by-environment interactions. We discuss possible causes of such sexual dimorphism in gene expression and suggest that sex- and environment-specific genetic interactions may contribute to the maintenance of genetic variability in traits related to immune functions.

  • 43.
    Edelaar, Pim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Alonso, D.
    Lagerveld, S.
    Senar, J. C.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Population differentiation and restricted gene flow in Spanish crossbills: not isolation-by-distance but isolation-by-ecology2012In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 417-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Divergent selection stemming from environmental variation may induce local adaptation and ecological speciation whereas gene flow might have a homogenizing effect. Gene flow among populations using different environments can be reduced by geographical distance (isolation-by-distance) or by divergent selection stemming from resource use (isolation-by-ecology). We tested for and encountered phenotypic and genetic divergence among Spanish crossbills utilizing different species of co-occurring pine trees as their food resource. Morphological, vocal and mtDNA divergence were not correlated with geographical distance, but they were correlated with differences in resource use. Resource diversity has now been found to repeatedly predict crossbill diversity. However, when resource use is not 100% differentiated, additional characters (morphological, vocal, genetic) must be used to uncover and validate hidden population structure. In general, this confirms that ecology drives adaptive divergence and limits neutral gene flow as the first steps towards ecological speciation, unprevented by a high potential for gene flow.

  • 44.
    Edelaar, Pim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Benkman, C. W.
    Replicated population divergence caused by localized coevolution?: A test of three hypotheses in the red crossbill-lodgepole pine system2006In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1651-1659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that local populations of red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) enter into a predator-prey arms race with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) in the absence of competing pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Nevertheless, the alternative hypotheses that neutral evolution or factors other than squirrels have caused crossbill population differentiation have not been thoroughly tested. We compared crossbill and pine cone morphology between island populations where squirrels are absent or present, and mainland sites where squirrels are present, in order to distinguish among these hypotheses. All comparisons supported an effect of squirrel absence, not island status, on crossbill and cone morphology. Hence our results provide further evidence that strong localized coevolutionary interactions in a geographic mosaic have driven adaptive population differentiation. In addition, vocal differentiation of crossbills was related to the absence of squirrels, but not to island status. As morphological and vocal differentiation is correlated with reproductive isolation in crossbills, the geographic mosaic of coevolution also seems to promote ecological speciation.

  • 45.
    Ellegren, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Fac Biol, Div Evolutionary Biol, Planegg Martinsried, Germany..
    Parallelism in genomic landscapes of differentiation, conserved genomic features and the role of linked selection2017In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1516-1518Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Esperk, T.
    et al.
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Dept Zool, Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Kjaersgaard, A.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Walters, R. J.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Reading, Sch Biol Sci, Reading, Berks, England..
    Berger, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Blanckenhorn, W. U.
    Univ Zurich, Inst Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Plastic and evolutionary responses to heat stress in a temperate dung fly: negative correlation between basal and induced heat tolerance?2016In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 900-915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme weather events such as heat waves are becoming more frequent and intense. Populations can cope with elevated heat stress by evolving higher basal heat tolerance (evolutionary response) and/or stronger induced heat tolerance (plastic response). However, there is ongoing debate about whether basal and induced heat tolerance are negatively correlated and whether adaptive potential in heat tolerance is sufficient under ongoing climate warming. To evaluate the evolutionary potential of basal and induced heat tolerance, we performed experimental evolution on a temperate source population of the dung fly Sepsis punctum. Offspring of flies adapted to three thermal selection regimes (Hot, Cold and Reference) were subjected to acute heat stress after having been exposed to either a hot-acclimation or non-acclimation pretreatment. As different traits may respond differently to temperature stress, several physiological and life history traits were assessed. Condition dependence of the response was evaluated by exposing juveniles to different levels of developmental (food restriction/rearing density) stress. Heat knockdown times were highest, whereas acclimation effects were lowest in the Hot selection regime, indicating a negative association between basal and induced heat tolerance. However, survival, adult longevity, fecundity and fertility did not show such a pattern. Acclimation had positive effects in heat-shocked flies, but in the absence of heat stress hot-acclimated flies had reduced life spans relative to non-acclimated ones, thereby revealing a potential cost of acclimation. Moreover, body size positively affected heat tolerance and unstressed individuals were less prone to heat stress than stressed flies, offering support for energetic costs associated with heat tolerance. Overall, our results indicate that heat tolerance of temperate insects can evolve under rising temperatures, but this response could be limited by a negative relationship between basal and induced thermotolerance, and may involve some but not other fitness-related traits.

  • 47. Fitzpatrick, J. L.
    et al.
    Almbro, M.
    Gonzalez-Voyer, A.
    Hamada, S.
    Pennington, C.
    Scanlan, J.
    Kolm, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Sexual selection uncouples the evolution of brain and body size in pinnipeds2012In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1321-1330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The size of the vertebrate brain is shaped by a variety of selective forces. Although larger brains (correcting for body size) are thought to confer fitness advantages, energetic limitations of this costly organ may lead to trade-offs, for example as recently suggested between sexual traits and neural tissue. Here, we examine the patterns of selection on male and female brain size in pinnipeds, a group where the strength of sexual selection differs markedly among species and between the sexes. Relative brain size was negatively associated with the intensity of sexual selection in males but not females. However, analyses of the rates of body and brain size evolution showed that this apparent trade-off between sexual selection and brain mass is driven by selection for increasing body mass rather than by an actual reduction in male brain size. Our results suggest that sexual selection has important effects on the allometric relationships of neural development.

  • 48. Fjerdingstad, E J
    et al.
    Gertsch, P J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Conservation Biology and Genetics.
    Keller, L
    The relationship between multiple mating by queens, within-colony genetic variability and fitness in the ant Lasius niger2003In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 844-853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple mating has been suggested to benefit social insect queens because high genetic variation within colonies might decrease the load imposed by sterile diploid males, enhance resistance to parasites and pathogens, and lead to a more effective division of labour and/or a wider range of tolerable environmental conditions. We tested these hypotheses in the ant Lasius niger with three population samples from Switzerland and Sweden. We found no diploid males in young or mature colonies suggesting a lack of diploid male load. Colonies with multiply-mated queens were not larger nor did they produce more sexuals than colonies with singly-mated queens. We did find a significantly lower frequency of multiple mating among newly mated queens than among the queens heading mature colonies in one population sample (Switzerland 1997). However, this result was not repeated in the other study population, or in the following year in the Swiss population.

  • 49.
    Forsberg, Lars A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Dannewitz, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Petersson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Grahn, Mats
    Influence of genetic dissimilarity in the reproductive success and mate choice of brown trout – females fishing for optimal MHC dissimilarity2007In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 1859-1869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the reproductive success of 48 adult brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) which were allowed to reproduce in a stream that was controlled for the absence of other trout. Parentage analyses based on 11 microsatellites permitted us to infer reproductive success and mate choice preferences in situ. We found that pairs with intermediate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) dissimilarity mated more often than expected by chance. It appears that female choice was the driving force behind this observation because, compared with other individuals, males with intermediate MHC dissimilarity produced a larger proportion of offspring, whereas female reproductive output did not show this pattern. Hence, rather than seeking mates with maximal MHC dissimilarity, as found in several species, brown trout seemed to prefer mates of intermediate MHC difference, thus supporting an optimality-based model for MHC-dependent mate choice.

     

  • 50.
    Friberg, Magne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Leimar, O.
    Wiklund, C.
    Heterospecific courtship, minority effects and niche separation between cryptic butterfly species2013In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 971-979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species interacting in varied ecological conditions often evolve in different directions in different local populations. The butterflies of the cryptic Leptidea complex are sympatrically distributed in different combinations across their Eurasian range. Interestingly, the same species is a habitat generalist in some regions and a habitat specialist in others, where a sibling species has the habitat generalist role. Previous studies suggest that this geographically variable niche divergence is generated by local processes in different contact zones. By varying the absolute and relative densities of Leptidea sinapis and Leptidea juvernica in large outdoor cages, we show that female mating success is unaffected by conspecific density, but strongly negatively affected by the density of the other species. Whereas 80% of the females mated when a conspecific couple was alone in a cage, less than 10% mated when the single couple shared the cage with five pairs of the other species. The heterospecific courtships can thus affect the population fitness, and for the species in the local minority, the suitability of a habitat is likely to depend on the presence or absence of the locally interacting species. If the local relative abundance of the different species depends on the colonization order, priority effects might determine the ecological roles of interacting species in this system.

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