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  • 1.
    Arrhenius, Birgit
    Stockholm University.
    Helgö in the shadow of the dust veil 536-372013In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the implications of the dust veil in 536-37 AD at the site Helgö in Lake Mälaren are investigated. One dramatic change at Helgö was the apparent abandonment around 530 of the Migration Period casting of bronze artefacts in Building group 3. A vast accumulation of casting moulds and crucibles was found here. The magnitude makes this context unique in northern Europe. Usually, the very fine-grained quarts sand used for the mould and crucibles was reused, and thus it would not accumulate. Another incident is that the open-air offering place, known to be in use already from the Later Roman Iron Age is abandoned. From this point, the cultic events are performed indoors in a large hall. Further, from this period onwards, the cemeteries on the site are commenced, indicating that the site now becomes permanently inhabited. Finally, although previously not known as a grave gift, bread is regularly found in graves.

  • 2.
    Baron, Justyna
    Institute of Archaeology, University of Wrocław, Poland.
    The ritual context of pottery deposits from the Late Bronze Age settlement at Wrocław Widawa in southwestern Poland2012In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 3, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I survey archaeological evidence for deliberate deposits mostly containing ceramic vessels but also stones and animal bones. They were discovered at a Late Bronze Age settlement, dated to the 9th-8th centuries, situated in the northern part of the contemporary city of Wrocław in southwestern Poland. Their stratigraphical contexts indicate that their deposition took place at the very end of the use of the site, i.e. after the accumulation of the thick occupational layers. Based on the fine preservation of the vessels and their distribution, I argue that they are remains of practices performed in a common settlement area, resulting in the deposition of used ceramics. I also refer to a broad concept of the notion of ‘pottery deposits’ and compare the presented evidence with similar finds from other sites with a similar chronology.

  • 3. Edberg, Rune
    In the Wake of a Viking Ship Tragedy: An Archaeologist’s Challenge to a Cold War Cover-up2013In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 7, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ormen Friske, a Swedish reconstruction of a Viking ship, was wrecked in a North Sea gale in 1950, with the loss of its crew of 15 young men. At the time, the disaster was attributed to bad construction and poor seamanship, and this is still the customary interpretation. Although the wreck was available for examination, Swedish authorities decided that it should be discarded; subsequently, the tragedy was never seriously investigated. Any role by the US in the bombing of the island of Heligoland that coincided in time and place with the sinking of the vessel was also denied or downplayed. The bombing as such was later acknowledged by US military authorities, but its possible part in the Ormen Friske disaster is still unclear. The event is here examined within the context of the Cold War. In particular, the Swedish consulate in Hamburg wished to avoid annoying the British authorities, who at the time ruled this sector of occupied Germany. Several aspects from working with contemporary and recent sources are discussed. Some parts of the ship and personal belongings of the crew are held in museums or kept by relatives and are here treated as bearers of the narrative of the tragedy.

  • 4.
    Fischer, Svante
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Graf, Martin Hannes
    Schweizerdeutsches Wörterbuch, Zürich.
    Fossurier, Carole
    INRAP Grand-Est sud, Dijon.
    Châtelet, Madeleine
    INRAP Grand-Est sud, Strasbourg.
    Soulat, Jean
    Landarc.
    An Inscribed Silver Spoon from Ichtratzheim (Bas-Rhin)2014In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a Merovingian Period silver spoon that was recently discovered in an opulent female chamber grave in the “Niederfeld” row grave cemetery of Ichtratzheim (Bas-Rhin). The spoon has no less than three different inscriptions, one in seriffed Latin capitals and two in runes. The first contains a Latin male personal name, Matteus, the second a previously unattested runic lapela ‘spoon’, and the third a sequence abuda, presumably a female personal name. This makes it the second known example of an inscribed object with both runes and Latin from Merovingian Period Gaul. From a runological perspective, this is one of the most important discoveries in recent times because it contains the oldest known case of a linguistically meaningful runic inscription using the rare p-rune and some very archaic linguistic forms. From an archaeological perspective, this is one of the richest known Merovingian Period female burials in Alsace, and it is very likely that the buried woman may have been a leading member of the local elite.

  • 5.
    Fischer, Svante
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Lind, Lennart
    Stockholm University.
    The Coins in the Grave of King Childeric2015In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 14, p. 1-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contextualizes some one hundred mid- to late 5th century solidi and two hundred silver coins found in the grave of King Childeric in Tournai, Belgium. We argue that the coins in the grave must have been assembled for the specific purpose of the burial rite and that some of the participants in the burial rite were allowed to look at the coins before the grave was sealed. We argue that they were capable of identifying the various coins because they were literate and familiar with Roman iconography. It follows that the solidus hoard together with the other coins is a meaningful composition that has been manipulated for ideological purposes by Clovis himself. The coins must hence be explained in a manner that considers Clovis’ ideological motives, as the grave and its contents run contrary to all usual explanations.

  • 6.
    Grabowski, Radoslaw
    Umeå University.
    Identification and delineation of settlement space functions in the south Scandinavian Iron Age: theoretical perspectives and practical approaches2014In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 12, p. 1-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an overview of methods used in south Scandinavian ar-chaeology for identification and delineation of settlement space functions. The overview includes commonly utilised archaeological approaches, such as arte-fact distribution studies and inferences based on assessment of house and set-tlement morphologies, as well as archaeobotanical, geochemical and geophysi-cal approaches to functional analysis. The theoretical potential and limitations of each presented functional parameter are outlined and thereafter applied and compared using material from five case study sites in east-central Jutland, Hal-land and Bohuslän. The presentation of the site of Gedved Vest in east-central Jutland also incorporates a comparison of two common approaches to geo-chemical sampling: 1) sampling and analysis of soil retrieved from feature fills, and 2) horizontal sampling of soil from the interface between the topsoil (A/Ap) and the subsoil (C) - horizons along a pre-determined grid.

  • 7.
    Herschend, Frands
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    How Norse is Skírnismál?: A comparative case study2018In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Venantius Fortunatus was a Latin, Ravenna educated, semi-political rhetorical poet active in Merovingian Francia in the late 6th century. Arriving in Austrasia from the Alps in the spring of 566, he wrote three poems, not least an epithalamium publicly performed at the wedding of Sigibert and Brunhild. This literary genre, its structure and the three addressees of his poems can be seen as a surprisingly detailed template for the Norse poem Skírnismál. The value of Fortunatus’ poetry rests with his ability to amalgamate Germanic, Christian and Latin Roman culture in a period of transition from a pagan to a Christian society. Since these periods of transition are reoccurring, it is possible to see an education in the 10th–11th century as the background for the Norse Skírnismál author, who probably must have read Fortunatus in order to compose his Norse wedding entertainment. Skírnismál is thus neither a purely Norse nor a purely oral composition.

  • 8.
    Herschend, Frands
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Towards a standardized discussion of priors in Bayesian analyses of 14C dated archaeological periods: a study based on the dates from Gjøsund2016In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 19, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on Swedish and Scandinavian contract archaeology and 14C dating. It is a follow-up of a case study by Diinhoff and Slinning (2013), who discuss the 14C dating of a house from the Early Iron Age at Gjøsund, Ålesund, Norway. Their discussion is methodical and well-focussed, but intuitive when it comes to analysing 14C dates as probability distributions. Taking the case study forward, the same house is dated again using the same 14C dates. In the present contribution, the discussion is meant to suggest a more standardized approach to the chronological analysis of 14C dates of periods, such as the lifetime of a house. Having presented a methodical procedure, Diinhoff and Slinning’s case is updated following the suggested procedure. Finally, their 14C dates are introduced to Bayesian statistics using the BCal calibration tool, Beck et al. (1999).

  • 9.
    Hillerdal, Charlotta
    University of Aberdeen.
    Review: Fibula, Fabula, Fact. The Viking Age in Finland2016In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 17, p. 1-5Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hjärthner-Holdar, Eva
    et al.
    The Archaeologists, Geoarchaeological Laboratory (GAL), National Historical Museums, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grandin, Lena
    The Archaeologists, Geoarchaeological Laboratory (GAL), National Historical Museums, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sköld, Katarina
    The Archaeologists, National Historical Museums, Linköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Andreas
    Faber Arkeologi, Sweden.
    By Who, for Whom?: Landscape, Process and Economy in the Bloomery Iron Production AD 400-10002018In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 21, p. 1-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscape, process and economy in the bloomery iron production during AD400–1000 are all integrated in this paper initiated by an archaeological excavation of a bloomery site in Motala in Östergötland, southeast Sweden. This site is one among other contemporaneous sites with similar features, such as long-term iron production and a location in the landscape within easy reach of communication routes and, most importantly, access to the vital raw materials ore and wood. The site is placed in a rich region with several high-status features, such as richly furnished graves and settlements. We evaluate the transfer of knowledge and skills in a landscape perspective. Interactions in a complex network involving various entrepreneurs, from producers to consumers, are suggested as central. The major focus is on the importance of the organisation, the economic point of view, as well as quality and trade.

  • 11.
    Ilves, Kristin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Is there an Archaeological Potential for a Sociology of Landing Sites?2011In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 2, p. 1-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repeatedly, archaeological research on landing sites draws upon the equivalence between a naturally suitable coast and a landing site/harbour. This kind of research emanates from an archaeologically and socially ill-defined landing site concept and has created a basis for arbitrary discussions on the nature of maritime activities of past societies. There is no comprehensive and integrated understanding of the existing variability, character and patterns of landing site behaviour and relations. This article addresses the question of what characterises landing sites for watercrafts in an archaeological and social perspective. If such characteristics can be defined, what are the possibilities of seeing any of these traits in an archaeological material? Defining a landing site as a contact zone where movements and meetings on land and by watercraft take place and are facilitated by the locality as such, a generally applicable model for the archaeological study of landing sites is suggested and checked against three different archaeological case studies from the Baltic Sea region.

  • 12.
    Ilves, Kristin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Review: The Viking Age in Åland. Insights into Identity and Remnants of Culture2015In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 15, p. 1-7Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Levada, Maxim
    et al.
    Crimean Institute of Strategic Studies.
    Looijenga, Tineke
    University of Groningen.
    A recently found belt buckle with rune-like signs from Ukraine2019In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 25, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, a belt buckle (fig. 2a and 2b) was discovered in western Ukraine with a rune-like inscription on the back. The buckle has no known context, but the find spot is between the Ukrainian villages of Sukhodil and Shydlivtsy (Husiatyn district in Ternopil oblast). The buckle was part of an illegal dig and is in private hands. Unfortunately, its whereabouts are unknown. A profound examination of the material and the inscription was therefore not possible. Yet we thought it appropriate to publish this find. According to its style, the buckle can be dated to the early part of the 5th century. In this article the buckle is compared to other buckles from Eastern Europe (Szabadbattyán, Bar, Yalta) and to parallels (Sösdala, Airan/Moult, Untersiebenbrunn) elsewhere in Europe. All buckles are dated to AD 420-440. The archaeological background in section 1 is written by the archaeologist Maxim Levada, while in section 2 the rune-like signs are described and discussed by runologist Tineke Looijenga. Although a transliteration is proposed, an interpretation is still lacking.

  • 14.
    Lindholm, Karl-Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. SLU.
    Sandström, Emil
    SLU.
    Ekman, Ann-Kristin
    SLU.
    The Archaeology of the Commons2013In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature is rich in descriptions of different forms of commons in the later pre-industrial agrarian society of northern Sweden. The industrial era resulted in a noticeable shift in the use of forests and in the introduction of firmer property rights and rigid land boundaries. A large number of commons from the pre-industrial period has never been officially registered and can therefore partly be seen as 'hidden' resources. The objective of this paper is to discuss the concept of commons in relation to a variable archaeological record, mainly associated with the forested regions of Sweden. Is it possible to identify commons by an archaeological landscape approach and to what extent can a long-term perspective contribute to current theoretical discussions concerned with commons?

  • 15.
    Ljungkvist, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Frölund, Per
    SLU.
    Gamla Uppsala – the emergence of a centre and a magnate complex2015In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 16, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of Gamla Uppsala as a centre has been discussed for centuries. During the past years, old excavations have been incorporated into the frame-work of the archaeological research project Gamla Uppsala - the emergence of a mythical centre (GUAM), with GIS and excavations in combination with survey results and reinterpretations, as old excavations are placed in relation to new investigations. This article is based on the results from excavations in 2011 and 2015 and studies of previous investigations in the light of new results. We have chosen to present a stand der forschung of what we currently know about the 6th to 8th century estate in the centre of Gamla Uppsala, how it emerges as  part of an un-paralleled monumentalization of the area, what we know of a Migration Period prelude and its transformation during the 8th/9th century. Today we can discuss the relationship between a multitude of elements in the complex, such as in-dividual mounds, the great hall, workshops, economy buildings, fences, paved courtyards, post-row monuments and not least landscape development and resource exploitation on a broad scale. In our strategic work, previously isolated monuments are tied together in a project that will continue in the years ahead.

  • 16.
    Löwenborg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    An Iron Age Shock Doctrine: Did the AD 536-7 event trigger large-scale social changes in the Mälaren valley area?2012In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a dataset of burial grounds is considered in relation to the question of a probable demographic crisis in the 6th century AD, as a consequence of the cosmic event in AD 536-7. Although indications of an extensive crisis can be seen in a wide range of sources, it is difficult to make any estimate of the extent of the crisis. Some hypothetical social consequences are, however, discussed and compared to the Black Death in the 14th century AD. For the 6th century crisis, a widespread upheaval and renegotiation of property rights for land that has been abandoned is suggested, together with a possible redefinition of the nature of property rights. After the crisis there seem to be increased possibilities for private ownership of land, which enables the acquisition of large landholdings among a limited number of people. This is related to an increasingly stratified social structure in the Late Iron Age, where an elite is thought to have been able to take advantage of the crisis for their own benefit. It is argued that this is reflected in the Late Iron Age/Vendel Period burial grounds and their locations, as these might have been used to manifest renewed property rights.

  • 17.
    Rosberg, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Terminology for houses and house remains2013In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 08, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to obtain lucidity, it is essential to choose adequate terminology when speaking of prehistoric houses. The understanding of house construction requires a terminology with a focus on construction. Very often, archaeologists instead use a terminology with a focus on the remains, and use an inadequate terminology for constructions, indicating that they do not fully consider how the constructions work. The article presents some suggestions for adequate construction terminology.

  • 18. Siapkas, Johannes
    Negotiated Positivism: The disregarded epistemology of Arne Furumark2018In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 22, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Archaeological theory during the twentieth century is often presented according to a tri-partite scheme. This article serves to put this model into question through the explication of the epistemology of the Swedish classical archaeologist Arne Furumark. He introduced a heuristic model for ceramic studies in 1941 that bears the hallmarks of logical positivism. This early appropriation of analytical philosophy in classical archaeology does not resonate with the above-mentioned model of archaeological theory. However, Furumark did not adopt the agenda of processual archaeology wholeheartedly as the greater part of his research was founded on a culture historical framework. Furumark’s epistemology was negotiated between two archaeological paradigms, or two branches of positivism.

  • 19. Trier Christiansen, Torben
    Metal-detected Late Iron Age and Early Medieval Brooches from the Limfjord Region, Northern Jutland: Production, Use and Loss2019In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the study of 1,859 metal-detected brooches recovered at different sites in the Limfjord region, this paper discusses patterns of production, distribution, use, and deposition of brooches. Widespread indications of non-ferrous metalwork and a modest number of models for brooch production suggest that brooches were produced at many settlements in the region during the period studied (AD 400–1150), and traces of technical change and varying distribution patterns in the finished brooches suggest temporally as well as spatially differing modes of production. Furthermore, analyses suggests that most brooches were intact when they entered the soil, and seemingly random distribution patterns likely reflect the fact that many, perhaps most, were simply accidentally dropped. However, over and above, the interpretational difficulties are consequent on the recovery of all of the metal-detector finds in the plough layer detached from their original context. The interpretation of distribution patterns is at most sites also markedly challenged by the fact that many brooches, along with other metal artefacts, appear to having been secondarily deposited in the fields surrounding the settlements, probably during the manuring of the fields.

  • 20. Tóth, Bálint László
    Small Masks on Migration Period jewellery.: Replication traditions of Germanic, Roman, Etruscan, and Greek goldsmiths2016In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 18, p. 1-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The three Swedish gold collars are unique goldsmith masterpieces of the Migration Age, owing to the great number of small beings that inhabit them: animals, humans and hybrids. While most of these figurines were individually carved into the gold and ornated with filigree or granulation, the small masks of the Ålleberg collar stand out as seemingly being replicates. Which method was used to replicate these originally 43 masks on the collar? A thorough study of these masks is presented as well as of the bracteates decorated with replicated or unique masks. Two different techniques are proposed for the manufacture of these small masks, both going back to Roman goldsmith techniques. One of these techniques was widely used in the antique and Germanic worlds and it has its roots in Greek methods of the Classical period. The technique used to make the masks on the Ålleberg collar and on a few of the bracteates is of a much rarer type, which only has parallels in Roman goldsmith techniques of the 2nd – 4th A.D.

  • 21.
    von Hackwitz, Kim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Stenbäck, Niklas
    Changing Landscapes – A GIS analysis of Neolithic site location and shore displacement in Eastern Central Sweden.2013In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 6, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an attempt to put forward the use of new digital techniques and data for understanding prehistoric landscapes. The starting point is that the specific characteristics of the landscape and of the sites included affect the interpretation. One character is the contemporary landscape and its topographies. Ancient landscapes can be successfully recreated digitally using GIS. By applying GIS methodology, a regression equation and new data, we reinvestigated an hypothesis proposed by Welinder in 1978 concerning the acculturation of the Pitted Ware Culture. The results indicate that a reconstruction of the landscape may alter the understanding of the Neolithic land use and the question of the relocation and termination of the Pitted Ware Culture at the end of Middle Neolithic B.

  • 22.
    Welinder, Stig
    Mid Sweden University.
    Ethnicity, migration and materiality. Forest Finn archaeology2015In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 13, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the early 17th century, Finns migrated within the Swedish kingdom from interior Finland to virgin spruce forest areas in Sweden. There they settled in finnmarker, areas with Finnish-speaking households conducting large-scale swidden cultivation, huuhta in Finnish. Eventually they were called Forest Finns. There farms were centered around a rökstuga, a dwelling-house with a stone-oven without a chimney.

    Four Forest Finn farms have been excavated. The article discusses how the Finish households were integrated in the local and regional market economy, thus acquiring the same kind of things also used by their Swedish neighbours, including status and prestige objects, e.g. display ceramics and window glass panes. At the same time, they continued to live in their traditional rökstugor, which, owing to different space, light and warmth compared to a Swedish cottage with an open fireplace conditioned other relations between the individuals of the households. The process of change, Swedification, of the Forest Finns was not unilinear.

     

    Ethnicity is the social process of meeting between two or more groups of people forming ‘us-and-them’-relations. The early-modern Forst Finns is an example of complex change as concerns materiality involved in ethnicity, in this case triggered by the meeting of ‘the others’ as a result of migration.

  • 23.
    Winder, Isabelle C.
    et al.
    University of York.
    Winder, Nick P.
    Sigtunastiftelsen.
    An agnostic approach to ancient landscapes: conversations about the cultural anthropology of archaeological research2013In: Journal of Archaeology and Ancient History (JAAH), E-ISSN 2001-1199, no 9, p. 3-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that the phenomenological or ‘agnostic’ approach to evolutionary systems advocated by Thomas Henry Huxley is applicable in anthropological archaeology and show how agnosticism helps defuse the tension between humanists, natural philosophers and natural historians in integrative research. We deploy problem-framing methods from policy-relevant research in a palaeoanthropological context, developing a model of complex (scale-dependent, irreversible) causality and applying it to the problem of human-landscape interaction and primate foot anatomy. We illustrate this process with a single iteration of the ‘project cycle’ focussed on human-landscape interaction. Modern humans are co-operative resilience feeders, exploiting complex causality by perturbing stable, unproductive landscapes and feeding on the fluxes of energy and resources released as they spring back. Is it possible that this resilience-feeding is older than Homo sapiens?

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